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Full text of "A classical dictionary : containing an account of the principal proper names mentioned in ancient authors, and intended to elucidate all the important points connected with the geography, history, biography, mythology, and fine arts of the Greeks and Romans. Together with an account of coins, weights, and measures, with tabular values of the same"

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CLASSICAL DICTIONARY: 



CORTAIEIRR AH AOOOORT Of 



THE PRINCIPAL PROPER NAMES 



MRHTIOHRD IR 



ANCIENT AUTHORS, 



TO ELUCIDATE ALL THE IMPORTANT POINTS CONNECTED WITH THE 
BIOGRAPHY, BISTORT, BIOGRAPHY, MYTHOLOGY, AND PINS ARTS 



GREEKS AND ROMANS. 



AN ACCOUNT OF COINS, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES, 

WITH TABULAR YALHBS OP THE 8 AMR. 
■T 

CHARLES ANTHON, LL.D., 

MT-noruwi or thi obeik ahd latim larrvaobs m coldmiu coubsz, 

NIW IOH, AMD BSCTOB OT TBI OtAXRAB-BCROOL. 



" Hue iNubfw gut*." — Viio. 



NEW-YORK: 

PUBLISHED BY HARPER A BROTHERS, 
10. 89 oiirr-iTiiiT. 



1849. 



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! 7*8543 



T _j. H r 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1841, by 

Charles Author, LL.D., 
In the Clerk's Office of the Southern District of New- York 



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TO 



JOHN ANTHON, ESQ., 

COUNSELLOR AT LAW, At, 



WHO, AMD THE DUTIES OF A LABORIOUS PROFESSION, CAN STILL TOID LEISURE 
FOB HOLDING CONVERSE WITH TEN TABES OP ANTIQUITT, AND IN WHOM 
LESAL ERUDITION 18 SO BAPPILT BLRNDRD WITH THE LISHTEE 
0BACBS OP ANCIENT AND MODERN UTXEATXTU, 

THIS WORK 
is 

AFFBCTIONATELT INSCRIBED, 

AS A PBBBLB RETURN FOB MANT ACTS OP PBATBBNAL ETNDNES8, AND (IP A BBOTHBX 
MAT BS ALLOWED TO KXPRRSS HIMSELF IN THIS WAT J AS A TESTIMONIAL 
OF FOND REGARD FOB EMINENT ABILITIES IN UNISON 
WITH EMINENT DTTEGBTTT AND WORTH 



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PREFACE 

TO THE FOURTH EDITION. 



Is laying the leurult of bis labours before the public, the author wishes it to be i 
tadaratood, that die present velum* is not, u some might perhaps imagine, merely an im- 
proved edrtiea of the Classical Dictionary of Lenpriste, but a work entirely new, cad re- 
sembling ka -predec ossor in nothing bat the name. The Mthor owes k, m fact, to himself lo 
be Ons explicit in his statement, since he would feel but poorly compensated for the heavy 
tail expended en the preseat work, wen he regarded as hsvteg merely remodelled, or gma 
a new arrangement to, the labours of another. So far from this having been done, that* 
are, ia bath, bat few articles, and those not vary important ones, wherein any re- 
semblance can be traced between Lempriere'a work and the present. In every other re- 
spect, the Classical Dictionary bow offered to the public wfll be found to he as deferent 
frost La anuie s e' a as the nature of the case can possibly admit. 



It canaot be denied that Lempriere'B Classical Dictionary was a very papular work in ifej 

weald ahow this vary conclusively, 



day. The aomenma editions through which it ran 

without the necessity of any farther proof. Sail, however, it may be asserted win equal 
safety, that mis same popularity was mainly owing to the circumstance of there being no 
inter m me field. (Considered in itself, indeed, the work pat form bat very feeble 
t to patronage, for its achol a r shi p was superficial sad in accurate, and its language was 



frequently marked by a grossness of allusion, which rendered the book a very mat one to 
be pat into the hards of the young. And yet so strong a hold had it taken of public favour 
bom at home and in oar own country, mat not aery were no additions or corrections mads 
ia the work, bet the very idea itself of making such waa deemed altogether visionary. The 
author of the present vohnae remembers very well what surprise was ax cited, when, on 
having been easployed to prepare a new edition of Leamriere in 1885, ha hinted the pro* 
prmtyaf raakxng some alterations in the text. The answer reserved from a am lain grantor 
was, that one might as well thmk of malting alteration* in the Scriptures as in the pages of 
Dr. Lempriere ! and that all an editor had to do waa merely to revise the references ooa- 
ariaed in the English work. When, however, several palpable errors, on the psrt of Lem- 
pnere, had been painted out by him, and the editor was allowed to correct these and others 
of a similar kiad, he still fek the impossibility of presenting the work to the American < 



be in that state in which alone it ought to have a ppe a le d , partly from the undue eatim 
which the labours of Dr. Lempriere were aa yet generally held, and partly from a 
nuances of his own inability, through me want of a more extended course of reading, to 
to justice to such a task. With all tSi imperfections, however, the edition referred to was 

id one was soon after called for, the publisher felt himself 



v/vk" received ; end when s second 

mbttldeaed to allow the editor the privilege of introducing more extensive hnprovameato, 
and of making the work, aa every paint of view, more deserving of patronage. 

The republication of this latter edition in England, and the implied confession, connected 
with sack a step, that the original work of Lempriere stood in need of inrrmsvement, now 
brake las charm which had fettered the judgments of so many of our own countrymen, and 
it then began to be conceded on all aides that the Classical Dictionary of Dr. Lempriere 
was oy ao means entitled to use claim of infallibility; nay, indeed, tint it waa defective 
throughout. When the ownership of the work, therefore, passed into the hands of the 
Messrs. Carvifl, and a new edition was again wanted, those intelligent and enterprising 
publishers gave the editor permission to make whatever alterations and improvements he 
might see fit ; and the Classical Dictionary now App e ar ed in two octavo volumes, enriched 
with new materials derived from various sources, and presenting a much fairer claim than 
before to the attention of the student. 

This last-mentioned edition became, in its turn, aeon exhausted, and a new one was de- 
aanded ; when the copyright of the work passed from the Messrs. Carvill to the Brothers 
Harper. To racHvidasJa of leas liberal spirit, and mare alive to the prospect of ° 



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PREFACE. 



advantage, it would have appeared sufficient to republish merely the edition in two volumes, 
without any farther improvement. The Messrs. Harper, however, thought differently on 
the subject. They wished a Classical Dictionary in as complete and useful a form as it 
could possibly be made ; and, with this view, notwithstanding the large amount which had 
been expended on the purchase of the work, the stereotype plates were destroyed, though 
still perfectly serviceable, and the editor was employed to prepare a work, which,, while it 
should embrace all that was valuable in the additions that had from time to lime been made 
by him, was to retain but a very small portion of the old matter of Lempriere, and to supply 
its place with newly-prepared articles. This has now, accordingly, been done. A new 
work is the result ; not an improved edition of the old one, but a work on which the patient 
labour of more than two entire years has been faithfully expended, and which, though com* 
prised in a single volume, will be- found to contain much more than even the edition of 
Lempriere in two volumes, as published by the Messrs. Carvill. Whatever was worth 
preserving among the additions previously made by the editor, he has here retained ; but, 
in general, even these are so altered and improved as, in many instances, to be difficult of 
recognition ; while, on the other hand, all the old articles of Lempriere, excepting a few, 
have been superseded by new ones. 

Such is a brief history of the present work. It remains now to give a general idea of 
the manner in which it has been executed. The principal heads embraced in the volume 
are, as the title indicates, the Geography, History, Biography, Mythology, and Fine Arts 
of the Greeks and Romans. The subject of Archeology is only incidentally noticed, as it 
is the intention of the author to edit, with all convenient speed, a Dictionary of Greek and 
Roman Antiquities, which will contain an abstract of all the valuable matter connected with 
these subjects that is to be found in the writings of the most eminent German philologists. 
Only a few, therefore, of the more important topics that have a bearing on Archaeology, are 
introduced into the present volume, such as the Greek Theatre, and theatrical exhibitions 
in general, the national games of Greece, the dictatorship and agrarian laws of the Romans, 
and some other points of a similar kind. 

If the author were asked on what particular subject, among the many that are discussed 
in the present volume, the greatest amount of care had been expended, he would feel 
strongly inclined to say, that of Ancient Geography. Not that the others have been by any 
means slighted, and the principal degree of labour concentrated under this head. Far from 
it. But the fact is, that in a work like the present, the articles which relate to Ancient 
Geography are by far the most numerous, and, in some respects, the most important, and 
require a large portion of assiduous care. In what relates, therefore, to the Geography of 
former days, the author thinks he can say, without the least imputation of vanity, that in no 
work in the English language will there be found a larger body of valuable information on 
this most interesting subject, than in that which is here offered to the American student. In 
connexion with the geography of past ages, various theories, moreover, are given respecting 
the origin and migration of different communities, and some of the more striking legends of 
antiquity are referred to concerning the changes which the earth's surface has from time to 
time undergone. Some idea of the nature of these topics may be formed by consulting the 
following articles : JEgyptta, Atlantis, Gallia, Gratia, Leetoma, Mediterranean Mare, Me- 
roe, Ogyges, Pelasgi, and Phoenicia. Nor is this all. Books of Travels have been made 
to contribute their stores of information, and the student is thus transported in fancy to the 
scenes of ancient story, and wanders, as it were, amid the most striking memorials of 
the past. 

The Historical department has also been a subject of careful attention. Here, again, the 
origin of nations forms a very attractive field of inquiry, and the student is put in possession 
of die ablest and most recent speculations of both German and English scholarship. The 
Argonautic expedition, for example, the legend of the Trojan war, events dimly shadowed 
forth in the distant horizon of " gray antiquity ;" the origin of Rome, the early movements 
of the Doric and Ionic races among the Greeks ; or, what may prove still more interesting 
to some, the origin of civilization in India and the remote East ; all these topics will be 
found discussed under their respective heads, and will, it is hoped, teach the young stu- 
dent that history is something more than a mere record of dates, or a chronicle of wars and 
crimes. 

Particular attention has also been paid to tile department of Biography. This subject 
will be found divided : nto several heads : biographical sketches, namely, of public men, of 
miividuals eminent is iterature, of scientific characters, of physicians, of philosophers, and 



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PREFACE 



also of persons distinguished in the early history of die Christian Church. The literary 
biographies, in particular, will, it is conceived, be found both attractive and useful to the 
student, since we have no work at present in the English language in which a full view is 
given of Grecian and Roman literature. The sketches of ancient mathematicians, and of 
other individuals eminent for their attainments in science, will not be found without inter- 
est even in our own day. Nor will the medical man depart altogether unrewarded from a 
perusal of those biographies which treat of persons distinguished of old in the healing art. 
In ths accounts, moreover, that are given of the philosophers and philosophic systems of 
antiquity, although half-learned sciolists have passed upon these topics so sweeping a sen- 
tence of condemnation, much curious information may nevertheless be obtained, and much 
food for speculation, too, on what the mind can effect by its own unaided powers in relation 
to subjects that are of the utmost importance to us all. The ecclesiastical biographies will 
also be found numerous, and, it is hoped, not uninteresting. None of them fall properly, it 
is true, within the sphere of a Classical Dictionary, yet they could not well nave been 
omitted, since many of the matters discussed in diem have reference more immediately to 
classical times. 

The subject of Mythology has supplied, next to that of Ancient Geography, the largest 
number of articles to the present work. In the treatment of these, it has been the chief 
aim of die author to lay before the student the most important speculations of the two great 
schools (the Mystic and anti-Mystic) which now divide the learned of Europe. At the 
head of the former stands Creuzer, whose elaborate work (Symbolik tend Mythologie in 
alien Valker) has reappeared under so attractive a form through the taste and learning of 
Gnigniant The champion of the anti-Mystic school appears to be Lobeck, although many 
eminent names are also marshalled on the same side. It has been the aim of the author to 
give a fair and impartial view of both systems, although he cannot doubt but that the for- 
mer will appear to the student by far the more attractive one of the two. In the discussion 
of mythological topics, very valuable materials have been obtained from the excellent work 
of Keighdey, who deserves the praise of having first laid open to the English reader the 
stores of German erudition in the department of Mythology. The author will, he trusts, be 
pardoned for having intruded some theories of his own on several topics of a mythological 
character, more particularly under the articles jSmazonu, Jtti, Io, Odintu, and Oryheu*. 
It is a difficult matter, in so attractive a field of inquiry as this, to resist the temptation of 
inflicting one's own crude speculations upon the patience of the reader. In preparing the 
mythological articles, the greatest care has been also taken to exclude from them everything 
offensive, either in language or detail, and to present sttch a view of die several topics con- 
nected with this department of inquiry as may satisfy the most scrupulous, and make the 
present work a safe guide, in a moral point of view, to the young of either sex. 

The department of the Fine Arts forms an entirely new feature in the present work. 
The biographies of Artists have been prepared with great care, and criticisms upon their 
known productions have been given from the most approved authorities, both ancient and 
modem. The information contained under this head will, it is conceived, prove not unac- 
ceptable either to die modem artist or the general reader. 

In a work like the present, the materials for which have been drawn from so many 
sources, it would be a difficult task to specify, within the limits of an ordinary preface, the 
(liferent quarters to which obligations are due. The author has preferred, therefore, ap- 
pending to the volume a formal catalogue of authorities, at the risk of being thought vain in 
so doing. A few works, however, to which he has been particularly indebted, deserve to 
be also mentioned here. These are the volumes of Cramer on Ancient Geography ; the 
historical researches of Thirlwall ; and the work of Keightley already referred to. From 
the Encyclopaedia also, published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 
numerous excellent articles have been obtained, which contribute in no small degree to die 
value of the present publication. In every instance care has been taken to give at the end 
of each article the main authority from which the materials have been drawn, a plan gen- 
erally pursued in works of a similar nature, and which was followed by the author in all die 
editions of Lempriere prepared by him for the press. A fairer mode of proceeding cannot 
well be imagined. And yet complaint has been made in a certain quarter, that the articles 
taken from die Encyclopedia just mentioned are not duly credited to that work, and that 
the tide of the work itself has been studiously changed. Of the fallacy of the first charge, 
any one can satisfy himself by referring to the pages of the present volume where those ar- 
ticles appear ; while, with regard to the second, the author has merely to remark, that in 



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PBEFA.CE. 



substituting ;the title of " Enoyelopndia of Useful Knowledge" for the more vulgar one of 
" Penny Cyclopedia," lie always conceived that he wai doing a service to that very pub- 
lication itself. At all events, the change of title, if it were indeed such, appears to have 
been a very proper one, since it met with the tacit approbation of certain so-called critics, 
who would never have allowed this opportunity of gratifying personal animosity to have 
passed unheeded, had they conceived it capable of furnishing any ground of attack. 

The account of Coins, Weights, and Measures, which accompanied the edition of Lem- 
priere in two volumes, has been appended to the present work in a more condensed and 
convenient form. It is from the pen of Abraham B. Conger, Esq., formerly one of the 
Mathematical instructors in Columbia College, but at present a member of the New-York 
bar. The very great clearness and ability which characterize this Essay have been fully 
acknowledged by its republication abroad in the Edinburgh edition of Potter's Grecian An- 
tiquities, and it will be found far superior to the labours of Arbuthnot, as given in the Dic- 
tionary of Lempriere. 

Before concluding, the author must express his grateful obligations to his friend, Francis 
Adams, Esq., of Banchory Teman, near Aberdeen (Scotland), for the valuable contributions 
furnished by him under the articles Aetius, Alexander of Tretles, Jirttaut, Celstu, Dios- 
corideg, Galenus, Hippocrates, Nicander, Oribariw, Patdus JEgincto, and many other 
medical biographies scattered throughout the present work. Mr. Adams is well known 
abroad as the learned author of " Hermes Philologicus," and the English translator of " Paul 
of jEgma." Whatever comes from his pen, therefore, carries with it the double recom 
mendation of professional talent and sound sad accurate scholarship. 

With regard to the typographical execution of the present volume, the author need say 
but little. The whole speaks for itself, and lor the unsparing liberality of the publishers. 
In point t-f accuracy, the author is sure that no work of its size has ever surpassed it; and 
for this accuracy he is mainly indebted to the unremitting care of his talented young friend, 
Mr. Henry Drisler, a graduate of Columbia College, and one of the Instructors in the Col- 
lege-school, of whose valuable services he has had occasion to speak in the preface to a 
previous work. 

Ctbmbi* OtUegt, Aug** 1, IMS. 



In preparing -the present edition for the proas, the greatest care has been taken to correct 
any typographical errors that may hitherto have escaped notice, and to introduce such other 
alterations as the additional reading of the author, and new materials, furnished by works of 
a similar nature, have enabled htm to make. In furtherance of this view, he has appended 
a Supplement to the present volume, containing all that appeared to him important in the 
first number of the new Classical Dictionary, now in a course of publication from the Lon- 
don press, as well as in the numbers, which have thus far appeared, of Pauly's " Red-En- 
cyd*p*h&ie der QUusuehtn AUerihtmswiaeetuehaft" which constitutes, in fact, the principal 
source of supply from which the authors of the new Classical Dictionary have drawn their 
materials. The articles contained in the Supplement will be found referred to in the body 
of the work trader their respective heads, thus enabling the reader to ascertain, at a glance 
what additions have been actually made. 
Ctfaafca CoUep, Man* 1, L843. 



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LIST OF WORKS, 

EXCLUSIVE OF THE CLASSICS, 



AoraoB'e mutate muboth», *n> nn sun 
m rrarous or th« pejsiht n>moit. 



IMUs Deanriptio Mgnti, Arardee «t Latme, ed. Mi- 
ebaetis, «eu»., infft 

Aekeranm, Noausmatic Mmd, LsrsL, 1840, 6ro. 
Adagia Veteran, Aotr., 1629, foL 

• »<te PHoraras, 3 veto. 8*0, Perb, 1889. 



kdetsng, Gloasaiiom media at infima Latmitatis, 8 
Tofe-STO, - ~ 



OoL Agripp., 
Timori, 
UniTer- 



Bate, 1778-84. 



4 Tab 8to, Berlin, 1806-17. 
tdrietaaana, Theatnira Tens 

MSB, foL 
Hi i ■- inisiiiliii Vila et 

Aax, Hbtoria, Load. Bat, 1636. 



KasL 12roo, Roots, Coogr. dePropag. FSd.,1771. 
ka lanaea, id eat, Grarrtaainicom tea Bemscrdam- 
ko-Maiabericom, IndoetamnD sirs VsnarenSe, Ma- 
" aa Volgire et Tslinganienm, Brno, Roma, 
7- da Propsg- F>d_, 1791. 

~~ sraaneram, sea isgui ATeneb, lSmo, 
_.de Prepay Fid., 1787. 

Afofcabsssm TaagatamiBi al 

Congr. de Prapag. Fid., 1773. 

i jBUuoaioam, sire Oncer et Ampbarieum, 



jsmo, Roans, Congr. de Prppag. Fid., 1789, 
"~ to, Sams, 



Abhsljutiiia Coptaa, raw, Roma, CongT. de Propag. 

ahsabetnai Pawh aia, tana, Rnna.Oongr. da Propag. 

Fid.. 1783. 
aawriria (gaHadr Bartow. 

Aradt, Ueber dep UrspniBg der Enropaischen OpiscUeu, 

Sro, Franatfsrt, 1BS7. 
Arnold's Halar of Boom, Land, 1838, let toL Bro, 
limaVill, Visit to the Sevan Chnrcbee of Asia, Sro, 
, 1838. 

i Aafc Miner, Loot, 1834, 1 toJs. 

i, S tool 4to, London, 1790. 
Ast, Gnmliws der Pbilologie, Sro, Landshnt, 1808. 
— , F fa tnu* e Leben nod Schriften, 8ro, Lipa., 1816. 
attaches Moaeom, 7 tola. Sro, Zurich (Neues Att 

■aa, 3 Tol a.). 
imfiss, I^f^Off^la1T | lM || ^ ^, *^ Dcorom* Htoo^ Fiiuq^ 1096* 

& 

Bar, Coarhirhta der Bomiaeben LKaratnr, t Tola. Pro, 

Csrbrohe, 1832-6. 
My, Lettraa srrr VAtfsntidede Pkton,dec.,8TO, Pari*, 

tno. 

, Leasee an POngine dee Science*, Sro, Pari*, 

rm. 

, Aflaa M iis sjis phiq u e do globe, fot, Paris, 1838. 
, Introduction a 1' Atlas Ethnogrsphiqne, Sro, Palis, 



, Abrige de Geographic, Sro, Para, 1833. 

BaataawadsCakeo AnUqao, lSmo, Lipa., 1733. 
BiaiM, Mythology of the Ancients, 4 Tola. Bto, London, 
1739. 

Bararton. Ea tbeteh ee snrptasiears McrruinonsCeltigaee 

et Rerasins, Paris, 1808, Bra 
Bsrth, Debar die Dnriden der Keiten, 8ro, Brians;., 1818. 
Bsnhelemy, Voyage da jeane Anschsrsu, 7 Tob. 8ro, 

Paris, 1810. 

Beyle, Historical and Critical Dictionary (Eng. trans.), 
foL, 10 Tola., 1734-41. 

Uncertainty of early Roman History, 12mo, 
,174a 

jsine in es Repertorlnm, 8ro, 15 rob, 18X8-33. 
Beckmsnn, History of InTeotions and Diacoreries, 4 toU. 

8to, London, 1814. 
Bad, Pantheon, ets, 8 toU., London, 1790. 



Bete, Aneedotas of Literate**, 6 safe. Sro, Load., M14 
Beatfer, PiHartatian on the Epistles of Pbaiaris, dw 4 

edited by Dyee, 8 Tola. Sro, London, 1838. 

.Life of, by Monk, 4to, London, 1810. 

Borhsr, Precis Hiatoriqoe da l'aacienaa Oanl, 8to, Bnrz 

aUes, 1BS3. 

Berwick, Life of Beiplo Afticanna, 12mo, Londoo, 1817. 
Bibliotbeca Critica, 3 toIs. Sro, Amstalod., 1779-1808. 
BfeuattMoa Oritiea Nora, tTeis. *ro, Lngd. Bat, 1885. 

30. 

Bilhon, Da Oo oiuiu a nj e ut dsn Rosaabaae, Sro, Pane, 

1807. 

— — , Prinaipaa D* Administration et DEconomie To- 
litiqoe, dea Anciens Peoples, Sro, Paris, 1819. 

Biographic Dmasrselle, Ancianne at Mooame, 18 sola. 
8*0, 1811-88. 

Bischoff and Holler, Worterbach der Oeogrspbis, Sro, 
Goths, IBM. 

Blair, Enqairy into the 8tsia ofBUrery atnonf tha Bo 
nana, ISno, Bdhtborgh, 1833. 

Blondell, Das SibyUes, Ice., 4to, Cbarenton, 1848. 

Brom, Knleatang in Rom's slteGeacUchte, ISno, Ber- 
lin, 1828. 

Blame, Iter Nieum. ISno, 8 toU., Berlin, 1884. 
Bobrik, Geographie des HerodotBro, Kdntgsberf, 1838, 

nebst eroem Atlssse too sshn Karten, foL 
Boenart, Opera Omnia, foL, 8 toIs., Lord. Bat, 1888. 
Bockh, Carpoa lnscriptkoam Graearum, fol., BeroL, 

1888. 

, Die QHsatsfisnshsltTsig der A thenar, 8 Tola. Baa,. 

Berlin, 1817. 

— — , PabUe BooBDmy ef Athens, 8 rols. Sro, London, 
1836. 

, Metreiogiseb* O n a w s nch an g e u fiber Gewichts, 
Munxrasse, and Masse das AlterUmms, Bto, Barha, 
1838. 

Bode, G. H-, Gescbicbte der Hellenkchan tochUnnst, 

8 Tots. 8ro, Letpaig, 1838-9. 

,QaaaatKa»ac^ant^i iis s irfta f aiinl i i omOi p l dconin 

vbte, dec., 4to, Gottinga, 1838, 8d adit 
BShmen, Hexlrasebe Opferplatae, Bto, Pragne, 1836. 
Botriger, C. A, Archaoiogie and Konst, toL 1, Sro, 

Bieslan, 1888. 
, Andeotnngeo, dtc., fiber Ajdnaoiogie, 

8to, Dresden, 180a ^ 
— 1 , , Bsbina, oder Mosgenaasnen im Pnnt. 

nnuner einer refchen Romarin, 18mo, 2 rols , 1806. 
, — — , Anslthea, odar Mnsnun dei Konst 

mytbologis, dec, Sro, 3 Tola, Lips., 1830-S. 

, , Usee xur Enost-mythoiogie. Sro, Draa- 

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Bopp, Vergjeichends Grsmmatik'dee Sanskrit, Zend, 
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Buckingham's Trarels in Assyria, Madia, and Panda, 

Sto, 2 foil., London, 1830. 
Bodsius, Oe Am, Venet ap. Aldnm, 1928. 
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Balwer'a Athena, &c, 2 roll. 12mo, New-York, 1837. 
Bonaen, De jure hereditario AthenwaMinm, 4to, Got. 

ting., 1813. 

Burgess, Description of the Circus on the Via Appia, 

&c., 12mo, London, 1828. 
, Topography and Antiqnitiea of Rome, 2 Tola. 

8to, London, 1831. 
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Buraouft; Esau sur la Pali, 8»o, Paria, 1828. 
Buttmaim, Mytbologus, Sto, 2 Tola., Berlin, 1828. 

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Calmet, Dictionary of the Bible, 4to, 5 Tola, Charlee- 

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Cambden, Britannia, 4to, London, 1800. 
Cardwell, Lectorea on Coins, 8to, Oxford, 1832. 
Carion-Niaaa, Hiatoire da l'Art MiUtaire, 8*0, 2 Tola., 

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Carli, Lettrea Americanea, Sto, 2 Tola., Paris, 1788. 
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— — , Ideen nu Geaehiebte der Philoeopbie, 8ro, 
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Mentors, 1822. 
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— , Hisl 



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Manual, 8to, London, 1827. 

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•, Dionysus, aire Comments ti ones Academical 



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, Symbolic, im Anazuge ron Moaer, 8ro, Leipz , 



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1834. 

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De la Bergerie, Hiatoire de I' Agriculture Jnaeane dea 

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mainea, 4to. 6 rols., Paria, 1787. 
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Eicawald, Alte Geographie dee ~ 
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Hsse, Public sod Pritate Life of the Ancient Greek*, 

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MenachsngeeehKhle, Sro, Halle, 1801. 
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cben PUkMOphie, 1 voL, 3 pts., Heidelberg, 1838-9. 
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ltmo, London. 1829. 
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deutung der Stemnamen, Sro, Berlin, 1809. 
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Lereeque, Histoire Critiqoe de la RepuMiqoe Romaina 

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Lipsii Miscellanea, Sro, 4 rola., VeeaL, 1675. 
Lobeck, Aglaophamus,sive de Theetogiw Myetiess Ore 

corum Canns, 8ro, 8 vol* , Regimont Proas., 1888. 
Lo-Looz, Recherche* d'Andquitee Mihtairee, drc, ito. 

Paris, 1770. 

Laden, AUgemeine Geschichte, Sro, Jena, 1824. 
Lyell'i Geology, 4 rola. IStno, London, 1837. 

M. 

Maetzner, De Jore Homeri, BaroL, Sro, 1839. 
Hagnier, Analyse Critique et Literaire de l'Eneide, 2 

Tola. 18mn, Paris, 18*8. 
Msgnusen, Boreslium Mythotogne Lexicon, ito, Hst- 

nus, 1688. 

MrizeroL Institutes Militaires de I'Empexenr Leon, 8 

vets., Paris, 1770. 
Maiden's History of Rome, Lib. Use. KnowL, 5 parts. 

London, 1830-33, Sro. 
Malkin, Claaaical Disquisitions, Sro, London, 1825. 
Matte-Bran, Dictjonnaire Geographique portatif, die., 2 
rola. 12mo, 1827. 

, Precis de la Geographic Universalis, 8ro, 



i rols., Bruxellea, 1830. 
, Universal Geography (English trans.), Sro, 

8 rols., Boston, 1824-31. 
Mannert, Geechichte der alien Deutachen, etc, Sro. 

Stuttgart, 1829. 
— , Geograpbie der Griechen and Romer, Bro, 10 

rola, 1799-1825. 
, Handbuch der alien Geschichte, Sro, Berlin. 

1818. 

Msnsford, Scripture Gazetteer, Sro, London, 1829. 
Macao, Sparta, 5 rola. Svo, Leipzig, 1800. 
ManteLTs Wonders of Geology, 2 rols. 12mo, Loud., 1838. 
Manuel du Libraire, &c, Sro, 2 rols., Paris, 1824. 
Manuel da Literature Claasique Anctenne, Bro, 2 vol*.. 
1802. 

Msnwaring on the Classics, Load., 1737, Sro. 
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LIST OF WORKS, BIO. 
7 toss. Sro, Lend on, MOB. 



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VCulkcb, Researches concerning the Aboriginal His- 
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• " « tola ante da Niemea, dre, Niemea, 



M esad, Geachkhte oar Teotaenen, tto, Stnttgstd, 18S7. 
W i n j . Trait** d"Hippocrat», *e-, l*m«, Peria, I81& 
Memo, L'Etnde comparaliTe dea Leagues, Sao, Pan*, 

ISM. 

■kali, Lltalia aranti il dominio dm Romani, Bro, 4 



——. Storm degb aatkhi Pbpoti taahaai, S tola. Bro, 

Michaeba, 9ak ilagtnia GaagiaaMaj Hebraornra ex4eT*j 

Ate, 9 Tola., OutM n gm, int. 
Mkhelet, Hiatoire Romaine, 3 *ola. 12mo, Brat, MBS. 
IBaVBalao'a Lit* ef Oicsro, 3 *ais. Pro. Laadna, MM. 
Milan*. tOUKKf <* tbe Jarre, ttnao, a role, New-York, 

1831. 

of the Sera Churches ef Aak, 8 



jfiacellanaa 
don, 18SO-2S. 



iea, 8*0, Cambridge, 1888. 

ef Aristophanes, Sro. S sain, Lao- 



of Groate, 8 vote. 8*0, Boatoaw 18fi 
iehie det Literate* der Qrieeeeo mod 
r, 8*0, toL 1, BrMfcwsld, 1813. 
Hone, Goe ch i chte daa Heidenihama ia Nordlicben Eu 

rope, 8 w*V 8m, L ei p e j g, 1883. 
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B ftiuamu ata PadeAonwBcia, 4tO, Franc of., 1713. 
Moore, Lectures on the Greek Langoege sad Lrtaratare, 
do, New-York, 1836. 

-, Ancient Mineralogy, Una, New- York, 1884. 



Morexi, Grand Dietienrmire Hietoriooe, fcL,8*ala.,im 
Jfontx. Gottartebre, 12mo, Berlin, 1885. 
■oaOf armal of Claaaieal Biography, a Tola. 8*o, 1887, 

Matter, 



r. C. O., War B ilin e ar , 8 aota. 8*0, 



,18 



3 Tota.*, 



Geschic bte nellenjaeber gramme, ckc, 
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-, De Pbjdha Vita et Operraoo, 4to, Oettin- 




^ zn erner 
Iff Kauioajie, 8*0, fjbetrag., 1888. 

-, Dorona, translated By ToSael 



at, 8 Tola. 8*0, CMbrdb 1 



I Lew- 



-, Areheotogie der Knnat, 8*0, B i eaU n , 1835. 

, History of Oreek Literature, vreaaMd for 

Ae Library of Useful Knowledge, toI. I, London, 8*0, 

,9mA, 1817. 



183S-S0. 

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-, Debar die Sebtbait dor Aaahjbre, rtmo, 



AJgeojoirie Gesebtohte, 3 Tola. Sao, Tu- 
bngen, 1817. 

, W, Horaeriaeha Vorsehule, 8*0, Lefardg, 1838. 

Kroner, Religion der Karthager, 8*o, Co^nbagen, 1818. 
Mumon, Stoaa (fftafia, 4to, 13 Tola., Monaco, 1761-4. 
H unsj^A^HBjtorr^rtr European Langaagea, 3 Tela. 

— — ^VKTlJiitonSi Aeeoont of Direa*erie« aad 
Travels a Attica, 8*0, 8 roh , Bdnrbnrgb, 1818. 

Maaeoai Critknm, or Cambridge Chaakal Reaoai eb aa, 
8ro,g«>k,1814. 

Vneeorn der Altertbrrnui n iaaBnacbaft, 8*0, 9 Tola., Ber- 
lin, 1807. 

gTpaanm ^ntiTTi*"'* Stndiornm, 8*0, Ban)., 1808. 
N. 

JlMnb ABt9c0 BOtfwflilkt), Bfo, tbL 1* Stattgvt. Ittft 
nafcor. Vtagzio Auliuu&rio inr' eoDtflAni <K Soma* 2 volt. 
Jnj^R arn" 181B. _ ^ 
WieljAr, 84^rniarbe QearWrftte, 3 Tola. 8*0, Boriia, 1B38- 
33, 

, Tlfflnw SelulAen, 8ro, Bonn., 7838. 

, Brief an emen iongen PhUologep, Bra, Le5p- 

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, (W«har'« tnna.), X Tola. 8*0, 

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1838, 
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, Rituum Ro 



ISmo, 3 Tola., Traj., 1733. 
m fixpiKatto, lXmo, Tra>., 



1734. 

Niuach, Beacareiborig dea Zoatandea, cUe., der Griech. 
en, 13mo, 4 Tola., Erfurt, 1806. 
■ 1 -. Beeehreibong daa Zoatandea, oVa, der RSmar, 
*oL U Uano, Erfurt, 1807. 

, Kotwurf der alien Geagzaphie, ed. Mannert, 

12mo, Leipxig, 1829. 

— , G. W , Pa Uiatoria Homeri, tto, flue I, 2, 

Han, 1830-7. 

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8m, 3 Tola, Hannor, 1826-31. 
Noel, Dictionnaiia de h Fable, 3 Tola. Sro, Pane, 1803. 
Notaia Ut wa jao Digaitatom, com Oriantu, torn Ocei 

dentia, fbL, LogrL, 1008. 
Notitia Digoitatom, car* £d. Bocaacg, 3 role. Sro, Bom, 



Nnmiamatiqne Ancienne, Grecqoe et Romatie, 8 Tola. 

8*0, Paiia, 1886, 
Nomiamatiqae du Voyage da Jeane Anacherrja, 8ro, 

Paxia,HB3. 

Nantiamata Regom et Imparatornm Rornanornm, foL, 



OoL Bgoaaab, 1700. 
tTerrrp, Wortarbnch ond Bpraebe 
Mtteanjaaie, igarn, f^tyanhaatn. 



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18J88> 

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Origenia Hexaploram qna anaeraunt, ad. Bahrdt, Sao, 8 
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under, De Aaylia Hebramram, Oantiliiun, Cbhatiano- 
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Paebo, Voyage dans la Marmariqna, dec, 410, Pari*, 1886. 
PaACironoa, Ka* Maorarabiias, i pu. ito, Frtncof., 1828- 
31. 

Paackoncke, La Oermanie de Taeite, Sro, Praia, IBM 
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Paecnaiiae, De Coronia, 8*0. Lugd. Bat, 1881. 
FaaawM Parabpomana, foL, Lnea, 1767. 
Patteraon, NaUonal Character ot tne Athenians, Edmb., 
Sao, 1888. 

Pauly, Reel- Encyclopedia AM ClsasUcbss AUartborna 
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Pellootier, Hiatoire dea Celts*, 2 Tola. Ate, Pane, 1771. 

Pane, Primary ssgnrqeat of tne Qiad, Sro, Load, 1831. 

Periteol. Coaatograpbk, ed. Hyde, Oxon, 1891. 

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Pieet, TaMettaa CbraaeAegiqgaa, &c, 8*0, 8 Tola, Ge- 
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Piarex, I 
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Paakerton, rhwintatarn on the 8cyUusas or Goths, 8rq, 
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Plaaa, Vor-and Vt-9mhkt*e der Behmer, 8 rols. 8*0, 
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LIST OP WORKS, ETC 



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PowToenUe, Voyage de la Grace, 0 rob. 8ro, Puis. ISM, 
Prescott, Homer the Sleeper in Horace, 8ro, Cunb., 1773. 
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-, Analyeia of Egyptian If ytbotogy, Sro, Load., 

-, Origin oT the Celtic Nation*, 8*0, Oxf., 1831 
Prideanx, Connexions, dec, 8 Tola. 8to, London, 1831 
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Q. 

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Rabelleau, Hittoire dea Hebreoz, 2 Tola. Sto, Paria, 15*i. 
Raonl-Rechetle, Coure d'Archectogie, Sto, Paria, ltU? y 
Reache, Lexicon UniTerea rei namariai Teteram 9ra, 

13 Tola., Lipeiej, 1775-1808. 
Beichard, kleine geographiache Schrirtan, Sro, Una, 

1836. 

Reingarum. Daa alte Megarie, 12roo, Berlin, 1835. 
Raiaig, Vorleaongen uber Lateiniache Spiachwieeen- 

eehaft, Sto, Leipzig, 1839. 
Relandi, Palaetina, ex monnrnentie Tetarib 

4to, Norimb., 1716. 
Remnaat, Melange* Aaiatiqaea, 3 Tote. Bro, Paria, 188$. 
, Nonreanx Melange* Aaiatiqaea, Sto, 3 Tola, 

Paria, 1829. 

Rennell, Geography of HenxkXoa, Bro, t Tola., London, 
1890. 

, Geography of Weatera Aaia, Sto, 3 Tola., Lon- 
don, 1831 (with atlaeY 

, Illustration* of Xenophon'a A n ahoele, 4to, Lon- 
don, 1816. 

, Obaarrationa on the Topograph jr of the Plain 

of Troy, 4to, London, 1814. 
Separtonnm for Bibliache nod Morgenlandiache Litera- 

tnr, 18 Tola, in 6, Sto, Leipzig, 1777-88. 
Retroepectire Renew, 16 Tola. Sto, London, 1820-28. 
Rheiniachea Huaenm, Sto, Bonn, 1817. 
Rhode, Die beilige Sage, etc, der alten Baktrar, hfeder, 

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Rich, Journey to the Site of Babylon, dec , Sto, London, 

1839. 

Richerand, NouTeanx Element de Pbyeiologie, Sto, 8 

Tola., Paria, 188S (9th edition) 
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Tola, 8ro, Paria, 1839. 
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Rongier, Conaidaratiana ganaraha tar \ 
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, L'AgricnKon Asantr, dVn Cerr, 8>-i, Paria, 

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edition). 



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9 Tola. Sto, Berlin, 1817. 
, toI. 1, Berlin, 1838 (3d 



', Die Stnpa'a (Topee) tmd die ColoaaeTon Ba- 
miyan, 13mo, Berlin, 1838. 

, Die Torhalle Europiiacher VStkergaaehieb- 

ten, dec., Sto, Berlin, 1890. 
— — , H., Oeachichte der PhOoaophia, 8ro, 4 Tola., 
Hamburg, 1836-39, 3d edit 

-, Oeachichte der Pytbagoriechen Philoeo- 



phie, Sto, Hamburg, 1836. 
, Hiatory of Ancient Philoaophy, translated 

by Morrison, 3 Tola. Sto, Oxford, 1838-9. 
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Paria, 1834. 

■ , Religion* de la Grace, Sto, toL 1, ChatUlon-aar- 

8eine, 1888. 

Rotlin, Hiatoire Romaine, 3 Tola. Sto, Paria, 1838. 

, Ancient Hiatory, Sto, New-York, 1839. 

Romanelli, Viaggio a Poopei, «lc., ISmo, 3 Tola., Na- 
poli, 1817. 

Rome in the Nineteenth Centaury, ISmo, 8 Tola., Near- 
York, 1827. 

Roeenkranx, Handbnch emer Oeachichte der Poeaie, 9 

Tola. Sto, Halle, 1833. 
Roeenmuuer, Biblical Geography of Central Aaia, trana- 
iated by N. Morren, 3 Tola. ISmo, Edinburgh, 1836. 

— — , Scholia in Velua Teetamentnm, 18 Tola. 

8ro, Lipaia, 1833. 

, Scholia in Norum 



ToU,Norimberg«, 1808. 
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ateL, 1685. 

Rotteck, Allaamame Oeachichte, 9 Tola. Sto, Freyburg, 



, L'Agricaltp-e d » Cnnloic 8*0, Paria, 1899. 
Rndemako, worn dan S*culoo>, ISmo, Copenhagen, M 
Ruhnkea, Opoecjla, 2 -ola. 8»o, Logd. Bat. 1883 
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Jain te- Croix, Ex amen dea histories* d'Abxandm la 
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me, Sro, 9 Tola., Paria, 1817 (2d edition). 
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.aWiHietoriqneetPhikeophiiraeanrleaNoraa 

d'Hommaa,de People*, etde Liens, 3 Tola. Sro, Paria 
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8artcnmv GeeeUcfate der Oatgotben, 
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[, Die Gotthenan Ton Samothrace, Sro, Stutt- 



gart, 1817. 
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tar, Sro, 3 Tab., Wien, 1815. 
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-, Sammtliche Werke, Bro, 8 Tola., Wien, 

-, A. W., Debar Drlimatiache JEunat and Litter- 



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atar, ISmo, 3 touu, Heidelb, 1817. 

-, A. G., Lecona aur fHistoire et la Theorie dea 



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latona Werke, Sro, • tola, Berlin, 

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tranaiated by Dobeon, Sro, London, 1838. 
Sehhchthorat, Gaographia Africa Herodotea, ISmo, Got- 
tinga, 1788. 

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Scboll, Hiatoire de la Litterature Grecqne, Sro, 8 Tola., 
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, Hiatoire abregee de la Litterature RomaJravSro. 

4 Tab, Paria, 1815. 

, Hiatoire abregee de la Litterature Grecqne ea- 

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Walsh, Esasy on Ancient Coin*, dtc, lSmo,LauL, 1888. 
, Namtire of a Journey from Constantinople to 

Bngfamd, ISmo, London, 1831 (4th edition). 
Weber, lllaat ration* of Northern Antimririaa, too, Edm- 

barib, 1814. 

Wauaa, DarateDimg dar Griechiseben Mythologia, Bro, 

roL 1, Leipzig, 1888. 
Weleker, DarEpucha Cycna, Bro, Bonn, 1885. 

■ ^acbyhache Trilogia. Bro, Darm*mdt, 1834. 

Nacotrag so dar Bchrift ofaer die ^Eachyliacbe 



Trilogia, 8k, Frankfort, 1888. 
-3TbieGi 



, Ueber sine Erebacha Kolonle in Tbeben.BTo, 
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Geography, 4to, Charleatorrn, 1817. 
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; 4*0, 3 role,, Camb., 



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Work* 

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1888. 

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Wiseman, Lectures on Science and Karealed Religion, 

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Worm, Da Fsnderam, ate., ratiomboe apt 

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A 

CLASSICAL DICTIONARY, 

Ac. Ac. Ac. 



ABA. 



ABA 



A. B£, 1 eeiti of Pbociat, near and to the right of 
Hales, towards Opua. The inhabitant* bad a tradition 
that tiey were of Argrve descent, and that their city 
ma founded by Abee, eon of Lynceua and Hypermnee- 
tn, grandson of Danana (Pane*. 10,36). It wa« moat 
probahVt otTkiwian, or, in other words, Pelaagic ori- 
gin. Abe wu early celebrated for ita oracle of Apol- 
lo, of greater antiquity than that at Delphi (Sicpk. 

B. y In later daye, the Romans also testified respect 
far the character of the place, by conceding important 
privileges to the Abmana, and allowing them to lire 
sader their own laws (Poms. I.e.). During the Persian 
invasion, the army of Xerxes set fire to the temple, and 
neariy destroyed it ; soon after it again gave oracles, 
though in this dilapidated state, and was consulted for 
that purpose by an agent of Mardonius (Herod. 8, 134). 
In the Sacred war, a body of Phociana haying fled to it 
far refuge, the Thebans burned what remained of the 
temple, destroying, at the same time, the suppliants 
(Dud. S. 16, 58). Hadrian caused another temple to be 
boat, bat ranch inferior in size. This city possessed also 
a forum and a theatre. Ruins are pointed out by Sir 
W. GeU (Zrm. 366) near the modern Tillage of Exar- 
chs. 

Abacs, a surname of Apollo, derived from the town 
sf Aba in Phocis, where the god had s rich temple, 
rffesyefc., a. T. 'AoVu.— Herod. 8, 33.) 

Amicmsm, a city of the Siculi, in Sicily, situated 
oa a steep hill southwest of Messana. Ita ruins are 
■a pp o se d to be m the vicinity of 7Vrpi. Being an ally 
of Carthage, Dionysius of Syracuse wrested from it 
part of the adjacent territory, and founded in its vicin- 
rtv ue colony of Tyndaris (Died 8. 14, 78, 90). 
Putany calls this city 'AOaxaiva, all other writers 
'Attumm. According to Bocbart, the Punic appel- 
lation was Abaci*, from Abac, *' extollere," in refer- 
ence to its lofty situation. (Outer. Sic. Am. 2, 386.) 
AbIlur. VuL Basil ia. 

Asa-ma, an ancient people of Greece, whose origin 
is not ascertained ; probably they came from Thrace, 
and having settled in Phocis, built the city Abe. 
From this quarter a part of them aeem to have remo- 
ved to Euboea, and hence its name Abantuu, or Aban- 
tur (Strain, 444). Others of them left Euboea, and set- 
tled for a time in Chios (Parts. 7, 4) ; a third band, 
retaining with some of the Locri from the Trojan war, 
were driven to the coast of Epirua, settled in part Of 
Tbrsnrntfa. inhabited the city Thronium, and gave 
the name Abftntu to the adjacent territory (Pots, ft, 
tj). The Thractan origin 'of the Abantes is contest- 
ed by Mannert (8, S46), though supported, in some de- 
gree, by Aristotle, as cited by Strabo. They had a 
eastern of cutting off the hair of the head before, and 
ssasrang it to grow long behind ( JJ. 3, 543). Plutarch 
'Tit TVs. 6) states, that they did this to prevent the 
ess-say, whom they shrtrs boldly fronted, from seizing 
A 



them Dy the fore part of, their heeds The troth is, they 
wore the hair long behind as a badge of valour, and so 
the scholiast on Homer means by dvdsetar rAw. 
The custom of wearing long hah* characterised many, if 
not all of the warlike nations of antiquity ; it prevailed 
among the Scythians, who were wont also to eat off the 
hair of their captives as indicative of slavery (Heewdk. 
— Bayeri Mem. Seylh. m comment. Acad. Petr. 1733, 
p. 888); and also among the Three ians, Spartans 
Gauls (Galli comati), and the early Romans (sansan 
Remain). Aa to the origin of this custom smrmg the 
Spartans, Herodotus (1, 83) seams to be in error, in da- 
ting it from the battle of Thyrea, since Xenopbeo (Lac. 
Pol 1 1, 3) expressly refers it to the time of Lveur- 
gus (PttU. Fit. Lye. 1). The practice of scsjpmg, 
which, according to Herodotus (4, 64), saaoted saaosar 
the ancient Scythians (Catmmb. mi Alien. 634), and 
ia still used by the North American Indiana, sppsers 
to owe its origin to this peculiar regard for the hair of 
the head. The greatest trophy for the victor to gain, 
or the vanquished to lose, would be a portion of what 
each had regarded as the truest badge of valour, and the 
akin of the head would be taken with it to keep the 
hair together. On the other band, shaving the bead 
waa a peaceful and religious custom, directly i 
to that just mentioned. It waa an mdiapei 
among the priests of Egypt (Herod. 8, 86) ; 
the deities in the hieroglyphics have their heads with- 
out hair. Hence, too, may be explained what ia said 
of the Argippei, or Bald-headed Scythians (Herod. 4, 
33). No one offered violence to them ; they were ac- 
counted sacred, and had no warlike weapons. Were 
they not one of those sacerdotal colonies which, mi- 
grating at a remote period from India, inroad them- 
selves over Scythia, and a large portion of the farther 
regions of the West 1 

Aaaimlois, a masculine patronymic given to the 
descendant* of Abas, king of Argos, such aa Acrisios, 
Perseus, dec (Orid, Met. 4, 673.) 

AaatrrlAs, I. one of the ancient nasase of Eeeesa. 
(Vid. Abantes.) Strabo (444) calls it A ben tie. —II. A 
female patronymic from Abas, aa Dense, Atalanta, Ac. 

ABANTiOAs, a tyrant of Sicyoa, in the third cen- 
tury B.C. He seized upon the sovereign power, 
after having slain Cliniaa, who waa then in charge of 
the administration. Cliniaa waa the father of the cess- 
bra ted Aratus, and the latter, at this time only seven 
years of age, narrowly escaped sharing the fate of bis 
parent. (Pint. Fit. Aral. 3.) 

Aeiima. Fid. Abannaa If. 

AmXsia, I. a Scythian, or Hyperborean, mentioned 
by several ancient writers. Iambi ichna states that 
A bans was a disciple of Pythagoras, and performed 
many wonders with an arrow received from .* 
(Vit.PytMaf n f.t»,td.K%t4*r.) Herodotos i 
us (4, 86) that be wm serried so this arrow over i 

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ABA 



ABD 



whole earth without tilting food. Bat there' ere strong 
doubts ss to the accuracy of the text given by Wes- 
seling and Vskkenaer. The eld editions read uf rov 
bio-rim rrepUfepe oUhi nreo/uvof, which agrees with 
the account given in the Fragment of Lycurgus.cited 
by Eudocia (ViUaie. Anted. 1, 80), where he is said 
to have traversed sll Greece, holding an arrow as the 
symbol of Apollo. The time of his arrival in Greece 
u variously given (Bentl. Thai. 95). Some fix it in the 
3d Olympiad (Harptcr.— Si»si.),others in the 31st, 
others much lower. One authority is weighty : Pin- 
dar, as cited by Harpocration, states that Abaris came 
to Greece while Croesus was king of Lydia. An ex- 
traordinary occasion caused his visit. The whole earth 
was ravaged by a pestilence j the oracle of Apollo, 
being consulted, gave answer that the scourge woold 
only cease when the Athenians should offer, up vows 
for sll nations. Another account makes him to have 
left his native country during* famine (ViUoie. Anted. 
L c). He made himself known throughout Greece as 
a performer of wonders -, delivered oracular responses 
(Cfcae. Alts. Str. 399) ; healed maladies by charms 
at exorcisms (PUto, Charm. 1, SIS, Bekk.) ; drove 
•way storms, pestilence, and evils. His oracles are 
said to have bean left in writing (AvoUen. Hut. Com- 
ment, e. 4, Compare SehoL Arutoph. p. 881, as 
atnendod by Scaiiger). The money obtained for these 
various services, A bah* is said to have consecrated, on 
his return, to ApoUo (LunbL V. P. 19), whence Bayle 
eoaekdes, that the collecting of a pious contribution 
formed the motive of bis journey to Greece (Diet. 
Hitt. a Grit. 1, 4). He fanned also a Palladium out 
of the bones of Pelops, and sold it to the Trojans (Jul 
Krmiau,l%). Modem opinions vary : Brucker (Hut. 
Phi. 1,356.— Enfield.1, 116) regards him as one who, 
like Saipsdocles, Epimenides, Pythagoras, and others, 
want, about imposing on the volgar by false preten- 
sions to supernatural powers ; and Lobeck (Agiaoph. 
vol. i., p. 818, mj.) is of the same opinion. Creuzer 
(Symk % 1, 96V) considers Abaris aa belonging to the 
carious chain of connexion between the religions of 
tea North, and those of Southern Europe, so distinctly 
ladies sad by the onatontary offerings sent *o Betas 
flea the country of the Hyperboreans. The same 
writer then oites a lenankabie passage from the Hied- 
mrnnagm: "From Greece came Aoor and Samolia, 
with many excellent men ; they met with a very cor- 
dial reoeption ; then- servant and successor-was Heme 
of Ghsisvair." The allusion here is evidently to 
Abaris and Za m n l xts ; and if this passage be authen- 
tic, Abaris would have been a Druid of the North, and 
the country of the Hyperboreans the Hebrides. The 
doctrines of the Druids, ss well as those of Zamolxis, 
resemble the tenets of the rMhagoresn school, and 
in (his way we may explain that part of the story of 
Abaris which connects him with Pythagoras (Ongen. 
PhUm. 888, 906, U. it la Rue.— Chorion it la Ro- 
ehetU, Mekmg. it Orit. vol. I, p. 68). Unfortunate- 
ly, the Saga of Hiaunar is by the ablest critics of the 
North considered a forgery (Miller's SagaJnU. 8, 668). 
Still, other grounds have been assumed for making Ab- 
aris a Druidical priest ; and the opinion is maintained 
by several writers (TtlawT* Misc. Works, 1, 181 — 
HSggvu' Celtic Druids, 188.— Southern Rev. 7, 81.) 
One argument is derived from Himerius (Phot. Bibl. 
vol. ii., p. 874, ei. Better), that he travelled in Celtic 
costume ; in a plaid and pantaloons. Oreuzer, after 
seme remarks on this history, indulges in an inge- 
nious speculation, by which Abaris becomes a personi- 
fication of writing, and the doctrines communicated by 
it, sa snarl as the advantages resulting from these doc- 
trines, and fi»m science or wisdom in general. Aa 
the Bams characters of the North are here referred to, 
a eerbef his argument vests on Ike etymology of "Ru- 
mc/ Sia a s *, > ■» »» , K tor»»,' ,w fon»jveMp M y slang. 
Tbk, tsfetoer win the anew U ks form of most of 

a 



them, will mske Abaris, travelling on his arrow, to be 
him that moves rapidly along, Runa, the scribe, prophet, 
deliverer ; end, at the same time, the personification of 
writing, aa the source of all knowledge, and of safety to 
man. Thus the legend of Abaris may mark the prop- 
agation of writing from toe summits of Caucasus, (of 
spreading civilization aa well to the Greeks, as the na- 
tions of the North. For other speculations, compare 
Muller (Doner, 1, 364) and Schwenk (Etymol.-Mytk. 
Anient. 388), who see m Abaris the god himself, Apol- 
lo 'Aoopevf or 'A^oTof, "luminous," under the Macedo- 
nian form "Atopic, become his own priest ( Creuzer,% 1 , 
869). — II. A city of Egypt, called also Avaris (* Afagif , 
or Afaptf). Manetbo places it to the east of the Bu- 
bastic mouth of the Nile, in the Saitic Nome (Joseph. 
«. Af. 1, 14). Mennert identifies it with what was 
afterward called Pelusium ; for the name Abaris dis- 
appeared, when the shepherd-race retired from Egypt, 
and the situation of Pelusium coincides sufficiently 
with the site of Abaris, aa far as authorities have 
reached us. Manetbo, aa cited by Josephus, says, that 
Satatis, the first shepherd-king, finding the position 
of Abaris well adapted to his purpose, rebuilt Vie city, 
and strongly fortified it with walls, garrisoning it with 
a force of 840,000 men. To this city Salatis repaired 
in summer time, in order to collect his tribute, and 
to pay his troops, and to exercise bis soldiers with the 
view of striking terror into foreign states. Manetho 
also informs us, that the name of the city bad an an- 
cient theological reference (ndhnifihnjv <T Imi rivof 
ipxaiac QcoAoylat klapw). Other writers make the 
term Abaris denote " a pass," or " crossing over," a. 
name well adapted to a stronghold on the borders. 
Compare the Sanscrit upari (over, above), the Gothic 
ufar, the Old High German uiar, the Persian tber, 
the Latin rupcr, the Greek vwfp, dec. 

Ababnis, or -us, I. a name given to that part of 
Mysia in which Lampsacus was situate. Venus, ac- 
cording to the fable, here disoumed ((brsovpowro) her 
offspring Priapus, whom she had just brought forth, 
being shocked at his deformity. Hence the appella- 
tion. The first form Aparnis, was subsequently altered 
to Abarnis (Steph. B.). — II. A city in the above-men- 
tioned district, hying south of Lampsacus (Steph. £.). 

Abas, I. or Abos, a mountain of Armenia Major ; 
according to D'AnvUle, the modem Abi-dag, according 
to Mannert (5, 196), Ararat ; giving rise to the south- 
ern branch of the Euphrates. ( YvL Ananias.) — U. A 
river of Albania, rising in the chain of Caucasus, and 
falling into the Caspian Sea. Ptolemy calls it Albums. 
On its banks Pompey defeated the rebellious Albanians 
(Pint. Vit. Pomp. 35)— IU. The 18th king of Ar- 
gos. (VH. Supplement.)— TV. A son of Metaneira, 
changed by Ceres into a lizard for having mocked the 
goddess in her distress. Others refer this to Ascala- 
phus. — V. A Latin chief who assisted iEneas against 
Turnus, snd wss killed by Lausua. (JEn. 10, 170, Ac. ) 
— VI. A soothsayer, to whom the Spartans erected e 
ststue for his services to Lysander, before the hattle 
of JSgospotamos. He is called by some writers H%- 
gias ('Ayfof). 

Abascantus. Via". Supplement. 

ABAsiTis, a district of Phrygia Epictetus, in tits vi- 
cinity of Mysis ; in it wss the city of Ancyra, and here, 
according to Strabo (576), the Macestui or Megistuo 
•rose. 

AbItos. fid. Phils. 

AbdalonTmos, one of the descendants of the kings 
of Sidon, so poor that, to maintain himself, he worked 
in a garden. 'When Alexander took Sidon, he made 
him king, and enlarged bia possessions for his disin- 
terestedness. (Justin, 11, 10.— Curt. 4, 1.) Diodo- 
rus Siculus (17, 46) calls him Ballonymus, a corrup- 
tion of the true name ea given by Cortina and Jostio. 
Wesseling (ad Died B. I. c.) considers the word equiv- 
alent, in the Pbosnician tongue, to Abd-al-anim, "Ser- 



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ABE 



A B I 



mu Dei pradataris," and thinks that the latter part of 
the compound, am, may be traced in the name of the 
god Anaameltck (2 King*, 1 7, 31). Gesenius (Geteh. 
der Heir. Spracke und Sckrift, 238) makes Abialm- 
tauu, as an appellation, the same with Abd-oltmm, 
Sonant of the gods." 

Abdbba, I. a city of Thrace, at the month of the 
Nestas: Ephorua (Stepk. B.) wrote in sing. 'AMspor, 
but the plural is more usual, ra 'AMppa. The Clazo- 
n» i isn Timesius commenced founding this place, but, 
in consequence of the Thracian inroads, wss unable to 
complete it ; soon after, it was recolonized by a large 
body of Texane from Ionia, who abandoned their city, 
wbea besieged byHarpsgua, general of Cyrus (Herod. 
1, 168). Many Teams subsequently returned borne ; 
yet Abdera remained no inconsiderable city. There 
are several other accounts of the origin of this place, but 
the one which we hare given is most entitled to credit. 
The city of Abdera waa the birthplace of many distin- 
guished men, aa Anaxarehus, Democritus, Hecetama, 
sad Protagoras ; the third, however, must not be con- 
founded with the native of Miletus. (Creuzer, Hit. 
Amtie. Gr. Fragm. 9, 88.) But, notwithstsndins the 
celebrity of some of their fellow-citizens, the people of 
Abdera, aa a body, were reputed to be stupid. In the 
CUuda of Erasmus, and the Adogia Vetentm, many 
sayings recoid this failing ; Cicero styles Rome, from 
the stupidity of the senators, an Abdera (Ep. ad Att. 
4, 16); Juvenal calls Abdera itself, "the native bud 
of btekbesds*' (scrveotm patriam, 10, 60 ; compare 
Martial, 10, 36 ; " Abderitana peetcra plebit"). Much 
of this is exaggeration. Abdera waa the limit of the 
Odrysian empire to the west (Tfaic. 8, SO). It after- 
ward fell under the power of Philip ; and, at a later 
period, was delivered up by one of its citizens to Enure- 
ses, king of Pergamus {thai. S. Frogm. 90, 0, 418, 
Bzp ). Under the Romans it became a free city (Abie- 
re libera.), and continued so even as late ss the tune of 
Ptmy (4, 11). It waa femoua for mallets, and other 
fish (Dtrrio, ttp. Aiken. 3, 37.— Arekettr. op. eund. 7, 
1 MX In the middle ages Abdera degenerated into a 
very small town, named Porystylus, sccorduuito the 
Byzantine historian, Curopaiate (Watte, ad Tine. 3, 
97). Its rains exist near Cape BaUmttra. (French 



Strain, 3, 180, * 3.)— II. A town of Hispania Betics, 
east of Makes, in the territory of the Bastuli Porai, 
lying on the coast ; Strabo calls the place Avdspa 
(157). Ptolemy w k6Sapa, Steph. B. 'AMws, a coin 
sf Tiberius Abdera. (Veiliant, coL 1, p. 68.— Xaetkt't 
Lex. Ret Num. 1, 23). It was founded by a Pbceni- 
caa colony, and is thought to correspond to the mod- 
em AsYa. (VTcerf » Geogr. 3, 361.) 

Aaoiaus, a Loerian, annoux- bearer of Hercules; 
mm to pieces by the mares of Diomedes, which the 
hem, waning against the Bistones, had intrusted to 
bat cans. According to Pbilostntus (Ian. 3, 36), 
Hercuks built the city of Abdera in memory of him. 
Annus. Vid. Supplement 
Amu, s town of Campania, northeast of Nola, 
fonnded by t colony from Cbalcis, in Euboaa, according 
to Justin (30,1). Its reins still exist in AveSa, VeccUa, 
Small as wis A bells, it possessed s republican govern- 
ment, retaining it until subdued by the Romans ; the 
inhabitant* AbeMeon, are frequently mentioned by an- 
ient writers ; the only met worthy of record is, that 
their territory produced a species of not, mis AbtUtma 
or ArtUtma, apparently the same with what the Greek 
■titers call xopnw Ilovrix&v, Wpaxteurrucm or Xrtr- 
ra» (Diotcor. 1, 170.— Aiken. 3, 48). The tree it- 
self is the Kapea Hovrucj, and corresponds to the 
corse** of Virgil, and the eoryhu AveUana of Lin- 
ens, cams 31. (Fie, Flare it VirgiU, 333.) 

AaxLijirua, I. now AbelUno, a city of the Hmmri, 
m Ssmniam i the inhabitants of which were caned, 
feswtincWsske, AbtOmatet Protrvpi(Ptim. 8, 3.— 
Fat 87).— II. A city of Lncsaia, near the source of 



the Aciris ; called Abellinum Mnmicum. It is thought 
by Cluver (Ital Antiq. 3, 1380) and D* An villa (Gaagr. 
Ana. 67) to accord with Mortice Vetera, 

Abbllio. rid. Supplement 

Assises, I. a name common to many kings of Edes- 
sa, in Mesopotamia ; otherwise written Abegarut, Ag- 
berut, Augarut, dec. The first monarch of this name 
(fittest. H. E. 1, 18) wrote a letter to out Saviour, 
and received a reply from him (rid. Edesss). The 
genuineness of these letters baa been much disputed 
among the learned. (Cave's Lit. Hut. 1, S. — Lari- 
ner't Cred. 7, 33.) — II. The name, according to some 
authorities, of the Arabian prince or chieftain who 
perfidiously drew Crassus into a snare, which proved 
his ruin; called 'Aaoaeor by Appian (B. P. 84), 
•AfHUfmK (PhU. Greet. 31), Aiyapof (Die Case. 40, 
30). 

Aati, I Ihs southernmost city of Messenia, on the 
eastern shore of the Messenisn Gulf. Pauaaniaa (4, 
30) identifies it with Ire, Ion, one of the places offer- 
ed by Agamemnon to Achilles (22. 9, 308). Abia, to- 
gether with the adjacent cities of Thane, and Phone, 
separated from M assault, and became part of the 
Aebnan confederacy ; afterward they sgsjn attached 
themselves to the Messenisn government At a later 
period, Augustus, to punish the Mriaenians for having 
favoured toe party of Antony, annexed these throe 
cities to Laeonia. But this arrangement continued 
only for a short tune, since Ptolemy and Pauaaniaa 
include then* again among the cities of Messenia.— II, 
Nurse of Hylloe, in honour of whom Cresphontee chan- 
ged the name of Ire to Abia. (Pane. 4, 30, 1.) 

A all, • Scythian nation, supposed by the earlier 
Greeks to inhabit the banks of toe Tanais. Homer is 
thought to allude to them, R. 1 3, 6, where for &yav£m. 
some read 'Ktiurv re. By others they are supposed to 
be identical with the M scrotal. The name 'Aetot is 
thought by Heyne (ad. ILl.c.)U> allude to their living 
on lands common to the whole nation, or to their hav- 
ing a community of goods, or perhaps to their pov- 
erty, snd their living in wagons. Cartiaa (7, 6) states, 
that these Aim sent ambassadors to Alezandor with 
professions of obedience. But the Macedonians en- 
countered no Abu ; they only believed that they had 
found them. The name they probably had learned 
from Homer, and knew that they were a people to the 
north, forming part of the great Scythian race. Sup- 
posing themselves, therefore, on the banks of the Te- 
nets, they gave the name Aim to the people, who had 
sent ambassadors, merely because they had beard that 
the Abii dwelt on that river. 

AbIla, or Asf la, L a mountain of Africa, opposite 
Oslpe (Gibraltar), supposed to coincide with Cays Ser- 
ve, It is an elevated point of land, forming a peninsula, 
of which s place named Cents closes the isthmus. 
Of the two forms given to the name of this mountain 
by ancient writers, that of Abyia is the mom common. 
The name is written by Dionyaiua (Perieg. 888), 
'AXete. According to Avienus (Ore Merit. 846), 
Abila is a Carthaginian or Punic appellative for " any 
lofty mountain." This name appears to have passed 
over into Europe, and to have been applied, with slight 
alteration of form, to the opposite mountain, the rock 
of Gibraltar. Eustathius (ad Diauet. P. 64) informs 
us that in hie time the latter mountain waa named 
Celpe by the Barbarians, but AUba by the Greeks ; and 
that the true Abila, on the African side, waa called 
Abtnaa, by the natives, by the Greeks Kwrrprrucq. 
At what time the present Gibraltar began to be call- 
ed Celpe, is difficult to determine ; probably long an- 
tecedent to the age of Eustathius. Calpe itself is. 
only AUba, shortened, and pronounced with a strong 
Oriental aspirate. In the word AUba we likewise de- 
tect the root of Alp, or, rather, the term itself, which 
may be traced directly to the Celtic radical Alb. The 
of Abila gave it, with, the opposite Calpe, « 



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ABO 

lOnspMsons place in 1% Greek mythology. ( Vid. Her- 
ouUs Columns, and Mediterraneum Mare.)-— II. A city 
of Palestine, 18 miles east of Gsdara (Euteb. v. 'AteX 
'A/arCjuv). Ptolemy ia supposed to refer to. it under 
the name Abida, an error probably of copyists. (M in- 
vert, 6, 1, 823.)— III. A city of Coeleayria, now Belli- 
Mar, in a mountainous country, about 18 mile* north- 
west of Damascus. Ptolemy gives it the 
name 'K60ia. Joaephoa calla it 'Aoalev ana 1 
'Kfatyaxia, the latter coming from the Hebrew 
Abel Beth Maacha, or Malacka (Reltnd, Pale*, 690). 

An bine, a diatrict of Coeleayria. ( Fid. Abila ML) 

AbisIbcs. Vid. Supplement. 

AarnlHoa, Vid. Supplement. 

Aklabios. Vid. Supplement. 

AbhSba, according to Ptolemy (3, 11), a chain of 
mountains in Germany, which commenced on the 
banks of the Mosnus, now Mayne, and, miming be- 
tween what are now Hesse and Westphalia, terminated 
in the present Duchy of Paderbern. Out of the north- 
eastern part of this range, springs, according to the 
same authority, the Amtsus, now Ems. Subsequent 
writers, however, seem to have limited the name Abno- 
ba to that portion of the Black Forest where the Doit' 
vbe commences its course, and in this sense- the tens 
is used by Tacitus. A stone altar, with ABNOBA 
inscribed, was discovered in the Black Forest in 1778 j 
aad in 1784, a pedestal of white marble was found 
in the Duchy of Baden, bearing the words DIANAS 
ABNOBAE. These remains of antiquity, besides 
tending to designate more precisely the situation of 
the ancient Mom Abnoba, settle also the orthography 
of the name, which some commentators incorrectly 
write Arnoba. (Compare La Germame it Tadte, par 
Ptmckouke, p. 4, and the Atlas, FlanclU deuxieme.) 

AaomnoHoa, a small town and harbour of Pspbla- 

ria, southeast of the promontory Carambis. It was 
birthplace of an impostor, who assumed the char- 
acter of i&culapius. Luctaa (Pseud. 68) states, 
that he petitioned the Roman emperor to change the 
name of his native city to lonopolis, and that the re- 
quest of the impostor was actually granted. The 
modem name beboli is only a corruption of Ionopolia. 
{Marcum,Peripl., p. 78.— Staph. B.) 

AbobioIkbs, a name given by the Roman writera 
te me primitive race, who, blending with the Siculi, 
founded subsequently the nation of the Latins. The 
name ia equivalent to the Greek airnxdovet, as indi- 
cating an indigenous race. According to the moat 
credible traditions, they dwelt originally around Mount 
Velino, and the Lake Fuciirus, now Celemo, extending 
aa far aa Careeoli, and towards Reate. This was 
Cato'a account (Dwnys. if. S, 49) ; and if Varre, 
who enumerated the towns they bad possessed in 
those parts (Id. 1, 14), was not imposed on, not only 
were the sites of these towns distinctly preserved, as 
well as their names, but also other information, auch 
aa writings alone can transmit through centuries. 
Their capital, Lista, waa bat by surprise ; and exer- 
tions of many years to recover it, by expeditions from 
Reate, proved fruitless. Withdrawing from that dis- 
trict, they came down the Anio ; and even at Tibur, An-: 
temnm, Ficnlea, Tsllena, and farther on at Crustume- 
rium and Arieia, they found Siculi, whom they sub- 
dued or expelled. The Aborigines are depicted by 
Sallust and Virgil as savages living in hordes, without 
manners, law, or agriculture, on the produce of the 
chase, and on wild fruits. This, however, does not 
agree with the traces of thoir towns in the Apen- 
nines ; but the whole account was, perhaps, little else 
than an ancient speculation on the progress of man- 
kind from rudeness to civilization. The Aborigines 
are said to have revered Janus and Saturn. The tatter 
taught them husbandry, and induced them to choose 
settled habitations, as the founders of a better way of 
Jfe. From this ancient race, aa has already been re- 
4 



ABS 

marked, blending with a remnant of the Siculi, sprang 
the nation of the Latins ; and between Saturn and 
the time assigned for the Trojan settlement, only three 
kings of the Aborigines are enumerated, Picua, Fau- 
nua, and Latinua. (Nitbuhr, Rom. Hut. 1, 62, Carnbr.) 
As to the name of this early race, the old and genu- 
ine one seems to have been Casti or Casssi (Secu/euis 
in Sen. ad JJ*. 1, 10) ; and the appellation of Abo- 
rigines was only given them by the later Roman wri- 
ters. {Heyne, Exams. 4, ad JEm. 7.) Cluver, and 
others, have maintained the identity of the Aborigines 
and Pelaegi, a position first assumed by Dionysius of 
HaUcamaasns. Manner* (9, 436) thinks, that the 
Pelaegi were a distinct race, who, on their arrival in 
Italy, united with the people in question, and that 
both became gradually blended into one race, the 
Etrurian. Some are in favour of writing Abtrrigmes, 
and' refer to the authority of Feat us, who so styles them 
as having been, wanderer* {ab, erro), when they took 
possession of that part of the country where they sub- 
sequently dwelt. In this Festus is supported by the 
author of the Origin of the Roman*, but the opinion 
is an incorrect one. 

Aborhas. Vid. Chaboras. 

Abbadat/as, a king of Suae, who submitted, with, 
his army, to Cyrus, when be learned that his wife Pan- 
thea, who had been made prisoner by the latter, waa 
treated by him with great kindness and humanity. 
He was- subsequently shin is fighting for Cyrus. His 
wife, unable to survive his loss, slaw herself upon his 
corpse. Cyrus erected a monument to their memory. 
(JCen. Cyrep. 6, S, dec.) 

Abbincatvi, a nation of Gaul, situate, according to 
the common opinion, on the western coast, norto of 
the Liger, or Loire, and whose capital, Ingena, is sup- 
posed to coincide with Avranche* (If An. Geogr. Anc— 
Cellar. Geogr. Ant. 1, 161, Scluo.). If we follow Ptol- 
emy, this people rather seem to have occupied what 
would now correspond to a part of Eastern Nor- 
mandy, in the district of Ouche, and stretching from 
the vicinity of the RUU to the banks of the Seine 
(Marmot,*, 167). 

Abeo, I. an Athenian, who wrote on the festivals 
and sacrifices of the Greeks. His work is lost. 
(Steph. B.t. «. Bare.) — II. A grammarian of Rhodes, 
who taught rhetoric at Rome in the reign, of Augus- 
tus. He was a pupil of Tryphon. (Svid. s. v.)— 111. 
A grammarian, who wrote a treatise on Theocritus, 
now lost — IV. An Athenian, son of the orator Lycur- 
gns, (Phtt. Vit. X. Or<U.)—V. An Argive of most 
luxurious and dissolute life, who gave rise to the 
proverb, 'A&puvoc fltof (Abroms vita). (Erasm. Chil. 
p. 487.) 

A B hoc on as, I.aaonof Darius, by Pbrataguna, daugh- 
ter of Otanea. He accompanied Xerxes in his Gre- 
cian expedition, and was slain at Thermopyla. (He- 
rod. 7,S84.)-,U. A-satrsp. (Kid. Supplement.) 

Abbon or Habbon. Vid. Supplement. 

Abkonidb, Silo, a Latin post of the Augustan age, 
and the pupil of Porcias Latro. He wrote some fablea, 
now lost. (Sense Suasor. 3, 23.) Vossius says there 
were two of this name, father and son. 

Abbomt chcs. Vid. Supplement. 

Absostola, a town of Gelatia, on the frontiers of 
Phrygia, and, according to the Itinerary, twenty-four 
miles from Pessinus. It is recognised by Ptolemy 
(p. 120), who assigns it to Phrygia Magna. 

Absota, the wife of Nisus, king of Megaris. As 
a memorial of her private virtues, Nisus, after her 
death, ordered the garments which she wore to be- 
come models of female attire in hit kingdom. Hence, 
according to Plutarch, the name of the Megarian robe 
bstfbpopa. (Quest. Grac. p. 294.) 

Abbotonw, a town of Africa, near the Syrtis Mi- 
nor, end identical with Sabrata. (Vid. Sahrata.) 

Absihtbii, Vid. Apsynthu. 



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A BY 




ABsnrfon, islands at the head of the Adriatic, in 
the Sana Flaaaticoa, Gulf of Quamero; named, a* 
tradioon reported, from Abeyrtns the brother of Me- 
dea, who, seconding to one account, waa killed hen. 
(ifem. S3.— &rwSe,8l&— JMa.3, 7.— Mtay.3, 96.) 
■ Rhodins (4, 880) eaHs them Brygenea, 
i (a. 470) that there was tn one of the group 
erected to the Brygian Diana. Probably 
the same given to these island* was a corruption of 
M» teal apefletioB, which, though Unconnected with 
the fable, sku, from similarity of sound, induced the 
seat* to eoaneet it with the name of Medea's brother. 
The principal island is Absoras, with a town of the 
saaa* name. (iV 63.) These fear islands in, in 
tinaarii geography, Ckerte, Otero (the ancient Abso- 
ras), Rnma, Case. (Ormter't Am. luUf, L, 187.) 

A a siai oa , a river falling into die Adriatic Sea, 
near which Absyitos waa murdered The mora cor- 
net teas of the psaae. however, woo Id seem to have 
bean AJmwrtu, or, following the Greek, Aptyrtu 
('A^aerir). Consult Grotmt and Gortt, Mi Late 
Passes'. 8, taw. 

AasTsres fA*)sa*ror), a son of Mete*, and brother 
ef Medea. According to the Orphic Argonanaca (•. 
1087), Afaavrca* waa despatched by his father with a 
barge fane in pursuit ef Jason and Medea, when their 
flight was discovered. Medea, on the point of falling 
into the Band* ef the young prince, deceived trim by 
a strstsstsa, and the Argonauts, having (lain Mm, 
east an body into she sea. The corpse, floating aboat 
far same time, waa at last thrown op on one ef the 
names, thence called Absyrtides. According to ApoV- 
loons Bhodtos (4, 807), Abeyrtoa, having reached the 
Adriatic before the Argonauts, waited there to give 
Mntnal fear, however, brought about a 
by which the Argonaats were to retain the 
bat Medea was to he placed to. cue ef the 
j islands, until some monarch should de- 
cide whether ahe ought to accompany Jason, or return 
with ber brother. Medea, escordmgly, was placed on 
am island sacred to Diana, and the young prince, by 
t a sa ch a roa s u ro ari et a , waa induced to meet his sister 
by night ha order te persuade her to return, in the 
aadat of their confazence he was attecked and slam 
by Jason, who hry concealed Bear the spot, and had 
eaaeerted tins scheme in accordance with the wishes 
ef Medea. The body was fattened m the island. 
Both these accounts differ from the common one, 
which makes Medea to have taken her brother with 
bar in her flight, and to have torn Urn in pieces to 
asm bar father's pursuit, scattering the limbs of the 
wag prince on the probable roate of her parent. 
Tlwlast account makes the murder of Abeyrtustohave 
warn place near Toon, on the Euxme, and hence the 
Banc given to that city, from the Greek re/af, -tectie; 
jest m Abeyrtoa, or Apeyrtus, is said to have been so 
causa hem saw and oubu. {Jtugm. tS.—ApaUod. 1, 
*, Sl-Cic. JV. D. 8, 19.— 0wd,Trirf. 8, 8, 11 — 
Mtme,ui Aymiiad. I c) Aceaahng to the Orphic 
Poem. Abwrtoa was kSed en At banks of the Am- 
ass, in Ceidn. 
About**. Vid. Supplement. 
Astral* dm. Vid. Stipntement. 
Asonua Vuna. Vid. Supplement. 
Aaes. a river of Britain, sow the Sumter. Cant- 
sen (Brit- p. 084} derives the sue lent same from i 
all British word Aher, denoting Ae month of s river, 
or an eslnsii The appellation will salt the Homber 

n sash weB, aa it is rendered a 'broad estuary by 

ass waters ef tbs Oaaa. 

Abtbbwvs, I. a pupal of Berosos, aeuriehed 869 
B.C. Be wrote m Greek aa Material aceoant of the 
Chaldeans, Babylonians, and Assyriane, some frag- 
sjsats of which have been preserved for aa by Eose- 
aaa, Cyril], ami SysceUua. Ad important fragment, 
each clears up ansae diffieaMea ax Assyrka history, 



baa been discovered in the Armemaa translation ef fin 
Cbronicon of Eusebios.— II. A surname of Pstapba- 
tus. [Vid. Palsjphatua, IV.) 

Alt oos, 1. a celebrated city of Upper Egypt, norm- 
west of Diospobs Parva. Strabo (813) describee it at 
once next to Thebes in ahw, though reduced in his 
days to a email place. The same writer mentions the 
palace of Memnon in this city, built on the plan of the 
labyrinth, though leas intricate. Osiris bad here k 
splendid temple, in which neither vocal nor instru- 
mental music waa allowed at the commencement of 
sacrifices. Plutarch {it b. at Ot. 869, 471, WyV.) 
makes this the true burial-place of Osiris, an honour 
to which so many cities of Egypt aspired ; be also in- 
forms as that the more distinguished Egyptians fre- 
quently selected Abydos for a place of sepaltor*. 
{Zoiga,de Obel. 884.— Orttutr't Comment. Herod. 1, 
97.) All this proves the high antiquity of this City, 
1 aceeohte for the consideration in which it was held, 
mriaaos Msrcemnus states (19, It) that there was 
a very ancient eracie of the god Bern in this place, to 
which applications were wont to be made orally and 
in writing. (Compare Euteb. H. E. 6, 41.) Abydoe 
is now a Map of rains, aa its modem name, Madfvni, 
implies. The ancient appellation has been made to 
signify, by the aid of the Coptic, " abode, er habita- 
tion, common to many." (fire»ter,l. e.,1, 190.)— II. 
An aneieht city of Myeia, in Asia Minor, founded by 
the Thraciana, and still inhabited by them after the 
Trojan war. Homer {S. 8, 887) represents it ss un- 
der the sway of prince Aahie, a name associated with 
many of the earnest religious traditions of the ancient 
world (vid. Asia). At a later period die Milesians 
tent a strong colony to this place to aid their com 
merce with the shores of the Propontis and Enxme. 
(Sfra*o,S01.--T5h*!. 8, 98.) Abydos was directly on 
the Hellespont, in nearly the narrowest part of the 
Strait. This, together with Its strong walls and safe 
harbour, soon made it a place of importance. It is re- 
markable for its resistance against Philip (he Younger, 
of Macedon, who finally took it, partly by force, partly 
by s tr atagem. (Poly*. 16, 81.) In this quarter, too, 
was laid the scene ef the fable of Hero and Learner. 
Over against Abydos was the European town Settee ; 
not directly opposite, however, aa the latter was some- 
what to the north. The rains of Abydos are still to be 
seen on a promontory of low land, called Nagm-Bor- 
ium, or Pesqidet Point. (BUbhouee'e Jour. 3, 817, Am. 
ed.) Wheeler has rectified in this particular the nrie- 
take of Sandys ( Voyage, 1 , 74), who supposed the mod- 
em castle of Natolia to be on the site of the ancient 
Abydos. The castles ChtM&k-Kalcsh, tit Sulfonic- 
KtUeeti, on the Asiatic side, and Gheht-Bawri, or JTe- 
UdvT'BAtr, on the European shore, are called by the 
Turks Bogax-Hcnerteri, and by the Franks the old 
castles of NateUa and Ronmelia. The town of Csa> 
n&k-KaJetri, properly called DardaneBa, has extend- 
ed iu name to the strait itself {Hobhmue, 315). Over 
the strait between Abydos and Sestos, Xerxes caused 
two bridges to be erected when marching against 
Greece, and it was here that, seated on an eminence, 
where a throne had been erected for him, he surveyed 
Ins fleet, which covered the Hellespont, while the 
nergnooBTiniF plains swarmed with his innumerable 
troops. {Herod. 7,44.) The intelligent traveller above 
quoted remarks : "The Thracian side of the strait, 
immediately opposite to TVa^ara, is a strip of stony 
shore, projecting from behind two cliffs ; and to this 
spot, it seems, the European extremities of Xerxes* 
bridges must nave been applied, for the height of the 
neighbouring cliffs would have prevented the Persian 
monarch from adjusting them to any other position. 
There is certainly some ground to believe, that this 
was the exact pomt of shore called from that eircmn* 
stance Apobathra {Straio, 691), since there is, within 
any probable distance, no other flat land on the Tore- 

6 



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AC A 

ota ride, except it the bottom of deep bays, the 
choice of which would have doubled the width of the 
passage. Sesios was not opposite to the Asiatic town, 
nor was the Hellespont in this place called the Strait* 
of Sen toe and Abydos, but the Straits of Abydos. 
Sen toe was so much nearer the Propontis than the 
other town, that the ports of the two places were 30 
stadia, or more than 3 1-3 miles from each other. 
The bridges were on the Propontic side of Abydos, 
but on the opposite quarter of Sestos ; that is to say, 
they were on the coasts between the two cities, but 
nearer to the first than to the last." {Hobhoute, I e.) 
The ancient accounts make the strait in thia quarter 
seven stadia, or 875 paces, broad, but to modem trav- 
ellers it appears to be nowhere less than a mile 
across. 

Acacallis. Vii. Supplement. 

AcAoisf on, a town of Arcadia, situate on a hill call- 
ed Acacesius, and lying near Lycosura, in the south- 
western angle of the country. Mercury Acacesius 
was worshipped here (Peats. 8, 36). Some make the 
epithet equivalent to mSevbf kokoB icapairuf, mUUut 
maii meter, ranking Mercury among the dei averrunei 
(Span*, ad CalUm. H. in 6. 148.— Heyne,td B. 18, 
185). 

AoacIos, I. a disciple of Eusebius, bishop of Cess- 
na, whom he succeeded in 388 or 340. He was sur- 
named Movo^tfatyof (Uncus), and wrote a Life of 
Eutebmt, not extant; 17 volumes of Commentaries 
on Eccletiaete* ; and 6 volumes of MitteUaiuet. Aca- 
cius was the leader of the sect called Ataciam, who 
denied the Son to be of the same substance as the 
Father. {Soar. Hut. 3, 4. — Epipk. Uatr. 78.— Fair. 
BM. Gr. 6, IB.— Case's lit. Hut. 1, 206.)— II. A 
patriarch of Constantinople in 471, who established 
the superiority of his see over the eastern bishops. 
He was a favourite with the Emperor Zeno, who pro- 
tected him against the pope. Two letters of his are 
extant, to Petros Trullo, and Pope Simplicius. (Thco- 
dor. 6, S3.— C<we,l, 417.)— III. A bishop of Bam*, as- 
sisted at the Council of Constantinople in 381. (Tht- 
odor. 6, 38.) — IV. A bishop of Melitene, in Armenia 
Minor, present at the Council of Ephesus in 431, and 
has left in the Councils (vol. 3) a Homily againit 
Nettarvu (Nicepkor. 16, 17.— Cove 1, 417).— V. A 
bishop of Amida, distinguished for piety and charity 
in having sold church-plate, <kc., to redeem 7000 Per- 
sian prisoners on the Tigris, in Mesopotamia. His 
death is commemorated in the Latin church on April 
9tb. (Soar. 7, 81.— Fair. BM. Or. 6, 19.) 

Aden*. Vii. Supplement. 

Acadkmia, a public garden or grove in the suburbs of 
Athens, about 6 stadia from the city, named from Acad- 
emus or Hecademus, who left it to the citizens for gym- 
nastics (Fat*. 1, 89). It was surrounded with a . wall 
by Hipparchus (And.) { adorned with statues, temples, 
and sepulchres of illustrious men ; planted with olive 
and plane trees ; and watered by the Cephissus. Hie 
olive-trees, according to Athenian fables, were reared 
from layers taken- from the sacred olive in the Erech- 
theum (Schol. (Ed. Col. 780.— Pout. 1, 30), and af- 
forded the oil given as a prize to victors at the Pana- 
thens&n festival ( Schol. I. c. — Suid. v. Mopt'cn) The 
Academy suffered severely during the siege of Athens 
by Sylla; many trees being cut down to supply tim- 
ber for machines of war (Appian, B. M. 80). Few 
retreats could be more favourable to philosophy and 
the Muses. Within this enclosure Plato possessed, as 
part of Ijis humble patrimony, a small garden, in which 
he opened a school for the reception of those inclined 
to attend his instructions {Dior. L. Vit. Plat.). Hence 
arose the Academic sect, and hence the term Academy 
has descended, though shorn of many early honours, 
even to our own times. The appellation Academia is 
frequently used in philosophical writings, especially in 
Cicero, as indicative of the Academic sect. In this 
8 



A C A 

sense, Diogenes Laerthis makes a threefold division of 
the Academy, into the Old, the Middle, and the New. 
At the bead of the Old he puts Plato, at the head ot 
the Middle Academy, Arcesilaus, and of the New, La- 
evdes. Sextus Empiricua enumerates five divisions of 
the followers of Plato. He makes Plato founder of 
the 1st Academy ; Arcesilaus of the Sd ; Cameades of 
the 3d ; PhuVandCharmidea of the 4th ; Anttachus of 
the 5th. Cicero recognises only two Academies, the 
Old and New, and makes the latter commence as above 
with Arcesilaus. In enumerating those of the Old 
Academy, he begins, not with Plato, but Democritus, 
and gives them in the following order: Democritus, 
Aaaxagoras, Empedocles, Parmenides, Xenophanes, 
Socrates, Plato, Speusippus, Xenoerates, Polemo, 
Crates, and Crantor. hi the New, or Younger, he 
mentions Arcesilaus, Lacydes, Evander, Hegeamus, 
Carneades, Clitomachus, and Phflo. {Acad. Quettt. 
4, 6.) If we follow the distinction laid down by Di- 
ogenes, and alluded to above, the Old Academy will 
consist of those followers of Plato who taught the 
doctrine of their master without mixture or corruption ; 
the Middle will embrace those who, by certain inno- 
vations in the manner of philosophizing, in some meas- 
ure receded from the Platonic system without entirely 
deserting it ; while the NeuvruL begin with those who 
relinquished the more obnoxious tenets of Arcesilaus, 
and restored, in some measure, the declining reputa- 
tion of the Platonic school.— II. A Villa of Cicero 
near Puteoli (Ptoty,3l, 3). As to the quantity of the 
penult in Acadcmia, Forcellini (Lex. Tot. Lot.) makes 
it common. Bailey cites Dr. Parr in favour of its being 
always long in the best writers. Mai toy (in MoreWt 
The*.) gives 'kna&mua, and 'AKoMj/ieia. Hermann 
(adArietoph. Nub. 1001) makes the penult ofAxaSi/uIa 
short by nature, but lengthened by the force of the ac- 
cent, as the term was in common and frequent use. 
(Compare the remarks of the same scholar, in hie 
work de Metru, p. 86, CHatg.) 

Academcs, an ancient hero, whom some identify 
with Cadmus. According to others {Plot. The*. 38), 
he waa an Athenian, who disclosed to Castor end 
Pollux the place where Theseus had secreted their 
sister Helen, after having carried her off from Sparta ; 
and is said to have been highly honoured, on thia ac- 
count, by the Lacedemonians. From him the garden 
of the Academia, presented to the people of . Athens, 
is thought to have been named (vid. Academia). 

Aoalandbus, or AcALTNDBUs, a river of Magna 
Grscia, falling into the Bay of Tarentum. Pliny (3, 
8) places it to the north of Heracles, but incorrectly, 
since, according to Strabo (888), it flowed in the vi- 
cinity of ThunL The modem name, according to 
D'Anville, is the SalandrtUa ; but, according to Man- 
nert(9, 8,881), the Boccanello. 

Aca mantis, I. a name given to the island of Cy- 
prus, from the promontory Acamaa. (Steph. B.) — II. 
An Athenian tribe. 

Aoamas, I. a promontory of Cyprus, to the north- 
west of Paphos. It is surmounted by two sugarioaf 
summits, and the remarkable appearance which it thus) 
presents to navigators as they approach the island on 
this aide, caused them, according to PHny (6, 81), to 
give the name of Acamsntis to the whole island. — II. 
A son of Theseus and Phaedra. He was deputed to 
accompany Diomede, when the latter waa sent to Troy 
to -demand Helen. During his stay at Troy he became 
the father of Munitus by Laodicea, one of the daugh- 
ters of Priam. He afterward went to the Trojan war, 
and was one of the warriors enclosed in the wooden 
horse. On his return to Athens, he gave name to the 
tribe Acamsntis. {Pout. 10, SR.— Quint. 8m, 18. — 
Hygin. 108.) 

Aoampbis, a river of Colchis, running into the Eux- 
ine ; the Greeks called it Aeampsis from its impetuous 
course, which forbade approach to the shore, a, non. 



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aa/nfwc, ntJUttio. TWa name mora particularly applied 
to its month ; the tine appellation in the interior was 
Boat- (Arria*,Pcr. M. Eux. 119, Blanc.) 

Acistbos, I. a city near Mt Athos, founded by a 
colony of Andriana, on s small neck of land connect- 
ing the promontory of Athos with the continent. Stu- 
bs (Efk. I. 7, 330) places it on the Singiticus Sinus, 
as does Ptolemy (p. 83), hot Herodotus distinctly rises 
k on the StrynKHUcos Sinus (6, 44 ; 7, 83), ss well ss 
Scymnos (v. 646) sad Mela (3, S), and their opinions 
most prevail against the two authors above mentioned. 
Manner! (7, 461) supposes the city to have been pla- 
ced en the Singiticus Sinus, the harbour on the Sinus 
Strymonicos On the other hand, Gail (Geogr. 
CHtrod. % 380.— Adas, hid. t.—Awd. iu Carta, 
p. 11) ssakes two places of this name to bare existed, 
one on the Strymooicus, the other on the Singiticus 
Probably Briuot is the site of ancient Aean- 
Ptolemy speaks of a harbour named Panorama, 
bly iu haven (p. 83. — Cramer's Anc. Greece, 1, 
t. — WatpoWa Coiled. 1, 336.) The Persian fleet 
" ed under Mardomus, suffered severely in 
the promontory of Athos ; and Xerxes, to 
jsjost a similar accident, earned a canal to be 
j through the neck of land on which Acanthus was 
situated ; through this his fleet was conducted. (He- 
rod. 7, 33.) From the language of Juvenal (10, 178), 
and the general sarcasm of Pliny (6, 1, "forteviota 
oat scaaVcas"), many regard this account of the 
I ss a table, invented by the Creeks to magnify the 
i of Xerxes, and thus increase their own re- 
But vestiges of the canal were visible in the 
time of .£ban (H. A. 13, SO); modern travellers also 
discover traces of it (Choiseul-Gouffier, Poy. Pitta- 
nmue 3, 3, 148.— WatfUt, I e.).— II. A city of 
Egypt, the southernmost in the Mernpbitic Nome. 
Ptolemy gives it a plural form, probably from the 
tan-ay thickets in its vicinity, daovoW : Strabo (808) 
adopts the «ingnl»r form, as does also Diodorus Sicu- 
ras(l, 97). Ptolemy places tins city 16 minutes dis- 
tant from Memphis. It is the modem Dasher. 
Acixxak. Vid. Supplement. . 
AcauabIa, a country of Greece Proper, along (he 
mmtt m coast, having JStohs. on the east The natu- 
ral boundary on the ^Gtolian side was the Achelous, 
but it was not definitely regarded as the dividing limit 
until the period of the Roman dominion. (Strait. 460.) 
Acamania was for the most part a productive country, 
with good harbours (Sty lax 18). The inhabitants, 
however, were but little inclined to commercial inter- 
nurse with their neighbours ; they were almost con- 
stantly engaged in war against the .ftoliana, and con- 
- r remained far behind thereat of the Greeks 
Hence, too, we find scarcely any city of 
within their territories | for Attsctorium 
1 Lescss were founded by Corinthian colonies, and 
"l so part of the nation, though they engrossed 
neariv en its traffic. Not only Leucadia, indeed, but 
also Cepbaknia, Ithaca, and other adjacent islands, 
were commonly regarded as a geographical portion of 
Acamania, though, politically considered, they did not 
beloog to it, being inhabited by a different race. (Man- 
nert,S, 83.) The Acamanjana and iEtolians were de- 
sceoded from the same parent-stock of the Leleges or 
Cnretea, though almost constantly st variance. The 
ssost important event for the Acarnsnians was the ar- 
rival among them of Alcmeon, son of Amphiaraua, 
who came with a band of Argive settlera s short time 
ssevnus to tho Trojan war, and united the inhabitants 
e| the land and bis own followers into one nation. 
His new territories were called Acamania, and the 
people AeazDainans. The origin of the name Acar- 
nsam, how ev e r , is uncertain. It was apparently not 
and in the age of Homer, who is silent about it, 
awash be mentions by name the JStolians, Curetea, 
i of the Echinedes, and the Teleboana 



or Taphlana. According to some, it was derived from 
Acsrass, son of Alcmeon (Straio, 463. — Apollo*. 8, 
7, 7 — Time. 3, 103.— Paw. 8, 34). But the remark 
just made relative to the silence of Homer about the 
Acarnanes seems to oppose this. Mors likely the ap- 
pellation was grounded on a custom, common to the 
united race, of wearing the hair of die bead cut eery 
short, dxapryf, • intern., and aelpo, in imitation of the 
Curates, who cut their hair close in front, and allowed 
it to grow long behind (eid. A ban tea). The iEto- 
lians and Acarnsnians were in almost constant hostil- 
ity against each other, a circumstance advene to the 
idea of a common origin. It is curious, however, that 
the JBtoliana appear to have had no other object in 
view, in warring on their neighbours, than to compel 
them to form with them one common league ; which 
they would scarcely have done towards persons of a 
different race. (Mamert,6, 48.) This constant and 
mutual warfare so weakened the two countries event- 
ually, that they both fell an easy prey to the Macedo- 
nians, sad afterward to the Romans. The latter peo- 
ple, however, amused the Acarnanians in the outset 
with a show of independence, declaring the country to 
be free, but soon annexed it to the province of Epiros. 
The dominion of the Romans was for from beneficial 
to Acamania ; the country soon became a mere wil- 
derness ; and as a remarkable proof, no Roman road 
was ever made through Acamania or jEtolia, but die 
public route lav along the coast, from Nicopolia on the 
Ambracian Gulf to the mouth of the Achelous. (tfs> 
iwrt.8, 60.) The present stste of Acamania (now 
Carina) is described by Hobboose (Joam. 174, Am. 
ed.) as a wilderness of forests and unpeopled plains. 
The people of Acamania were in general of less re- 
fined habits than the reat of the Greeks ; and from 
Lucian's words (Dud. Mtretr. 8, 337., Bip.j, x»tpieKOt 
'AKopvavtOf, their morals ware generally supposed to 
be depraved. Independently, however, of the injus- 
tice of thus stigmatizing a people on slight grounds, 
considerable doubt attaches to the correctness of the 
received reading, and the explanation commonly as- 
signed to it. Guyetus conjectures 'Axapvev;, and 
Erasmus, explaining the adage, favours this correction. 
(Compare Boyle, but. Hut. 1, 40.) The Acarnani- 
ans, according to Censorinos (D. N. 19), made the year 
consist of but six months, in which respect they re- 
sembled the Carians ; Plutarch (Num. 19) states the 
fact. (Compare Fabridi Maul. p. 7.) 
Aoabstas and AnraoriBtrs, sons of Alcrnaon and 
Oallirhoe. Alcmson having been shin by the brothers 
of AJpheaibcas, his former wife, Callirhoe' obtained from 
Jupiter, by her prayers, that her two sons, then in the 
cradle, might grow up to manhood, and avenge their 
rather. On reaching man's estate, they slew Pronous 
and Agenor, brothers of Alpbeeibosa, and, soon after, 
Phegeus her father. Acsrass, according to some, gave 
name to Acamania; but vid. Acamania. (Pent. 8, 44.) 

AcASTVs, son of Pehas, king of Iolcos in Theaaahr. 
Pelsus, while in exile at his court, was falsely accused 
by Astydamia, or, as Horses calls her, Hippolyte, the 
wife of Aeastus, of improper conduct. The monarch, 
believing the charge, led Peleus out, under the pre- 
tence of a hunt, to a lonely part of Mount Pelion, and 
there, having deprived him of every means of defence, 
left him exposed to the Centaurs. Chiron came to 
his aid, having, received for this purpose a sword from 
Vulcan, which be gave to Peleus as a means of de- 
fence. According to another account, his deliverer 
was Mercury. Peleus returned to Iolcos, and slew 
the monarch and his wife. There is seme doubt, 
however, whether Aeastus suffered with his queen on 
this occasion. He is thought by some to have been 
merely driven into exile. (Op. Met. 8, 800. — Hervid, 
18, 96.—ApoUad. 1, 9, Su.—Sehol. ad AfoU. Rk. 1 
334.) 

Aoca hkVaxtrtiA, I. more properly LaaxirnA. 

7 



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ACE 



ACE 



(Herns, ad Ovid. Fast 8, 66), the Wife of Faustuhrs, 
■bepheid of king Numitor's flock*. She became fos- 
ter-mother of Romulus and' Remus, who hid been 
found by her husband while exposed on the banks of 
the Tiber and suckled by a she-wolf. Some explain 
the tradition by making Lupa (" she-wolf') to bare been 
a name given by the shepherds to Lawtitia, from her 
•mmodest character (Phut. Bom. 4) ; a moat improba- 
ale solution. We have here, in truth, an old poetic 
legend, is which the name Larentia (Lor), and the an- 
imals said to have supplied the princes with sustenance 
(vid, Romulus), point to an Etrurian origin for the fa- 
ble. When the milk of the wolf failed, the wood- 
pecker, a bird sacred to Mara, brought other food 4 oth- 
er birds, too, consecrated to auguries by the Etrurians, 
hovered over the babes to drive away the insects. 
(Niebuhr'* Rom. Hut. 1, 186.)— II. The Romans 
.yearly celebrated certain festivals, called Larentalia, 
a foolish account of the origin of which is given by 
Plutarch (Quart. Rom. 878). There 4s some resem- 
blance between Plutarch's story and that told by He- 
rodotus (8, 128) of Rhampainitus, king of Egypt, and 
the goddess Ceres ; and it may, therefore, like the lat- 
ter, have for its basis some agricultural or astronomical 
legend. (Consult Baekr, ad Herod. L c.) 

A00U, or, more correctly, Alia, the sister of Julius 
Cesar, and mother of Augustus. Cicero (Phil 8, *) 
gives her a high character. She was the daughter of 
M. Atius Balbus. (Ctc. /. e.—Butt. Aug. 4.) . 

Accioe, I. iVid. Supplement) -^-11. A corns T., 
a native of Pisauram in Umbra, and a Roman knight, 
was the accuser of A. Clnentios, whom Cicero defend- 
ed, B.C. 66. He was a pupil of Heraugeraa, and is 
praised by Cicero for accuracy and fluency. (Brut. 
83.) 

A ceo, a general of -the Gauls, at >«be head of. die 
confederacy formed against the Romans by the SB- 
nones, Oamutee, and Treviri. C*eer(fl. G. ft, 4, 44), 
by the rapidity of bis march, preve n ted the execution 
of Acco's plant; and ordered a general assembly of 
the Gauls to inquire into the conduct of these nations. 
Sentence of death was pronounced on Acco, and he 
was instantly executed. 

Acs, a seaport town of Phoenicia, a considerable 
distance south of Tyre. On the gold and silver coins 
of Alexander the Great, struck ia this place with 
Phoenician characters, it is called Aeo. The Hebrew 
Scriptures (Judge*, 1, 81) term it Aecho, signifying 
"straitened" or "confined." Strabo calls it 'A«j 
(758). It was afterward styled PteiemaU, in honour 
of Ptolemy, son of Lsgus, who long held part of south- 
ern Syria under his sway. The Romans, tn a later 
age, appear to have transformed the Greek accusative 
Ptolemaida into a Latin nominative, and to have des- 
ignated the city by this name ; at least it is so writ- 
ten in the Itix. Antotun. and Hiercmol. The Greeks, 
having changed the original name before ' this into 
'Juui, connected with it the fatal loss legend ef Her- 
cules having been bitten here by a serpent, and of his 
having cored (OKfoftcu) the wound by a certain leaf. 
(Stsph. B. v. Tlrotepatc.) The compiler of the Etym. 
Magn. limits the name of 'AJ07 to the citadel, but as- 
signs a similar reason for its origin. (Compare the 
learned remarks of Rehmd, on the name of this city, 
in his Palett., -p. S36, »eq .) Acoho was one of the 
cities of Palestine, which the Israelites were unable 
to take (Judge*, 1, 81). The city is now called Acrre, 
more properly Acta, and lies at the northern angle of 
the bay, to which it gives its name, which extends, in 
a semicircle of three leagues, as far as the point of 
CarmeL During the Crusades it sustained several 
sieges. AfW the expulsion ofthe Knights of St John, 
it fell rapidly to decay, and was almost deserted till 
Sheikh Daher, and, after bun, Djezaar Pasha, by re- 
pairing the town and harbour, made it one of the first 
« the coast. In modem tanas A ha been 
-8 



rendered celebrated for the successful stand which It 
made, with the aid of the British, under Sir Sidney 
Smith, against the French, under Bonaparte, who was 
obliged to raise the siege after twelve assaults. The 
strength of the place arose in part from its situation. 
The port of Acre is bad, but Dr. Clarke (Travel*, 6, 
89) represents it as better than any other along the 
coast. All the' rice, the staple food of the people, en- 
ters the country by Acre ; the master ef which city, 
therefore, is able to cause a famine over aU Syria. 
This led the French to direct their efforts towards the 
possession of the place. Hence, too, as Dr. Clarke 
observes, we find Acre to have been the last position 
m the Holy Land from which the Christians were ex- 
pelled. 

Actum, » town of Cisalpine Gaul, among the Eu- 
ganei, north of Patavium, and east of the Medoacus 
Major, or Brenta, It is now Atel*. (PUn. 3, 19 - 
PtoL 83.) 

Aoikbas, a priest of Hercules at Tyre, who mar 
ried Dido, the sister of Pygmalion the reigning men 
arch, and hi* own nieee. iNgmihoa murdered trim 
in order to get possession of his riches, and endeav- 
oured to conceal the crime from Dido; but the shade 
of her -husband appeared to her, and disclosing to ber 
die spot where he bad concealed his riches during 
life, exhorted her to take these and flee from tho coun- 
try. Dido instantly obeyed, and leaving Phoenicia, 
founded Carthage on the eoast of Africa, ( Kid. Dido.) 
Virpl calls the husband of Dido Skhteus ; hut Servi 
us, m bis Commentary, informs us, that this appetta 
tion of Sichau* is softened down from Sicharbeet. 
Justin (18, 4) calls him Acerbat, which appears to be 
an intermediate form. Gesenius (Phttn. Men., p. 414) 
makes Sicharba* come from Iricharba* (" vir gladii** t 
or Masieharbae (" opus gladii," i. e., qui gladio omnia 
sua debet). If we reject the explanation of Serviua 
the name Steams may come from Zachi, "porua, 
justes." 

AocaaM, T. a town ef Cisalpine -Gael, west ef Ore 
mona and north of Plscentia ; supposed to have oe 
copied the site of Piazighetone ; called by Polybius 
(2, 31) 'XxHfxu, and regarded as one of the strong- 
holds of the Insubrea. It must not be confounded with 
another Celtic city, Acara f/Axaga, Strabo, 816), a* 
Aeerra {Pit*. 8, 14), south of the Po, not tor -from Fo- 
rum Lepidi and Mutma (Mannert, 9, 170) : Tzschocke 
incorrectly reads 'Axipai for 'Anapa, making the two 
places identical. (TWA. ad Strab. 1. c.) — Fl. A city 
of Campania, to the east of AteUa, called by the 
Greeks 'Axtyfm, andmsde a Municrpium by the Ro- 
mans at a very early period (Litiy.S, 14). It remsin- 
ed faithful when Capua yielded to' Hannibal, and Wos 
hence destroyed toy that commander. It was subse- 
quently rebuilt, and in the time of Augustus received 
a Roman colony, but at no period had many inhabi- 
tants, from the frequent and destructive inundations of 
the Clanius. (Protttiwie, de Col. I'M. — Virg. G Tt, 
885, et Sekol.) The Modern AcerYa stands nearly on 
the site (Mannert, 9, 780). 

Ackrsccomkb, a surname of Apollo, signifying " ttse- 
thern," i. e., ever young (Juv. 8, 138). Another form 
is axetptKo/aic. Both are compounded of d jrw., 
Kclpu, Jut., 3Eol. itipou, to cut, and Kbftn, the hair of 
the head. The term is applied, however, as well to 
Bacchus ss to Apollo. (Compare the Lat attentat*, 
and Rxperti,ad Jtn. I. e.) 

Aoas, a river of Asia, on the confines, accoiding to 
Herodotus (8, 117% of the Chorasmians, Hyrcanians, 
Parthians, Sarangeans, and Thtmaneans. The terri- 
tories of aU these nations were irrigated by it, through 
means of water-courses ; but when the Persians con- 
quered this part ef Asia, they blocked up the outlets 
of the stream, and made the reepenmg of then a 
source of tribute. The whole story is a very improb- 
able one. Rermell trunks that there is some allusion 



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ACH 



ACH 



ia it to the Ozbs or Ochus, both of which rivers hive 
undergone considerable changes in their courses. 
AcniuiL VidL Supplement. 
A cut*. Vid. Supplement. 
Acdul Vid. Supplement. 
Aceaina, a huge and rapid river of India, felling 
mto tin Indus. It is commonly (opposed to be the 
Maea, but Renaell makes it, more correctly, the Je- 
ans. ( Puacnef* Cnm and Nov. of the Anc.) 

A ci« ids, I. a surname of Apollo, onder which ha 
was worshipped in Ehs, where he bad a splendid tem- 
ple ia the agon. This surname is the same as 'AAeft- 
' means the averter of evil.— II. (Vid. Sup- 



Acmts. Vid. iEgestee. 
Acnreoosius. Vid. Sopplemeot. 
Acbstob. I. an ancient statuary mentioned by Psnsa- 
bos (6, 7, 2). He was a native of Cnossns, or at least 
exercised his art there for some time, and was the fa- 
ther of that Ampbion who was the papil of Ptolicbns 
of Corcyra. Ploiichas bred about Olymp. 80, 88, 
and Accstor must have been his contemporary. (SiOig, 
Diet, of Anc Artist*-)— V. Vid Supplement. 

Acmsa, 'Arwfo, a sorBame of Pallas. Her temple 
among the Dsonisns, m Apulia, contained the arms of 
DuMurde imi h» fottovrera. It was defended by dags, 
which fawned on the Greeks, but fiercely attacked all 
other persons (Anetot. it Mirab.). — II. Ceres was 
also called Arhsis. from her grvf (agof) at the kna of 
Prosarpaot (Pint, rm It. et Ot.). Other explications an 
given by the scholiast (adAriotopk. Ackam. 674). Con- 
sult son Knoter and Brunck,ad lot., sad Srdiae, $. *. 

Acorn, one of the mm branches of the great iEo- 
Bc race. ( Vid Achats and Graecis,. especially the latter 

AcsLaadbnts, the founder of the Persian monarchy, 
Kcordmg to some writers,- who identify him with the 
Gicm SeJud, or Djemtcktd, of the Oriental historians 
(sat, Persia). The genealogy of the royal line is giv- 
en by Herodotus (7, 11) from Achsmenea to Xerxes. 
The earlier descent, as given by the Grecian writers, 
according to which. Penes, son of Perseus and 
is the first of the line, and the individual 
i whom the Persians derived their national appella- 
tion, is purely fabulous. Aischylai (Pert. 768) makes 
the Persians to have been Brat governed by a Made, 
who was suc ce e ded by bis son; then came Cyrus, 
—rec eded by one of his sons ; next Mekhs, Marapbis, 
Arranbernes, and Darius ; the last riot being, howev- 
er, a lineal descendant- For a discussion on this sub- 
ject, consult Stanley, as! lac. : Lsrcher, ad Herod. 7, 
1U and Schfitx, Eicurs. 2, ad Mich. Pen. L c. 

AcasniKBTOBs, I. a branch of the Persian tribe of 
Passrjada, naasad from Achamenes, the founder of 
the Ink From tins family, the kings of Persia were 
d snees ss d (Herod 1, 186). Cambyees, on his death- 
bed, entttsted the Acbatmenides not to suffer the king- 
dom to asss into the hands of the Medes (8, 65). — U. 
A Persian of the royal line, whom Ctesks (38) makes 
the brother, hst Herodotus (7, 7) and Diodorus Sicu- 
h» (I I, 74) call the ancle of Artsxerxes I. The lat- 
ter styles inrn Aehartnenea. (Bathr, ad Cte*. L c. — 
We— tL ad Herod. I. «.) 

Acaunososi st»tJo, I. a place on the coast of the 
Thncian Cbersonesus, where Polyxena was sacrificed 
to the shade of Achilles, and where Hacnba kflled 
Patymaestor, who had murdered her son Polydorae — 
H. The name of Aehnorum Partus was given to the 
hsrboor of Covjene, in Msesenia. 

AesLaros, I. a son of Xothus. ( Vid. Grsjcia, rela- 
tive to the early movements of the Grecian tribes.) — 
IL A tragic poet, born at Eretria, B.C. 484, the very 
vest .Esebylos won his first prize. We find him con- 
"tssaaBT with Sophocles end Euripides, B.C. 447. 
With each competitors, however, he was, of course, 
not lay successful- He gained the dramatic victory 



only once. Athsneus, however (6, p. 270), sccum* 
Euripides of borrowing from this poet. The number 
of plays composed by bim is not correctly ascertained. 
Suidas (t. o.) gives three accounts, according to one 
of which he exhibited 44 plays ; according to another, 
30 ; while a third assigns to him only 24. Moat of 
the plays ascribed to him by the ancients an suspected 
by Cessation (it Sat. Poet. 1, 6) to have been satyrie. 
The titles of seven of his satyrical dramas, and of tea 
of his tragedies, an still known. The eitant fragments 
of bis pieces have been collected and edited by Urliche, 
Bonn, 1834. He should not bs confounded with a la- 
ter tragic writer of the same name, who waa a native 
of Syracuse.— III. A river, which falls into the Euxine 
on the eastern shore, above the Promonlorinm Heracle- 
nm. The Greek form of the name ia 'Amniotic, -ovVror. 
(Aman, Per. Mar. Eux. 130, Blanc.)— IV. An his- 
torian mentioned by the scholiast on Pindar (01. 7, 42). 
Voasius (Hist. Gr. 4. p. SOI) supposes him to be the 
same with the Acbnua alluded to by the scholiast on 
A rstai (s. 171); but Boeckh throws very steal doubt 
on the whole matter. (Boeckk, ad SekoL Pind. 1. c., 
vol. ii, p. 166.— V. A general of Antioshua the Great 
(Vid. Supplement.) 

Acftxu, I. a district of Tkeesaly, so named from the 
Achan (vid. Gnecia). It embraced more than Phthiotis, 
since Herodotus (7, 196) makes it comprehend the 
country along the Apidanus. Assuming this aa its 
western limit, we may consider it to have reached as 
far as the Sinus Pelasgicus and Sinus Mahacoaon the 
east. (Manneri, 7, 598.) Lurcher (Hiet. a" Herod 
8, 7, TabU Geogr.) regards Melitaut aa the limit on 
the west, which lies considerably east of the Apida- 
nus. That Phthiotis formed only part of Achats, ap- 
pears evident from the words of Scymnus (». 604): 
■EmiT* 'Amatol xapaXioi ♦tWticot (Gad, ad foe.) 
Homer (J2. 3, 258) uses the term 'Ajatfod, sc. *<jpo*% 
in opposition to Argos, 'Apyoe, and seems to indicate 
by the former, according to one scholiast, the Pelo- 
ponnesus ; according to another, the whole country oc- 
cupied by the Hellenes {r^v trdata 'EMijvuv -m, 
SchoL B. 3, 76). — II. A harbour on the northeastern 
coast of the Euxiae, mentioned by Arrian, in his Pert. 
plut of Ike Euxine (131, Blanc.), and called by him 
Old Achate (Trpi traXatav 'i-xaiar). The Greeks, ac- 
cording to Strabo (418), bad a tradition, that the inhab- 
itants of this place were of Grecian origin, and natives 
of the Boeotian Orchomenus. They wen returning, 
it seems, from the Trojan war, when, missing their 
way, they wandered to this -quarter. Appian (B. IL 
67, 102, Schw.) makes them to have been Achnsna, 
but in other respects coincides with Strabo. Mailer 
(Getck. Hdlen. Stammt, die, 1, 882) supposes the 
Greeks to have purposely altered the true name of the 
people in question, so as to make it resemble Aekm 
C&xaiot), that they might erect en this superstructure 
a mere edifice of fable.— HI. A country of the Pekv 
ponnesus, lying along the Sinus Corinthiacus, north of 
Ehs and Arcadia. A number of mountain-streams, 
descending from the ridges of Arcadia, watered this re- 
gion, but they were small m size, and many mere winter- 
torrents. The coast was far the most part level, and 
wss hence exposed to frequent inundationa. It bad 
few harbours ; not one of any size, or secure for ships. 
On this account we find, that of the cities along the 
coast of Achate, none became famous for maritime en- 
terprise. In other respects, Achaia may be ranked, as 
to extent, fruitforness, and population, among the mid- 
dling countries of Greece. Its principal productions 
were like those of the rest of the Peloponnesus, name- 
ly, oil, wine, and com. (Manmert, 8, 984 — Heeren'o 
Ideen, Ac., 3, 27.) The most ancient name of this 
region waa ^Egialea or jEgialos, AiyicMr, "oeo, 
■ehore," derived from its peculiar situation. It em 
braced originally the territory of Sicyon, since bam 
stood the eury capital of the .JSgialii or iiEgialenssa, 



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ACHAIA. 



ACE 



The origin of the .£gislii appears to connect them 
with the great Ionic race. Ion, son of Xuthus, came 
from Attica, according to the received accounts, set- 
tled in this quarter (Pout. 7, 1. — Strabo,3S3), obtain- 
ed in marriage the daughter of King Selinus, and from 
this period the inhabitants were denominated JEm- 
lean fonians. Pausanias, however, probably from other 
sources of information, makes Xuthus, not Ion, to 
have settled here. The Pelasci appear also to have 
spread over this region, and to have gradually blended 
with the primitive inhabitants into one community, 
under the name of Pelasgic jEgialeans {Herod. 7, 94). 
Twelve cities now arose, the capital being Helice, 
founded by Ion. At the period of the Trojan war, 
these cities were subject to the Acheans, and ac- 
knowledged the sway of Agamemnon as the head of 
that race. Matters continued in this state until tho 
Dorian invasion of the Peloponnesus. The Acheans, 
driven by the Dorians from Argos and Lacedtemon, 
took refuge in jEgialea, under the guidance of Tisa- 
menos, son of Orestes. The Ionians gave their new 
visiters an unwelcome reception ; a battle ensued, the 
Ionians were defeated, and shut up in Helice ; and at 
last were allowed by treaty to leave this city unmolest- 
ed, on condition of removing entirely from their former 
settlements. They migrated, therefore, into Attica 
(Pout. 7, 1), but soon after left this latter country for 
Asia Minor (vid. lones and Ionia). The Acheans now 
took possession of the vacated territory, and changed 
its name to Achaia. Tiaamenoe having fallen in the 
war with the Ionians, his sons and the other leaders 
divided the land among themselves by lot, and hence 
the old division of twelve cantons or districts, as well 
as the regal form of government, continued until the 
time of Ogygus or Gygns. (Slrabo, 384. — Paui. 7, 
6. — Polyb. 8, 41.) After this monarch's decease, 
each city assumed a republican government. The 
Dorians, from the very first, had made several attempts 
to drive the Acheans from their newly-acquired pos- 
sessions, and had so far succeeded as to wrest from 
them Sicyon, with its territory, which was ever after 
regarded as a Dorian state. All farther attempts at 
conquest were unsuccessful, from the defence made 
by the Acheans, and the aid afforded to them by their 
Pelasgic neighbours in Arcadia. The result of this 
was an aversion on the part of the Acheans to every- 
thing Dorian. Hence they took no part with the rest 
of the Greeks against Xerxes ; hence, too,' we find 
them, even before the Peloponnesian war, in alliance 
with the Athenians ; though, in the course of that war, 
they were forced to remain neutral, or else at times, 
from a consciousness of their weakness, to admit the 
Dorian fleets into their harbours. (Tkucyd. 1, 111 
and IIS. — Id. 3, t.—M. 8, 8 — M. 8, 84.) The 
Acheans preserved their neutrality also in the wars 
raised by the ambition of Macedon -, but the result 
proved most unfortunate. The successors of Alex- 
ander seemed to consider the cities of Achaia as 
fair booty, and what they spared became the prey of 
domestic tyrants. Even after the Peloponnesus had 
eeaaed to be the theatre of war, and a Macedonian 
garrison was merely kept at the Isthmus, the public 
troubles seemed only on the increase. The whole 
country, too, began to be infested by predatory bands, 
whose numbers were daily augmented by the starring 
cultivators of the soQ. At length, four of the princi- 
pal cities of Achaia, viz., Patre, Dyme, Tritea, and 
Phare, formed a mutual league for their common safe- 
ty. (Polyb. 3, 41.) The plan succeeded, and soon 
ten cities were numbered in the alliance. About 
twenty-five years after, Sicyon waa induced to join 
the league by the exertions of Aratus, and be himself 
waa chosen commander-in-chief of the confederacy. 
All the more important cities of the Peloponnesus 
gradually joined the coalition. Sparta alone kept aloof, 
and, in endeavouring to enforce her compliance, Ara- 
10 



tna was defeated by the Lacedwmonian monarch Cie 
omenes. The Achean commander, in an evil hour 
called in the aid of Macedon ; for though he succeeds 
,by these means in driving Qeomencs from Sparta, ye 
the Macedonians from this time remained at the hear 
of the league, and masters of the Peloponnesus 
Aratus himself fell a victim to the jealous policy o 
Philip. The troubles that ensued gave the Homani 
an opportunity of interfering in the affairs of Greece 
and at last Corinth waa destroyed, and the Achaai 
league annihilated by these new invaders. ( Vtd. jEio 
lis and Corinth.) Mummius, the Roman general 
caused the walls of all the confederate cities to be de 
molished, and the inhabitants to be deprived of ever 
warlike weapon. The land waa also converted into i 
Roman province, under the name of Achaia, embra 
cing, besides Achaia proper, all the rest of the Pelo 
ponnesus, together with all the country north of th> 
isthmus, excepting Theasaly, Epirns, and Macedonia 
( Vid. Epirus and Macedonia.) The dismantled citie 
soon became deserted, with the exception of a few 
and in what bad been Achaia proper only three remain 
ed in later times, jEcium, iEgua, and Patre. In ou 
own days, the last alone survives, under the name < 
Patrtu. The entire coast from Corinth to Patra 
shows only one place that deserves the name of a city 
or, rather, a large Tillage ; this is Vottitza, near th 
ruins of the ancient jEgium. (Mannert, 8, 398.) 

AchXIous, a philosopher, whose time is unknowr 
He wrote a work on Ethics. (Diog. hurt. 6, 99.) 

Acharnjb, 'Axapvai (or, as Stepnanus byzantinu 
writes the name, 'Axapva), one of the most importer 
boroughs of Attica, lying northwest of Athens an 
north of Eleusis. It furnished 3000 heavy-armed me 
as its quota of troops, which, on the supposition ttu 
slavea are not included, will make the entire populi 
tion about 15,000. ( Thucyd. 3, SO. — Mannert, 8, 330 
This large number, however, did not all dwell in vi 
lages, bnt were scattered over the borough, whk 
contained some of the finest snd meat productive lac 
in Attica. From a sarcasm of Aristophanes (Achar, 
318. — Id. ibid. 383, teqq.) we learn, that many of tl 
Acharoenses ('Ajapveij-) followed the business of che 
coal-burning. This borough belonged to the tril 
CEneis (Oiw?if), and was distant 60 stadia from A then 
(Tkucyd. 3, 81.) 

Achates, a friend of ./Eneas, whose fidelity was i 
exemplary, that Ftdut Achaia became a prover 
(Virg. JBn. 1, 313.) 

AcheloIdes, a patronymic given to the Sirens i 
daughters of Achelous. ((hid, Met. 6, fab. 15.- 
Gierig, ad lot.) 

Achelous, I. a river of Epirus, now the A*p 
Potamo, or " White River," which rises in Mount Pi 
dug, and, after dividing Acamania from JEtolia (Str< 
450), falls into the Sinus Corinthiacua. It was a lar) 
and rapid stream, probably the largest in all Greet 
and formed at its mouth, by depositions of mud au 
sand, a number of small islands called Echinadi 
The god of this river wss the son of Occenus au 
Tethys, or of the Sun and Terra. Fable speaks of 
contest between Hercules and the river god for t 
hand of Deianira. The deity of the Achelous asi 
med the form of a bull, but Hercules was victoria 
and tore off one of bis horns. Hia opponent, up 
this, having received a horn from Amalthea, the daug 
ter of Oceanus, gave it to the victor, and obtained 1 
awn in return. Another account ((hid, Met. 9, 6 
makes him to have first assumed the form of a serpe: 
and afterward that of a bull, and to have retired 
disgrace into the bed of the river Thoas, which them 
forward was denominated Achelous. A third versi 
of the fable states, that the Naiads took the horn 
the conquered deity, and, after filling it with the va 
ons productions of the seasons, gave it to the godd< 
of plenty, whence the origin of the corn* capiat. Th 



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ACH 



who pretend to see in History an explanation of this le- 
gend, make the river Acheloua to have laid waste, by 
its freqocm inandatxms, the plains of Calydon. This, 
mtioducing confusion among the landmarks, became 
the occasion of continual wars between the iEtolians 
and Acarnanisrss, whose territories the river divided 
as store stated, until Hercules, by means of dikes, re- 
1 its ravages, and made the coarse of the stream 
Hence, according to this explanation, the 
denoted the windings of the stream, and the 
i its swellings and impetuosity, while the tearing off 
of the bora refers to the turning away of a part of the 
waters of the river, by means of a canal, the result ef 
which draining was shown in the fertility that succeed- 
ed. (Died. Sic 4, 36.) The Acbeloiis must have 
been considered a river of great antiquity as well as 
celebrity, since it is often introduced as a general rep- 
resentative of riven, and is likewise frequently used 
far the element of water. (Euttaih, ad H. 21, 194 — 
Emhf. Baeek. 638. — Id. Andnm. 187.— Aruttpk. 
Lynttr. 381 .— Htynt, ad B. 81, 194.) The reason 
of tms peculiar use of the term will be found in the 
remarks of the scholiast. The Acbeloiis was the lar- 
gest river in Epirus anA JEtolis, in which quarter were 
the early settlements of the Pelasgic race, from whom 
the Greeks derived so much of their religion and mv- 
tbology- Hence the frequent directions of the Oracle 
at Dodona, "to sacrifice to the Acheloas," and hence 
the name of the stream became associated with some 
of then- oiliest religious rites, and was eventually used 
in the language of poetry as an appellation, *oT' i&rav, 
for the element of water and for riven, as stated above 
(ijtZuov ot miyaim Map). — II. There was an- 
other river of the same name, of which nothing farther 
is known, than that, according to Pausanias (8, 38), it 
■owed from Mount Sipylus. Homer, in relating the 
story of Niobe (JZ. 34, 6 IS), speaks of the desert 
mountains in Sipylus, where are the beds of the god- 
dess-nymphs, who dance around the Achelous.— III. 
A riTer of Tbesealy, flowing near Lamia. (Streb. 434.) 

Aches ocs, a borough of the tribe Hippotboontis, in 
Attica. (Stepk. B. — Arittopk. EccUt. 340.) 

Achbsok, I. a river of Epirus, rising in the mount- 
sins to the west of the chain of Pindus, and falling 
into the Ionian sea near Ghfky* Lime* (TXvicvt Auutp). 
In the earJy part of its course, it forms this Pnl>u 
Ackcnm. f Axetweeia At/ivy), and, after emerging 
nun this sheet of water, disappears under ground, 
bam which it again rises snd pursues its course to the 
sat. Straho (334) makes mention of this stream only 
aher its leaving the Pains Acherusia, and appears to 
have been unacquainted with the previous pert of its 
coarse. Thoeydides, on the other hand (1, 46), would 
seen to have misunderstood the information which he 
had received r espe cting it. His account is certainly a 
confused one, and has given rise to an inaccuracy in 
D'AnviBe's map. The error of D'Anville and others 
consists in placing the Palus Acherusia directly on the 
coast, snd the city of Ephyre at its northeastern ex- 
tremity ; in dte position of the latter contradicting the 
very words of the writer on whom they rely. No 
other ancient authority places the Palus Acherusia on 
the coast. Pansanias (1, 17) makes the marsh, toe 
river, and the city, to have been situated in the interior 
of Tnesprotis ; and he mentions also the stream Oo- 
cytes (which be styles Mop drepir f orarov), as being in 
the same quarter. He likewise states it as his opin- 
ion, that Homer, having visited these rivers in the 
coarse of his wanderings, assigned them, on account 
of their peculiar nature and properties, a place among 
he rivers of the lower world. The poets make Ache- 
ron to have been the son of Sol and Tern, and to 
have been precipitated into the infernal regions snd 
there changed into a river, for having supplied the 
Titans with water daring the war which they waged 
srith Jupiter. Hence its waters were muddy and bit- 



ter; and it was the stream over which the souls of the 
dead were first conveyed. The Acheron is represent- 
ed under the form of an old man arrayed in a humid 
vestment. He reclines upon sn urn of a dark col- 
our. In Virgil and later poets Acheron sometimes 
designates the lower world. — II. A river of Brot- 
tium. Sowing into the Mare Tyrrhennm a short distance 
below Pendosia. Alexander, king of Epirus, who had 
come to the aid of the Tarentinos, lost his life in pass- 
ing this river, being slain by a Lucanian exile. He had 
been warned by an oracle to beware of the Acherusian 
waters and the city-Pandosia, bnt supposed that it re- 
ferred to Epirus and not to Italy. (Juttin, 12, 3. — 
Lh. 8, 84.) — TJI. A river of Elis, which falls into the 
Alpbeus. On its banks were temples dedicated to 
Ceres, Proserpina, and Hades, which were held in high 
veneration. (Strai. 844.)— TV. A river of Bithyma, 
near the cavern Acherusia, and in the vicinity of He- 
racles. (Apolltm. Mud. 3, 746.) 

AchesoktU, I. a town of Brattium, placed by Pliny 
on the river Acheron (Plat. 3, 6.)—II. A city of 
Lncania, now Acerenza, on the confines of Apulia. 
It was situated high up on the side of s mountain, and 
from its lofty position is called by Horace mdut Ackt- 
nmtue, " the nest of Acberontia." Procopius speaks 
of it as a strong fortress in his days. (Hortt. Od. 3, 
4, 14, tt tckol. ad loc.—Procop. 3, 33.) 

AcauusU, I. a lake in Epirus, into which the 
Acheron flows. (Fid. Acheron.) — II. According to 
some modern expounders of fable, a lake in Egypt, 
near Memphis, over which the bodies of the dead were 
conveyed, previous to their being judged for the ac- 
tions of their past lives. The authority cited in sup- 
port of this is Diodoros Sicutas (1, 93). A proper 
examination of the passage, however, will lead to the 
following conclusions : 1st, that no name whatever is 
given by Diodoros for any particular lake of this kind ; 
and, 3d, that eaek district of Egypt had its lake for the 
purpose mentioned above, and that there was not mere- 
hroM for the whole of Egypt (Died. Sic. 1, 93, tt 
Winding, od loc.) — III. A cavern in Bithyma, neat 
the city of Heracles and the river Oxinas, probably on 
the very spot which Arrian (Peripl. Mar. Eux., p, 
136, ti. BUmutri) calls Tyndsridss. Xenopbon (A%- 
ab. 8, 3) names the whole peninsula, in which it lies, 
the Acberusisa Promontory. This cavern was two 
stadia in depth, and was regarded by the adjacent in- 
habitants as one of the entrances into the lower world. 
Through it Hercules is said to have dragged Cerberus 
up to the light of day ; a fable which probably owed 
its origin to the inhabitanta of Heracles. (Died. Sic. 
14, 31.— Uiosys. Ptritg. 790, «f Etutatk. ad foe.) 
Apollenius Rhodius (3, 730) places a river, with the 
name of Acheron, in this quarter. This stream was 
afterward called, by the people of Heracles, Soonsutes 
(SowavrsfX on account of their fleet having been 
saved near it from a storm. (Apollon. Shod. 3, 748, 
tt sehol. ad foe.) Are the Acheron and the Oxinas 
the same river! 

Achillis, 1. a bishop of Alexandres, from A D. 811 
to 331. His martyrdom is commemorated on the 7th 
of November. — II. An Alexandrean priest, banished 
with Arias, 319 A.D. He fled to Palestine. — IIL 
(Fid. Supplement.) 

Achillea, an island near the mouth of the Borys 
thenes, of, more properly, the western part of the Dra- 
mus AchUU insulated by a email arm of the sea. (Kid. 
Dromus Achillis and Leoce.) 

AcaiLLsas, a poem of Statins, turning on the story 
of Achilles. (Fid. Statins.) 

Achilles, I. a son of the Earth (jvyevsf), unto 
whom Juno fled for refuge from the pursuits of Jupi- 
ter, and who persuaded her to return and marry that 
deity. Jupiter, grateful for this service, promised him 
that all who bore this name for the time to com 
should be illustrious personages. {Plot. Hepluut 

11 



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ACHILLES 



apud Photatm, Biilioth., vol. 1, p. 153, ed. Bekker.) 
— II. The preceptor of Chiron (/a\). — III. The invent- 
or of the ostracism (Id.). — IV. A son of Jupiter and 
His beauty was so perfect, that, in the judg- 



ment of Pan, he bore away the prize from every com- 
petitor. Venus waa so offended at «Yua decision, that 
ahe inspired Pan with a fruitless passion for the nymph 
Echo, and also wrought a hideous change in his own 
person (Id ). — V. A son of Galatus, remarkable for 
Lis light coloured, or, rather, whitish hair (Id.).— VI. 
The son of Peleus, king of Pfathietis in Theaaary. 
His mother's name appears to have been a matter of 
some dispute among the ancient expounders of my- 
thology (Sehal. ad ApeUL Rkod. 1, 668), although the 
more numerous authorities are in favour of Thetis, 
qne of the sea-deities. According to Lyeophron (». 
178), Thetis became the mother of seven male chil- 
dren by Peleus, six of whom she threw into the fire, 
because, as Tzetzee informs as in hit scholia, they 
were not of the same nature with herself, and the 
treatment she had received was unworthy of her rank 
a* a goddess. The scholiast on Homer, however (A. 
16, 37), state*, that Thetis threw her children into the 
fire in order to ascertain whether they were mortal or 
not, the goddess supposing that the fire would consume 
what was mortal m their natures, white she would 
preserve what was immortal. The scholiast adds, 
that six of her children perished by this harsh experi- 
ment, and that she had, in like manner, thrown the 
seventh, afterward named Achillea, into the flames, 
when Peleus, having beheld the deed, rescued his off- 
spring from this perilous situation. Tsetzee (ubi su- 
pra) assigns a different motive to Thetis in the case 
of Achilles. He makes her to have been desirous of 
conferring immortality upon hhn, and states that with 
this view she anointed him (l^ptev) with ambrosia 
during the day, and threw him into fire at evening. 
Peleus, having discovered the goddess in the act of 
consigning his child to the flames, cried out with 
alarm, whereupon Thetis, abandoning the object ahe 
bad in view, left the court of Peleus and rejoined the 
nymphs of the ocean. Dictys Cretensis makes Peleus 
to have rescued Achillea from the fire before any part 
of his body had been injured bat the heal. Tsetses, 
following the authority of Apollodorus, gives his first 
name as Ligyrtm (Acyipav), but the account of A ga- 
me stor, cited by the same scholiast, is more m ac- 
cordance with the current tradition mentioned above. 
Agameator says, that the first name given to Achates 
was PyruouM (Ilvploooe), i. e., " saved from the fire." 
What has thus far been stated in relation to Achilles, 
with the single exception of the names of his parents, 
Peleus and Thetis, is directly at variance with the au- 
thority of Homer, and most therefore be regarded as 
a mere posthomeric fable. The poet makes Achillea 
•ay, that Thetis had no other child bat himself; and 
though a daughter of Peleus, named Porydora, is men- 
tioned in a part of the Iliad (16, 176), ahe mast have 
been, according to the best commentators, imhr a half 
sister of the hero. (Compare Heyne,ad let.) Equally 
at variance with the account given by the bard, ts the 
more popular fiction, that Thetis plunged her son into 
the waters of the Styx, and by that immersion render- 
ed the whole of his body invulnerable, except the heel 
by which she held hhn. On this subject Homer is al- 
together silent ; and, indeed, such a protection from 
danger woujd have derogated too much from the char- 
acter of his favourite hero. There are several passa- 
ges in the Iliad which plainly show, that the poet does 
not ascribe to Achilles the possession of any peculiar 
physical defence against the chances of battle. (Com- 
pare H. 90, 989: id. 988 : and especially, 21, 106, 
where Achilles is actually wounded by Asteropaus.) 
The rare of his education waa intrusted, according to 
.he common authorities, to the centaur Chiron, and to 
Phoenix, son of Amyntor. Homer, however, mentions 
19 



Phoenix as his first instructer (II. 9, 481, scqq.), whil 
from another passage (B. 11, 831) it would apnea: 
that the young chieftain merely learned from the cer 
taur the principles of the healing art. Those, how 
ever, who pay more regard in this case to the stat< 
merits of other writers, make Chiron to have ha 
charge of Achillea first, and to have fed him on th 
marrow of wild animals ; according to Libanius, o 
that of lions, but according to the compiler of tli 
EtymoL Mag., on that of stags. (Compare Bayl 
Diet. Hut. 1, 58.) Chiron is said to hare given nil 
the name of Achtllet ('AftAAeuf), from the circun 
stance of his food being unlike that of the rest of me 
(4 Ptae., and £tfep, "fruetut qvibut veseuntur horn. 
ne»"). Other etymologies are also given ; but moi 
likely none are true. (Compare, on this part of ot 
subject, the F.tumal. Mag. — Ptol. Hephatt. ajm 
Photium, BMiolk., vol. i., p. 152, ed Bekker. — Hcyn, 
ad H. 1, 1. — Watsenberg, ad tchol. in B. 1, p. 130 
C alohas having predicted, when Achillea had attaine 
the age of nine years, that Troy could not be take 
without him, Thetis, well aware that her son, if h 
joined that expedition, was destined to perish, sci 
htm, disguised in female attire, to the court of Lycon 
edes, king of the island of Scyros, for the purpos 
of being concealed there. A difficulty, however, arise 
in this part of the narrative, on account of the earl 
age of Achilles when he was sent to Scyros, whic 
can only be obviated by -supposing, that he remaine 
several years concealed in the island, and that th 
Trojan War occupied many years in preparation. (Con 
pare the remarks of Hcyne, ad ApoUod., I. c, p. 31< 
and Gruber, Worterbuchder alteUuruchcn Mytholog; 
und Religion, vol. i., p. 82.) At the court of Lycon 
edes, he received the name of Pyrrha (Tlvpfxi, " J?ii 
fa"), from his golden locks, and became the father < 
Neoptolemue by Deidamia, one of the monarch' 
daughters. (ApoUod. I. e.) In this state of concea 
ment Achilles remained, until discovered by Uly*sei 
who came to the island in the disguise of a travellin 
merchant The chieftain of Ithaca offered, it stem: 
various articles of female attire for sale, and mingle 
with them some pieces of armour. On a audden blai 
being given with a-trumpet, Achilles discovered hin 
self by seizing upon the arms. (ApoUod. I. e. — Sic 
tun, AekSl. 2, 901.) The young warrior then joine 
the army against Troy. This' account, however, < 
the concealment of Achilles is contradicted by the ei 
press authority of Homer, who represents him as prt 
ceeding directly to the Trojan war from the court < 
his father. (II. 9, 439.) As regards the forces whic 
he brought with him, the poet makes them to hav 
come from the Pelasgian Argos, from Alus, Alope, an 
Trachia, and speaks of them as those who possessr 
Phthia and Heflas, and who were called Myrmidone 
Hellenes, and Achari. (II. 2, 681, teqq.) Henci 
according to Heyne, the sway of Achilles extends 
from Trachia, at the foot of Mount CEta, as far as th 
river Enipeus, where Pharsahis was situated, an 
thence to the Penens. — The Greeks, having mad 
good their landing on the shores of Troas, proved < 
superior to the enemy as to compel them to seek she 
ter within their walls. (Thucyd 1,11.) No soom 
was this done than the Greeks were forced to tin 
their principal attention to the means of supportin 
their numerous forces. A part of the army was then 
few sent to cultivate the rich vales of the Thracia 
Chersonese, then abandoned by their inhabitants o 
account of the incursions of the barbarians from tt 
interior. (Thucyd. ubi supra.) But the Grecian ai 
my, being weakened by this separation of its forci 
eould no longer deter the Trojans from again takiu 
the field, nor prevent succours and supplies from bein 
sent into the city. Thus the siege was protracted t 
the length of ten years. During a great part of thi 
time, Achilles waa employed in lessening the resourci 



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of Pnam by the redaction of the tributary cities of 
Am Miner. With a fleet of eievsn vessels he rav- 
aged the coasts of Mvsia, m»d" frequent dise inheres 
uous of hi» forces, and succeeded eventually in de- 
■ttoriag eleven cities, among which, according to 
Sira3o (384), were Hypoplacian Taebe, Lymessus, 
and fYdasus, and in laying waste the island of Lesbos. 
(Ooanwe Homer, II. 9, 338.) Among the spoils of 
If iu mm, Achilles obtained the beautiful Briseis, 
s&a>, at the taking of Thebe, Chryseis the daughter 
sf Cnryses, a priest of Apollo at Chrysa, became the 
pnxe of AganwaiBcm. A pestilence shortly after ap- 
peared in the Grecian camp, and Celebes, encouraged 
tj the proffered protection of Achilles, Tact tied to 
•On irate it to Agamemnon's detention of the daughter 
sf Cfarysee, whm her father had endeaToured to ran- 
•en, bat in vain. The monarch, although deeply of- 
fended, was compelled at last to surrender his captive, 
but, as an act of retaliation, and to testify his resent- 
ment, he deprived Achilles of Briseis. Hence nose 
"the anger of the eon of Peleus," on which is based 
the action of the Iliad. Achilles on his part withdrew 
feu forces from the contest, and neither prayers, nor 
entreaties, nor direct offers of reconciliation, couched 
m the most tempting and flattering terms (II. 9y 119, 
sea*/.'), could mdnce him to return to the field. Among 
other things the monarch promised bra, if be would 
forget the inju ri ous treatment which be had received, 
the and of one of hie daughters, and the soverei g nt y 
of seven dries of the Peloponnesus. (& 9, 142 and 
149.) The death of his friend Pairoclos, however, 
by the hand of Hector (B. 16, 831, eeqq.), roused him 
xl length to action and revenge, and a reconciliation 
Baring thereupon taken place- between the two Grecian 
loaders, Briseis was restored. (B. 19, 78, eeqq.—U. 
Wt, eeqq.) As tha arms of Achilles, having been 
worn by Patroeraa, had become the prise of Hector, 
Vrdcsn, at the request of Thetis, fabricated a suit of 
impenetrable armour for her son. (if. 18, 468, a**;.) 
Arrayed in this, Achillas took the field, and after a 
great slaughter of the Trojans, and a contest with the 
god of the Seaman dec, by whose waters ha was nearly 
overwhelmed, met Hector, chased, him thrice around 
the wafia of Troy, and finally slew him by the aid of 
Minerva. (IL 22, 136, sew.) According to Homer 
[M. 24, 14, see?-). Achilles dragged the corpse of Hec- 
tor, at ha) chariot- wheels, thrice round the tomb of 
rVxsersa, and from the language of the post, he 
would appear to have done mis for several days in 
ssi i saws Virgil, however, makes Achilles to hare 
i the body of Hector thrice round the walls of 
m this it is probable that the Roman post fbl- 
meof theCvcSc.orelseTragicjwnritcra. (Hapu, 
JSxem. 18, mi JBn. 1 .) The corpse of the Trojan 
hen* was st last yielded up to the tears and supplica- 
tions of Pnam, who had come for that purpose to the 
tent of Arsmes, and a trace was granted the Trojans 
for the perl assnec of the funeral obsequies. (IL 24, 
S09. — U. 6» ) Achilles did not long survive Ins A- 
lustnoes opponent. Some accounts make him to hare 
dW the dsy after Hector was slain. The common, 
suthonlirii however, interpose the combats with Pen- 
thesiles sod Memnon previous to bis death. (Com- 
pare Hryme, Exam. 19, ad JBn. 1— Quint. Smym. 
1, SI, stqq .) According to the more received account, 
aa it a given by the scholiast on Lycophroo (». 269), 
sad also by Dictys Cretensis and Dares Phrygms, 
Ichfles, having become enamoured of Prdyxena, the 
sssjrto i of Priam, signified to the monarch that he 
would become bis ally on condition of receiving her 
bead in marriage. Pnam consented, and the parties 
having come for that purpose to the temple of the 
Thyrabrann Apollo, Achilles was treacherously shun 
by Pais, who had concealed himself there, being 
" by him with an arrow in the heel. Another 
, related by Arctinus, makes him to have been 



Tror. 



shun (m accordance with Hector's prophecy, B. 21, 
462), iu the Sccan gate, while rushing into the city. 
Hvginns states that Achilles went rovnd the wills of 
Troy, boasting of his exploit m having slain Hector, 
until Apollo, in anger, assumed the form of Paris, and 
slew him with an arrow (Jtwgtn. fab. 107), but, with 
surprising inconsistency, he mentions in another place 
(fab. 119), that he was slain by Driphebns sod Alex- 
ander or Paris. The scholiast on Lycophron, cited 
above, says that tha Trojans would not give op the 
corpse of Achilles until the Greeks had restored the 
vsnous pre s en ts with which Priam had redeemed the 
dead body of Hector. The ashes of the hero were 
■rungkd m a golden urn with those of Patroclus, and 
the promontory of Sigsram is said to mark the place 
where both repose. A tomb was here erected to has 
memory, and- near it Thetis caused funeral games to 
be celebrated in honour of her son, which were after- 
ward annually observed by a decree of the oracle of 
Dodoaa (vuL Sigsram). It is said, that, after the ta- 
king of Troy, the ghost of Achilles appeared to tha 
Greeks, and demanded of them Polyzcna, who was 
accordingly sacrificed on bis tomb by his son Neopte- 
lemoa, or Pyrrhus. (Euhp. Hrc. 35, eeqq. — Senee. 
Tread. 191 — Chid, Met. IS, 441, eeqq.—Q. Cola*. 
14.) Another account makes the Trojan princess to 
have silled herself through grief st his loss. (Tzetzet, 
ad Lycopkr. 2ga.—PkUoetratuM, Heroic*., p. 714,ed. 
MereUus.) The Thessslisns, in sccordsnce with die 
oracle just mentioned, erected a temple to his memory 
st Sigsram, and rendered him divine honours. Every 
year they brought thither two buHs, one white sud the 
other black, crowned with garlands, and along with 
them some of the water of the Sperchtus. (Grvber. 
Wortsrbuek dtr alleUutiechen Mythtdogie, vol. i., p. 48.) 
Another and still stranger tradition informs as, that 
Achillas survived the fail of Troy snd married Helen ; 
bat others maintain that this union took place after his 
death, in the island of Leuce, where many of the an- 
cient heroes lived in a separate ehrsium (rid. I«uce). 
When Achilles was young, his mother asked him 
whether he preferred a long life spent in obscurity, or 
a brief existence of military glory. He decided in 
favour of the latter. (Compare B. 9, 410, eeqq.) 
Some ages sfter the Trojan war, Alexander, in the 
course of his march into the East, offered sacrifices oa 
the tomb of Achilles, and expressed his admiration as 
weal of the hero, ss of the bard whom, he had found to 
immortalize his name. (Plutarch, Vit. Alezand. 16.) 
— VIL Tatiue, a native of Alexandres, commonly as- 
signed to the second or third century of the Christian 
era.' The best critics, however, each as Huet, Char- 
don la Rochette, Coray, and Jacobs, make him to have 
nourished after tha time of Heliodorus, since they have 
discovered in him what they consider manifest imita- 
tions of the latter writer. Nay, if it bo true that Mu- 
ssras, whom he has also imitated, composed his poem 
of Hero and Leander before 430 or 460 of our era, 
we must then place Achilles Tatiue even as low as the 
middle of the 5th century. (Schoell, Hist. tilt. Gr. 
6, 231 .) According to Suidaa, he became, towards the 
and of his life, s Christian and bishop. But ss the 
lexicographer makes no merXion of his episcopal see, 
snd as Pbotius, who speaks in three different places of 
him, is silent on this head, it may be permitted us to 
doubt the accuracy of Suidas's statement. (Photh 
BMiathee., vol. L, p. 38, ed. Better — Id. ibid., p. 60 — 
Id. ibid., p. 66.) Equally unworthy of reliance would 
appear to be another remark of the same lexicographer, 
that Achillas Tstius wrote s treatise on the sphere. 
If this were correct, we ought to put him one or two 
centuries earlier, inasmuch ss Firmicus, a Latin writer 
of the middle of the fourth century, cites the " Sphere 
of Achilles. " (Attrm. 4, 10.) Suidaa, however, 
who is not accustomed to discriminate very nicely be 
tween persona bearing the same name, here confounds 

18 



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ACHILLES. 



ACI 



him with the author of the " Introduction to the Phe- 
nomena of Aratua" (vid. No. VIII.). Achillea Tatiaa 
M the author of a romance, entitled, To card Aev- 
KimrT/v Kal KXiTof&vra, " The lores of Leucippe and 
Clitophon," aa it is commonly translated. Some crit- 
ics, such as Huet and Saumaise, have preferred it to 
the work of Hefiodorua ; but Villoison, Cony, Wyt- 
tenbach, Paasow, Villemain, and ScbocU, restore the 
pre-eminence to the latter. (Schoeli, Hut. Liu. Gr., 
vol. vi., p. 233. — Foreign Quarterly Review, No. 9, p. 
131.) "The book," eaya Villemain, " is written under 
an inSunnce altogether pagan, and in constant allusion 
to the voluptuous fables of mythology." The remark 
is perfectly correct. Pictures of the utmost licen- 
tiousness, and traces of everything that ia infamous in 
ancient manners, are seen throughout. Unchaste in 
imagination, and coarse in sentiment, the author has 
made his hero despise at once the laws of morality 
and those of love. Clitophon ia a human body, unin- 
formed by a human soul, but delivered up to all the 
instincts of nature and the senses. He neither com- 
mands respect by his courage nor affection by hia 
constancy. Struggling, however, in the writer's mind, 
some finer ideas may be seen wandering through the 
gloom, and some pure and lofty aspirations contrasting 
strangely with the chaos of animal instincts and de- 
sires. His Leucippe glides like a spirit among actors 
of mere flesh and blood. Patient, high-minded, re- 
signed, and firm, she endures adversity with grace ; 
preserving, throughout the helplessness and temptations 
of captivity, irreproachable purity, and constancy un- 
changeable. The critics, while visiting with proper 
severity the sins both of the author and the man, do 
not refuse to render full justice to the merits of the 
work. It possesses interest, variety, probability, and 
simplicity. " The Romance of Achillea Tathia," aays 
Villemain,. "purified as it should be, will appear one 
of the most agreeable in the collection of toe Greek 
Romances. The adventures it relates present a preg- 
nant variety ; the succession of incidents is rapid ; its 
wonders are natural ; and its style, although some- 
what affected, is not wanting in spirit and effect." 
Photiua also, as rigorous in morals as a bishop should 
be, praises warmly the elegance of the style, observ- 
ing that the author's periods axe precise, clear, and eu- 
phonous. {Foreign Quarterly Review, No. 9, p. 131.) 
Saumaise was of opinion, that Achilles Tatius had 
riven to the world two several editions of his romance, 
and that some of the manuscripts which remain be- 
long to the first publication of the work, while others 
supply os with the production in its revised state. Ja- 
cobs, however, in the prolegomena to hia edition, has 
shown that the variations in the manuscripts, which 
gave rise to this opinion, are to be ascribed solely to 
the negligence of copyists, as they occur only in those 
words which have some resemblance to others, and in 
which it was easy to err. Few works, moreover, were 
as often copied as this of Achilles Tatius. The best 
"dition is that of Jacob*, 2 vols. 8vo, Lips., 1821, in 
which may be seen a very just, though unfavourable, 
critique on the editions of Saumaite and Boden, Use 
former of which appeared in 1640, 12mo, Lugd. Bat., 
and the latter in 1776, 8vo, Lift. A French version 
of the work ia given in the " Collection dee Roman* 
Greet, traduil* en Francois ; avec dee notes, par MM. 
Courier, Larcker, et autre* HelUniite*," 14 rob. 
l6mo, Paris, 1822-1828.— VIII. Tatius, an aatro- 
tomical writer, supposed to have lived in the first half 
>f the fourth century, since he is quoted by Firmicus 
[Attron. 4, 10), who wrote about the middle of the 
lame century. Suidas confounds him with the indi- 
vidual mentioned in No. VII. We possess, under the 
■itle of, Eiffoyuy? elf to -ApoVou taivifuva, " Intro- 
tuclion to this Phenomena of Aratua," a fragment of 
lis work on the sphere. This fragment is given in the 
Vranologia of Petaviut (Petan), Paris, 1630, fol. 
14 



AcHiLLStm, a town on the Cimmerian Bosporus, 
where anciently waa a temple of Achilles. It lav neat 
the modem Bmckuk. (MamurtA, 326.) 

Achillxus, I. a relation of Zenobia, invested with 
the purple by the people of Palmyra, when they revolt- 
ed from Aurelian. (Yapiic.) Zosimus calls him An- 
tiocbua (I, 60). — II. A Roman commander, in the 
reign of Dioclesian, who assumed the purple in Egypt. 
The emperor marched against him, shut him up ia 
Alexandres, and took the place after a siege of eight 
months. Achilleus wss put to death, having been ex* 
posed to lions, and Alexandre* was given up to pit- 
lege. (Ores. 7, 26.— AureL Viet, de Cat. c. 39.) 

AcKiri, properly speaking, the name of the Achaean 
race ('JLfOtoQ Latinized. Its derivation through the 
^Eolic dialect ia marked by the digammated pound of 
the letter « ('A^atFoi). Thie appellation waa gener- 
ally applied by the Roman poets, especially Virgil, as 
a. name for the whole Greek nation, in imitation of the 
Homeric usage. In legal ttrictntt* it should have 
been confined by the Romans to tbs inhabitants of the 
province of Achaia. 

Acblts. Vid. Supplement. 

Aohkst. Vid. Supplement. 

Acholics. Vid. Supplement. 

Acioaoafos, a general with Brennus in the expe- 
dition which the Gsuls undertook against Ps>onis. 
(Pans. 10, 10.) He waa chosen by Brennus as his 
lieutenant, or, rather, aa a kind of colleague, which of- 
fice the name itself, in the original language of the 
Gauls, is said to designate. Thus the true Gallic ap- 
pellation waa KUchovSaour, or AUkiowtaour, which 
the Greeks softened into Kixupmc(Diod. Sic. frag. lit. 
22 — vol. ix., p. 301, ed. Bip.) and Ajnjupior (Pout. 
10, 19), and which they mistook for a proper name. 
(Compare Thierry, Huloire diet Gauloit, voL i, p. 146, 
and Owen's Welth Dictionary, t. v. Cyatiawr.) Dio- 
dorus Siculus(i. c.) makes Cichorius to hare succeed- 
ed Brennus. 

AcidalU, a surname of Venue, from a fountain of 
the same name at Orchomenus, in Bacotia, sacred to 
her. The Graces bathed m this fountain. 
AciDittna. Vid. Supplement. 
AoiiU, I. gent, a plebeian family of Rome, of whom 
many medals are extant. {Rascke, Lex. Rei Num., 
vol. l., col 47.) The name of this old sod distinguish- 
ed line occurs five times in the consular fasti, during 
the time of the republic, and twelve times in those of 
the empire, down to the reign of Constsntine. (,Sigon. 
Fast. Cons.) The two most celebrated branches of 
the house were those of Acilius Glsbrio and Acilins 
Balboa. — II. Lex, a law introduced by Acilius the 
tribune, A.U.C. 566, for the planting of five colonies 
along the coast of Italy, two at the mouths of the Vul- 
turnus and Lrterhue, one at Puteoli, one at Salemum, 
and one at Buxentum. (its. 82, 29.) — III. Calpur 
ma Lex (introduced A.U.C. 686), excluded from the 
senate, and from all public employments, those who 
had been guilty of bribery at elections. Cicero calls 
it merely Calpvrma Lex, but others Acilia Calpurnia 
Lex. (Ernetli, Ind. Leg.) — IV. Lex, a law introdu- 
ced A.U.C. 683; by the consul Manias Acilius Gls- 
brio, relative to actions de pecumis repetundu. It 
determined the forms of proceeding, and the penalties 
to be inflicted. (Compare Ernetti, Ind. Leg.) 

AeiLfos, I. a Roman, who wrote a work in Greek 
on the history of his country, snd commentaries os. 
the twelve tables. He Kvod B.C. 210, and was a con- 
temporary of Cato's. Hia history wss translated into 
Latin by an individual named Claudius, and was enti- 
tled, in this latter language, Annate* Aeitientet. ( Vots. 
Hitt. Gr. 1, 10.) — II. Quintus, appointed a commis- 
sioner, about 200 B.C., for distributing among the new 
colonists the conquered lands tlong the Po. — III. A 
tribune, author of the law rear acting the rar>ime col- 
li.! -IV. ~ - 



onies. {Vid. Acilia 



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G!ibt ; o M., a consul 



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Mh P. Com. Scape Nana, A.U.C. 664, and the 
coaanamr of AntWx-hna at Themoprla. (1m. 36, 
M.— H. 36, 19 >— V. Glabrio M., son of the pace, 
ting, i decemvir. He built a temple to Piety, IB ful- 
fihoeot of a tow which hu father had made when 
Bgbtmg against Antiochns. He erected alio a gilded 
■tea* [iftfM— sntref aw) to hie father, the first of the 
tjmeiersefmaxRosBe. ( Vei. Jf*i. S, S— £«r. 40, 34. 
Csosire imse, am Zee.)— VI. A consul, A.U.C. 684, 
■operated to succeed Locullus is the management 
of the MithndaUc war. (Cic i» Fsrr. 7, 61.}— VII. 
Anola Manina, a li— Untax* under Tiberias in Gaul, 
A_D. 13, end afterward consul. He waa roused from 
> mace by the flames of the funeral pile, on which he 
bad beea laid as a coraae, but could not be rescued. 
(Pb*. 7, 63.— VmL Mai. 1, 8>— VHL Son of the 
preceding, oonaul under Claudius, A.D. 54. — IX. A 
consul with it. Ulpsaa Tsajeaua, the subsequent em- 
peror. Ha was induced to engage with wild beasts 
m the arena, and, proving successful, was put to death 
by Dsnuoui, who wss jealous of his strength. 

Acuta, now the Agri, a river of Lucania, rising 
•ear AbatBmum Manacum, and falling into the Sinus 
rareoUnus. Near its mouth stood Heracles. 
Acuavtnts. VuL- Supplement, 
Acta, a S'winsu shepherd, son of Faunas and the 
jynsah Sisneuas. He gained the affections of Gsla- 
za,bot bis nr*l Polyphemus, through jealousy, crush- 
id him w death with a fragment of rock, which he 
aarjsrf anon him. Acia was changed into a stream, 
sfccb retained his name. According to Serviua (ad 
Vtrg.Bdag. 9, 39) it was also called Aciliue. Cluve- 
risa places it about two miles distant from the modem 
CuuUo H Aca. Fazellns, however, without much 
reason, assigns the name of Ads to the ftasnt f Y i dd t, 
eaar Tawawa*. Sir Hicham Home describes the 
Aca of Clavenos ss a limpid though small stream. 
The story of Acjs is given by Ovid (As*. 13, 760, *tq ) 
VvL SopalemeBt. 
Nicolas. 



Fid.: 

Acewrloa. a yonth of Cea, who, when he went to 
Dries to sacrifice to Diana, fell in lore with Cydippe, 
• beautiful virgin, and, being unable to obtain her, by 
leasea of his poverty, had recourse to a st ra ta gem 



A (acted law obliged every one to fulfil whatever 
promise they had made iu the temple of the goddess ; 
sni Acoolius having procured an apple or quince, 
wrote on it the following words : " I swear by Diana 
lwnwed Aconttse." This he threw before her. The 
sane took it up, and handed it to Cydippe, who mad 
awed the inscription, and then threw the apple away. 
After some time, when Cydippe's father waa about to 
give aw m marriage to another, she was taken ill iusi 
oefam ihe nuptial ceremony. Acontius thereupon has- 
tened is Athens, and, the Delphic oracle having decla- 
red that the uWse of Cydippe was the punishment of 
her neqary, uw ps^rUee wem united. 
A coe is. Yii. Supplement. 
Acta, L a village on the Cimmerian Bosporus. 
(Serai., p. 494 J — If A promontory .and town of Scyth- 
is Misor, now Eiunu or Cavarna. 

Achsamju, one of the five divisions of Syracuse, 
and deriving its name from the wild pear-trees with 
which it once abounded (djfpdf, a wild pear-tree). It 
m sometimes called the citadel of Syracuse, but in- 
:anecUy, although a strongly fortified quarter. It waa 
tery thickly inhabited, and contained many fine build- 
ings, yielding only to Ortygia. (Laportt Du Thai, 
ad Strai, vol. 2, p. 368, not. 8, French traxsl.) As 
regards the situation of Achradina, and its aspect in 
aote modern tunes, compare Swmbum, Travels in 
the Two Si edict, 3, 383 (French trawl.), and G'iller, 
it Sirs tt Origin* Syraauarnm, p. 49, tcqj. 
Acuta- Fist Supplement. « 
Asaanata, a ctty of Bosetia, situate on Mount 
" i the northeast extremity of the Lake Co- 



It was founded either by Athsmaa, or byAcre- 
pheus, a son of Apollo. Pausaniaa calls the placs 
Acnaphnium (9, 28. — Compare Steph. By. e. t.). 
AcsaeiLLlnA. rid. CrauallidB. 
AcsioAs, I. the Greek name of Agrigentum. — II. 
A river in Sicily, on which Agrigentum waa situate. 
It gave iu Greek name to the city. The modern 
name is Sam Slant. (Mmntrt, 0, 3, 364.)— III. An 
engraver on silver, whose country and age am both 
uncertain. He is noticed by Pliny (33, 13, 66), who 
of cups of his workmanship, adorned with 
senbtured work, preserved in the temple of Bacchus 
at Rhodes. His bunting pieces on cups were very 
famous. (SUUg, Diet. Art. ».e.) 

AoxItvs, a freed nun of Nero, seat into Asia to 
plunder the temples of the gods, which commission ha 
executed readily, being, according to Tacitus (Ann, 
jm fltftfio prompt**." Seoondus 



",«). . . . . 

Cannes was joined with him on this occasion, whom 
Lipsius (ad Toe. L c.) suspects to be the same with 
the Carinas sent into exile (Bio Count*, 69, 30) by 
the Emperor Caligula, far declaiming against tymnta. 
Compare JwmuU, 7, 904. 

AoaiDoraiei, an ^Ethiopian nation, who fad upon 
locusts. Diodetus Siculus (8, 38) says, that they 
never Uvsd beyond their 40th year, and that they then 
ished miserably, being attached by swanas of winged 
(mpuTol fdetpefi, which issued forth from their 
The account given of their diet is much mora 
probable. The locust is said to be a very common and 
palatable food in many puts of the East, after having 
been dried in the sun. This is thought by some to have 
constituted the food of the Is ra e l ites on the occasion 
mentioned in Exodus (16, 14). Wesseling (ad Died. 
Sic. 3, 38) is of this opinion. But the talmn of Mo- 
ses evidently mesa eajaile, as the received version has 



Aaan>«, * Locnsa. me a PytsaanreaJi pbtfusophsr : 
be w mentioned by Valerius hUsfcnes (8, 7) under the 



of Arum, which is a false reading instead of Ja- 
rs**. <Oic Fin. 6, 0.) 

AcausioHua, a patronymic appellation given to 
Danae, as daughter of Acnsins. ( Virg. JEn, 7, 410, 
and Seramtyoi toe.) 

AcaisioHiiDBs, a patronymic of Perseus, from hie 
grandfather Acriaiua. (Ovid, Met. 6, «. 70.) 

Acaulus, son of Abas, king of Argos, by Oca lea, 
daughter of Mantroeus. He waa born at the same 
birth as Prostus, with whom it is said that be quarrel- 
led even in his mother's womb. After many dissen- 
tient, Prartus wss driven from Argos. Acrisiua had 
Danae by Eurydice, daughter of Lacsdecaon ; and an 
oracle having declared that he should lose his Ufa by 
the band of his grandson, ha endeavoured to frustrate 
the prediction by the imprisonment of his daughter, in 
order to prevent her becoming a mother (etd. Danae). 
Hi* efforts failed of success, and be waa eventually 
killed by Perseus, son of Danae and Jupiter. Acrist- 
«V it seems, had been attracted to Lanssa by the re- 
ports which had reached him of the prowess of Per- 
seus. At Lapses, Perseus, wishing to show his skill 
in throwing a quoit, killed an old man who proved to 
be bis grandfather, whom he knew not, and thus the 
oracle waa fulfilled. Acriaiua reigned about 31 years, 
(/fata. fab. 63.— Ovid, Mat. 4, fab. 16.— Herat, 3, 
ed. 16.— Afottoi. 2, 2, &c.— Pans. 2, 16, etc — Vid. 
Danae, Peruana, Polydectes.) 
v Acxitas, a promontory of Ma mania, in the Pelopon- 
nesus. (Plin, 4, 6.— Mela,2, 8.) Now Cape Gatto 
AcsoXtkos, or Acxothooh. The name Acroathoa 
properly denotes the promontory of the peninsula of 
Atbos, now Cspe Monte Santo. It is the lower one 
of the two, the upper one being called NymphsBura 
(Promontorinm). By Acrothoum (or Acrothei) is 
meant a towa on the peninsula of Atbos, situate some 
distance up the mountain, and of which MeU observes 

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A-CT 



l J, 3), that the inhabitants were supposed to live be- 
yond the usual time allotted to man. (Compare Tht- 
cyd. 4, 109.— Seylax, p. 36.— Step*. Byz. s. *. 'Aft*. 
—Strab. cpit. Kb. 7, 381.) 

Ackoceeabmia, or Acbooeeaunh Montes. eft Ce- 
•aania. 

Acbocorinthus, a high hill, overhanging the city of 
Corinth, on which was erected a citadel, called also by 
the same name. This situation was so important a 
one as to be styled by Philip the fetters of Greece. 
The fortress was surprised by Antigonus, but recover- 
ed in a brilliant manner by Aratus. (Strab. 8, 880. — 
Paiu. 8, 4.— Pint. Vit. Aral.— Stat. Hub. 7,t>. 106.) 
"The Acrocorinthus, or Acropolis of Oorinth," ob- 
serves Dodwell, "is one of the finest objects in 
Greece, and, if properly garrisoned, would be a place 
of great strength and importance. It abounds with 
excellent water, ia in most parts precipitous, and there 
n only one spot from which it can be annoyed with ar- 
tillery. Thia is a pointed' rock, at a few hundred yards 
to the southwest of it, from which it was battered by 
Mohammed II. Before the introduction of artillery, 
it was deemed almost impregnable, and had never been 
taken except by treachery or surprise. Owing to its 
natural strength, a small number of men was deemed 
sufficient to jarrison it ; and in the time of Aratus, 
according to Plutarch, it was defended by 400 soldiers, 
SO dogs, and as many keepers. It was surrounded 
with a wall by Cleomenes. It shoots up majestically 
from the plain to a considerable height, and forms a 
conspicuous object at a great distance : it is clearly 
seen from Athens, from which it is hot less than forty- 
four miles in a direct line. Strabo affirms that it is 
3 1-S stadia in perpendicular height, but that the accent 
to the top is 30 stadia by the road, the circuitous in- 
Sections of which render this no extravagant computa- 
tion. The Acrocorinthus contains within its walls a 
town and three mosques. Athetueus commends the 
Water in the Acrocorinthus as the most salubrious in 
Greece. It was at this, fount that Pegasus was drink- 
ing when token by Bellerophon." (Dodwell, vol. 8, 
p. 187 ) All modern travellers who have visited this 
spot, give a glowing description of the view obtained 
from the ridge. Consult, in particular, Clarke's Trav- 
el*, vol. 6, p. 750. . 

Acbon, 1. a king of the Csminenses, whom Romu- 
lus slew in battle, after the affair of the Sabine women. 
His arms were dedicated to Jupiter Feretrius, and his 
subjects were incorporated wrth the Roman people. 
(Pint. Vit. Rom.) Propertius styles him Ccemmu 
Acron, from the name of his city and people (4, 10, 7), 
and also Hercultnt (4, 10, 9), from the circumstance 
of all the Sabine race tracing their descent from Her- 
cules or Sancus. — II. A celebrated physician of Agri- 
gentum in Sicily, contemporary with Empedocles 
(Diog. Laert. 8, 65). Plutarch speaks of his having 
been at Athens during the time of the great plague, 
which occurred B.C. 430. He aided the Athenians 
on that occasidn, by causing large fires to be kindled 
in their streets. (Plut. It. et 0>. 383.) Acron is 
generally 'regarded as the founder of the sect of Em- 
pirics or Experimentalists (Pteud. OtU. hag. 372). 
As thia school of medicine, however, had a much la- 
ter date, it is probable that he was merely one of the 
class of physicians catled irtptoievrat, who did not 
confine themselves to mere theory, but went round 
and visited patients. His contempt for the mysterious 
charlatanism of Empedocles drew upon him the hatred 
of that philosopher. At least it is fair to suppose that 
this was the cause of their enmitv. Acron wrote, ac- 
cording to Suidas, a treatise in boric Greek, on the 
healing art, and another on diet. He appears also, 
from the words of the lexicographer, to have turned 
his attention in some degree to the influence of cli- 
mate. (Consult Sprengel, Hut. Med. 1, 873.) — 1TI. 
Helenius Acron, an ancient commentator. The period 



when be lived is uncertain : he is thought, however, tt 
have been later than Servius. Acron'a scholia oi 
Horace have descended to us in part, or at least oirt 
a part was ever published. They are valuable on ac 
count of their containing the remarks of C. £m\mt 
Julius Modestus, and Q. Terenthw Scauros, the oldei 
commentators on Horace. Acron also wrote acholi 
on Terence, which are cited by Charisius, but the 
have not reached us. Some critics ascribe to him th 
scholia which we have on Persius. (Sektett, Hi* 
Lift. Rom. 3, 3S6.) 

AcbopSlis, in a special sense, the citadel sf Athtn 
an account of which will be given under the artic 
Athena). 

ActopOLfTi. Vid. Supplement 

Acbotatus, I. son of Cleomenes, king of Span 
died before his father, leaving a son called Arena, w] 
contended for the crown with Ckvraymos his unci 
and obtained it through the suffrages of the senal 
Cleonymus, in his disappointment, called m Pyrrh 
of Epirus. (Paw. 3, fi—Plut. vit. Pmrk—Pat 
1, 13.) — H. A king of Sparta, son of Arena, a 
grandson of the preceding. He reigned one ye 
Before ascending the throne, he distinguished hima 
by courageously defending Sparta against Pyrrh 
(Plut. tit. Pyrrh.) 

Acrothoom. Vid. Acroathos. 

Acta or Acre., strictly speaking, a beach or sb 
on which the waves break, from &yo, "to brea. 
According to ApoUodorus (Stevk. R. a. v. 'Aim}), 
primitive name of Attica was Akt$ (Acte), from 
circumstance of two of its sides being washed by 
sea. The name is also applied by Thucydides to t 
part of the peninsula of Athos which is below the < 
of Sane and including it. ' Besides Sane, the histoi 
mentions five other cities as being situate upon 
(Tkucyd. 4, 109.) 

Actjkon, a celebrated hunter, son of Aristae 
Autonoe the daughter of Cadmus.' Having inad' 
tently, on one occasion, seen Diana bathing, he 
changed by the goddess into a stag, and was hm 
down and killed by his own hounds. (Ov. Met. 3, 1 
seqq.) The scene of the fable is laid by the poet 
Gargaphia, a fountain of Bceotia, on Mount Cil 
ran, about a mile and a half from Plata; a. Fro 
curious passage in Diodorus Siculua (4, 81), a si 
cion arises, that the story of Actason is a corrupts 
some earlier tradition, respecting the fate of an ii 
der into the mysteries of Diana. Weaseling's e: 
nation does not appear satisfactory, although it 
serve as a clew to the true one. ( Wetteling, adl 
Sic. I. e.) 

Aerates, the first king of Attica, according U 
ancient writers. He was succeeded by Cecrop 
whom he had given one of his daughters in mart 
(Pant. 1, 8.— Clem. Alex. 1, 381.) He is calle 
some Actsson. (Strab. 397. — Harpocr. ». v. V 
— Consult Siebetit, ad Pout. I. e.) 

Acre, a freed woman of Aaiatic origin. Suet 
(Vit. Ner. 88) informs us, that Nero, at one time 
on the point of making her his wife, having suhn 
certain individuals of consular rank to testify, i 
oath, that she was descended from Attains. Fi 
passage in Tacitus (Ann. 14, 8) it would appear 
Seneca introduced this female to the notice o 
tyrant, in order to counteract, by her means, tho c 
fed ascendency of Agrippina. (Compare Dio 
61, 7.) 

ActTa, games renewed by Augustus in com 
oration of his victory at Actium. They axe also 
Ludi Actiaci by the Latin writers, and were celel 
in the suburbs of Nicopolie. Strabo makes th< 
have been quinquennial. Previously, however, 
battle' of Actium they occurred every three 
(Strab. 7, 385.) 

Acns, one of the Heliades, or offspring of th' 

"*™**)igitized by Google 



ACT 



ADD 



who, according to Diodorns Siculus (5, 57), migrated 
from Rhodes into Egypt, founded Heliopolis, and 
ought the Egyptians astrology. The same writer 
aula, that the Greeks, having lost by a deluge nearly 
aQ their memorials of previous events, became ignorant 
•f their dahn to the invention of the science in ques- 
tioa. and allowed the Egyptians to arrogate it to thenv 
serves. Wetseling considers this a mere fable, based 
01 the national vanity of the Greeks, who, it is weH 
known, inverted so many of the ancient traditions, and 
■a this case, for example, made that pass from Greece 
isto Egypt, which came in reality from Egypt to Greece. 
(Vest, ad Dies'. Sic. I. e.) 

Aeralins, according to Diodorns Siculus (1, 60), 
a king of Ethiopia, who conquered Egypt and de- 
Armed Amasis. He was remarkable for his modera- 
tion towards his new subjects, as well as for his jus- 
tice and eqity. All the robbers and malefactors, too, 
were collected from every part of the kingdom, and, 
having had their noses cut off, were established in 
Rhmocorora, a city which he had founded for the pur- 
pose of receiving them. We must read, no doubt, 
with Stephens and Weseeling, in the text of Diodorns, 
'Afutuaif instead of 'kftaaif, for the successor of 
Apnea cannot here be meant. "Who the Actisanes of 
lnodorua was, appears to be undetermined. Accord- 
ing to Wesaenng (ad loc.\ Strabo is the only other 
writer that makes mention of bim. {Strabo, 759.) 
Acticm, originally the name of a small neck of 
", called also Acte fAcrs), at the entrance of the 
s Ambrscras, on which the inhabitants of Anacto- 
i had erected a small temple in honour of Apollo. 
On the outer side of this same promontory was a small 
harbour, the usual rendezvous of vessels which did not 
wish to enter the bay. Scylax (p. 13) calls this har- 
bour Acte. Thucydidea, however, applies this name 
to the temple itself. Polybins (4, 63) makes mention 
at the temple, under the appellation of Actium, and 
speaks of h ss belonging to the Acarnanians. Actium 
became famous, in a later age, for the decisive victory 
which Augustus gained in this quarter over the fleet of 
Hare Antony. From the accounts given of it by the 
Raman writers, Actium appears to have been, about 
the tbae of this battle, nothing more than a temple on 
a height, with a small harbour below. The conqueror 
t »«ft"fr>d the sacred edifice, and very probably a num- 
ber of small biukhngs began after this to arise in the vi- 
cinity of the temple. (Strai. 325. — Suetcm. Vit. Aug. 
17.— Cic. ep. ad /am. 16, 9.) Hence Strabo (451) 
spaces to it the epithet of x u pt° v - It never, however, 
beecae a regular city, although an inattentive reader 
woekl be likely to form this opinion from the language 
of MtafS, 3) and Pliny (4, 1). Both these writers, 
however, in fact confound it with Nicopolis. There 
are no traces of the temple at the present day, but 
Pooqoevule found some remains of the Hippodrome 
and StadrasL More within the Sinus Ambracius 
{Gulf efArto) lies the small village of Azio. Hence 
probably, according to Mannert, originated the error 
of D'Annlle, who places Actium, in contradiction to 
all ancient authorities, at some distance within the bay. 
(FaY. NKopobs, and compare Mannert, 8, 70.— 
PevnutHU, 3, 445.) 

ACT**, a surname of Apollo from Actium, where 
be had a temple. ( Virg. JSn.8, ». 704.) 
Aeries Navies. Vid. Attus Navius. 
Acroa, the father of Mer.cet.us, and grandfather of 
Pitodus. who is hence called Actondes. The birth 
of Artor is by some placed m Locns, by others in 
Tbenarv. As a Thessalian, he is said to have been 
ueroor Myrmidon and Pisidia, Ae daughter of jEo- 
taa, and husband of >Egina, daughter of the Asopus ; 
tnitobave conceded his kingdom, on account of the 
reVfcoo of his eons, to Peleus. (Ot. Trut. 1, 9.) 
CoBsoSmm the different individuals of this name, the 
Roartaof Heyvu, ad ApoUod. 3, 13. 
C 



ActokTobs, I. a patronymic given to Patroclus, 
grandson of Actor, ((hid, Met. 13, fab. 1.)— II. The 
sons of Actor and Moliona. (Vid. Molionides.) 

Actoiids. Vid. Supplement. 

Actuaiius. Vid. Supplement. 

Acoleo. Vid. Supplement. 

Aodmcnus. Vid. Supplement. 

AcdsilIcs, a Greek historian, born at Argot, and 
who lived, according to Josephns (eentr. Ap. 1, t\ a 
short time previous to the Persian invasion of Greece, 
being a contemporary of Cadmus of Miletus. He 
wrote a work entitled " Genealogies," in which ha 
gave the origin of the principal royal lines among his 
countrymen. He made historic times commence with 
Phoroneus, son of Inachus, and he reckoned 10M 
years from him to the first Olympiad, or 776 B.C. 
We have only a few fragments of his work, collected 
by Stun, and placed by him at the end of those of 
Pherecydes, published at Gem, Sd. ed., 1834. 

Acoticos, M., an ancient comic writer, author ot 
various pieces, entitled, Leant t, Gemini, Baotia, 
dec., and ascribed by some to Pleura*. (Vote, da 
Poet. Lot. c 1.) 

Ad Aquas, ad AqcIlas, Ac, a form common to 
very many names of places. The Roman legions, on 
many occasions, when stopping or encamping in any 
quarter, did not find any habitation or settlement by 
which the place in question might be designated, and 
therefore selected for this purpose soma natural object, 
or some peculiar feature in the adjacent scenery. Thus 
A d Aqua* indicated a spot near which there was water, 
or an encampment near water, (fee. Another form of 
common occurrence ia that which denotes the number 
of miles on any Roman road. Thus, Ad Qatar rum, 
" at the fourth mile- atone," supply lapidem. So also, 
Ad Quintum, Ad Decuman, dec. 

Ada, the sister of Artemisia. She married Ht» 
driens, her brother (such unions being allowed among 
the Cariana), and, after the death of Artemisia, as- 
cended the throne of Caria, and reigned seven years 
conjointly with her husband. .On the death of Hi-' 
drieus she reigned four years longer, but was then 
driven from her dominions by Pixodarus, the youngest 
of her brothers, who had obtained the aid of the satrap 
Orontobatea. Alexander the Great afterward restored 
her to her throne. She was the last queen of Caria. 
(Omni. Curt. 2, 8.) 

Adad, an Assyrian deity, supposed to be the sun. 
Macrobius (Sat. 1, 33) states, that the name Adad' 
means " One" ( Vnue), and that the goddess Adargatis 
was assigned to this deity as his spouse, the former rep- 
resenting the Sun, and the latter the Earth. He also 
mentions, that the effigy of Adad waa represented with 
rays inclining downward, whereas they extend upward 
from that of Adargatis. Selden (de Dot Syria, e. 6, 
tynt. 1) thinks that Macrobius must be in error when 
he makes Adad equivalent to " One," and that he must 
have confounded it with the word Chad, which has that 
meaning. 

Adjeus. Fid. Supplement. 

Adamantjm, Jupiter's nurse in Crete, woo sus- 
pended him in his cradle from a tree, that he might be 
found neither on the earth, the sea, nor is heaven. To 
drown the infant's cries, she caused young boys to 
clash small brazen shields and spears as they moved 
around the tree. She is probably the same aa Amal- 
thea. 

Adam antius. Vid. Supplement. 

Adana, a city of Cilicia, southeast of Tarsus, on 
the Sarus, or Sikon. It was at one time a large and 
well-known place, and waa said to have been founded 
by Adsnus, son of Uranus and Gam. (Steph. B.) 

Addda, now Adda, a river of Cisalpine Gaul, rising 
in the Rhcetian Alps, traversing the Lacus Lariua, and 
falling into the Po to the west of Cremona. In the 
old edition* of Strabo, it is termed in one 

17 



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ADM 



ADO 



(281) the Adula (6 'kMXat), but this is an error of 
the copyists, arising probably from the name of Mount 
Adula, which precedes. Tzschucke restores 6 'AS- 
dovar. 

Ads*, or Hams, an epithet originally of Pluto, the 
monarch of the shades ; afterward applied to the lower 
world itself. The term is derived by most etymolo- 
gists from i privative, and eliu, video, alluding to the 
darkness supposed to prevail in this abode of the dead. 
That this is the true derivation, indeed, will appeal from 
what the poets tell us of the helmet of Pluto (icwr) 
'Altov), which had the power of rendering the wearer 
invisible. (Horn. R. 6, 845.) For farther remarks on 
the Hades of the Greeks, vid. Tartarus. 

AdgandestrIos, a prince of the Catti, who wrote 
a letter to the Roman senate, in which he promised to 
destroy Aiminius, if poison should be sent him for that 
purpose from Rome. The senate answered, that the 
Romans fought their enemies openly, and never used 
perfidious measures. {Tacit. Arm. 2, c. 88.) 

Adhbrbal, son of Micipsa, and grandson of Mssi- 
nissa, was besieged at- Cirta, and put to death by Ju- 
gurtha, after vainly imploring the aid of Rome, B.C. 
118. (Sallutt, Jug. 6, 7, &c.) According to Ge- 
senius (Pkan. Mm., p. 399, ieq.), the more Oriental 
form of the name is Atherbal, signifying " the wor- 
shipper- of Baal." From this the softer form Adkerbal 
arose. The MS8. of Sallust often give Atherbal, with 
which we may compare the Greek Ardpoaf. (Died. 
Sie. lib. te,fragm.— vol 10, p. 138, ei. Bip.—Polyb. 
1, 46, &c.) 

Adiabbne, a region in the northern? part of Assyria, 
and to the east of the Tigris. During the Macedonian 
sway, it comprised all the country between the Zabus 
Major and Minor. Under the Parthian sway it com- 
prehended the country as far as the Euphrates, inclu- 
ding what was previously Aturia. It was afterward 
the seat of a kingdom dependant on the Parthian power, 
which disappeared from history, however, on the rise 
of the second Persian empire. (Pirn. 6, 12, &c.) 

Adutorix. Fid. Supplement. 

adimantus. Vid. Supplement. 

AoMBTi, I. {Vid. Supplement.) — II. A daughter 
of Oceanus and Tethys, whom Hyginus, in the preface 
to his fables, calls Admeto, and a daughter of Pontus 
and Thalassa, which last was the offspring of /Ether 
and Hansen. (Horn. Hymn, in Cererem, 421. — He- 
noch Theog. 349.) 

Adhetcs, I. son of Pheres, king of Phene in Thes- 
saly, and who succeeded his father on the throne. He 
married Theone, daughter of Thestor, and, after her 
death, Alcestis, daughter of Pelias, so famous for her 
.conjugal heroism. It was to the friendship of Apollo 
-that he owed this latter union. The god having been 
banished from the sky for one year, inconsequence 
■of his killing the Cyclopes, tended during that period 
the herds of Admetus. Pelias bad promised his 
daughter to the man who should bring him a chariot 
- drawn by a lion and a wild boar, and Admetus suc- 
ceeded in this by the aid of Apollo. The god also 
obtained from the Fates, that Admetus should not die 
if another person laid down his or her life for him, and 
Alcestis heroically devoted herself to death for her 
husband. Admetus was so deeply affected at her loss, 
that Proserpina actually relented ; but Pluto remained 
inexorable, and Hercules at last descended to the 
shades and bore back Alcestis to life. Admetus was 
one of the Argonauts, and was also present at the hunt 
of the Calydonian boar. Euripides composed a tragedy 
on the story of Alcestis, which has come down to us. 
(ApoUod. 1, B.—Tibull. 2, 9.—Hygin. fab. 60, 61, 
dec.) — II. A king of the Molossi, to whom Themisto- 
cles, when banished, fled for protection. (Fid. The- 
mistoctes.) — III. A Greek epigrammatic poet, who 
lived in the early part of the second century after 
Christ. 

18 



Adho, sn engraver on precious stones in the tun 
of Augustus. His country is uncertain. An elegai 
portrait of Augustus, engraved by him, is described b 
Mongtz, Icon. Rom. tat. 18, n. 6. 

Adonia, a festival in honour of Adonis, celebrate 
both at Byblus in Phoenicia, and in most of the Gr< 
cian cities. Lucian (de Syria Deo. — vol. 9, p. 8f 
teqo., ed. Rip.) has left us an account of the manner i 
which it was held at Byblus. According to this write 
it lasted during two days, on the first of which ever] 
thing wore an appearance of.sOrrow, and the death of tl 
favourite of Venus was indicated by public mournin| 
On the following day, however, the aspect of tbinj 
underwent a complete change, and the greatest joy pn 
vailed on account of the fabled resurrection of Adon 
from the dead. During this festival the priests of Byl 
lus shaved their heads, in imitation of the priests of Is 
in Egypt. In the Grecian cities, the manner of holdir 
this festival was nearly, if not exactly, the same wil 
that followed in Phoenicia. On the first day all the cil 
zens put themselves in mourning, coffins were expos< 
at every door ; the statues of Venus and Adonis we: 
home in procession, with certain vessels full of earth, : 
which the worshippers had" raised com, herbs, and le 
tuce, and these vessels were called the gardens of Ad' 
nis ('Adwvidof Krjreoi). After the ceremony was ov 
they were thrown into the sea or some river, where th< 
soon perished, and thus became emblems of the pr 
msture death of Adonis, who had fallen, like a youi 
plant, in the flower of his age. (Hittoire du Cui 
d' Admit : Mem. Acad, dee Itucrip, etc., vol. 4, 
136, teqq. — Dupuit, Origine de Cullet, vol. 4, 
118, teqq., ed. 1822. — Valckeruter, ad Theoe. 'Aduvu 
in Arg.) The lettuce was used among the other her 
on this occasion, because Venus was fabled to have d 
posited the dead body of her favourite on a bed of 1< 
tuce. In allusion to this festival, the expression 'Ad 
vtios Kijiroi became proverbial, and was applied 
whatever perished previous to the period of maturil 
(Adagia Veterum, p. 410.) Plutarch relates, in 1 
life of Nicies, that the expedition against Syracuse t 
sail from the harbours of Athens, at the very time wh 
the women of that city were celebrating the mourn] 
part of the festival of Adonis, during which there w« 
to be seen, in every quarter of the city, images of t 
desd, and funeral processions, the women accompar 
ing them with dismal lamentations. Hence an un 
vourable omen was drawn of the result of the expe< 
tion, which the event but too fatally realized. Thee 
ritus, in his beautiful Idyll entitled 'Aduvidfovo. 
has left us an account of the part of this grand annivi 
saiy spectacle termed i ctpcctc, " the finding," i. 
the resurrection of Adonis, the celebration of it havi 
been made by order of Arsinoe, queen of Ptolei 
Philadelphus. Boettiger (Sabina, p. 266) has a vt 
ingenious idea in relation to the fruits exhibited on t! 
joyful occasion. He thinks it impossible, that even 
powerful a queen as Arsinoe should be able to obti 
m the spring of the year, when this festival wae alwj 
celebrated, fruits which had attained their full matur 
(<5p(o). He considers it more than probable that th 
were of wax. This conjecture will also furnish ano 
er, and perhaps a more satisfactory, explanation of 1 
phrase 'kSCmiioc Kijnoi, denoting things whose exter 
promised fairly, while there was nothing real or si 
stantial within. Adonis was the same deity with I 
Syrian Tammuz, whose festival was celebrated ev 
by the Jews, when they degenerated into idola 
(Ezckitl,%, 14); and Tammuz is the proper Syr 
name for the Adonis of the Greeks. (Creuzcr's Sy 
bolik, vol. ii., p. 86.) (Fid. Adonis.) 

Adonis. I. son of Cinyras, by his daughter Myn 
(vid. Myrrba), and famed for his beauty. He was 
dently attached to the chase, and notwithstanding 
entreaties of Venus, who feared for his safety and lc 
him tenderly, he exposed himself day after day ii. 



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ADR 



ADR 



seat, and at last lost his life by the task of a wild 
boar whom he had wounded. His blood produced the 
anemone, according to Ovid (Met. 10, 735) ; bat ac- 
cording to others, the adonium, while the anemone 
arose from the tears of Venus. (Bum, Epitaph. Ad. 68.) 
The goddess was inconsolable at his loss, and at last 
obtained from Proserpina, that Adonis sboold spend al- 
ternately six months with her on earth, and the remain- 
ing six m the shades. This fable is evidently an alle- 
gorical aOnsion to the periodical return of winter and 
•ornmer. (Apollod. 3, 14.— On. /. c— Bum, I. c— 
Tn-g. Eel. 10, 18, dec.) " Adonis, or Adonai," ob- 
serves B_ P. Knight, "was an Oriental title of the 
5UC, signifying Lord ; and the boar, supposed to have 
killed him, was the emblem of winter -, during which 
the productive powers of nature being suspended, Ve- 
nus was said to lament the loss of Adonis until he was 
again restored to life ; whence both the Syrian and Ar- 
gtve women annually mourned his death and celebra- 
ted his renovation ; and the mysteries of Venus and 
Adonis at Byblus in Syria were held in similar esti- 
mation with those of Ceres and Bacchus at Eleosis, 
and Isis and Osiris in Egypt. Adonis was said to 
pass six months with Proserpina and six with Venus ; 
whence some learned persons have conjectured that 
the allegory was invented near the pole, where the sun 
disappears during so long a time ; but it may signify 
merely the decrease and of the productive 



powers of nature as the son retires and advances. The 
Vuanos or Juggernaut of the Hindus is equally said 
to fie in a dormant stale during the four rainy months 
of that climate : and the Osiris of the Egyptians was 
[ to be dead or absent forty days in each year, 
» winch the people lamented his loss, as the Sy- 
" 1 that of Adonis, and the Scandinavians that of 
Prey ; though at Upsal, the great metropolis of their 
worship, the sun never continues any one day entirely 
below their horizon." An Inquiry into the Symbol- 
tad Language of Ancient Art and Mythology ( Clan. 
Journal, rot. 25, p. 42.) — II. A river of Phosnicia, 
which mils into the Mediterranean below Byblus. It 
is now called Nakr Ibrahim. At the s/miversary of 
the death of Adonis, which was in the rainy season, its 
waters were tinged red with the ocbrous particles from 
the mountains of Libenus, and ware fabled to flow with 
his Mood. But Dupuis (4, p. 181), with more proba- 
bility, s uM i ua e s this red colour to have been a mere ar- 
tificeon the part of the priests. 

ADKAsrmiusi, a city of Asia Minor, en the coast of 
Xyaa, and at the head of an extensive bay (Sinus Ad- 
rsnytteans) facing the island of Lesbos. Strata (AOS) 
make* it an Athenian colony. Stephanos Byxantinus 
reuses Aristotle, and mentions Adramys, trie brother 
of Crams, as its founder. This last is more proba- 
bly the tree account, especially as an adjacent district 
bore the name of Lydia. According, however, to Ku- 
>Ca Chios sad other commentators, the place existed be- 
fore the Trajan war, and was no other than the Peda- 
nts of Homer (Ptin. 6, 83). This city became a place 
of important* under the kings of Pergsnms, and con- 
tra oed so in the time of the Roman power, although 
it suffered severely during the war wtth Mithradates. 
(Serai 60S.) Here the Cormentut Jwridiau was 
held. The modern name is Adramyt, and it is repre- 
sented as being still a place of some commerce. It 
cantains 1000 houses, but mostly mean and miserably 
holt. Adramvttiura is mentioned in the Acts of the 
Apostles (eh. 37, S). 

AamliA, a river in Germany, in the territory of the 
Cam, and emptying into the Visutgis. Now the Eder. 
Ajieiare*. YvL Supplement. 
A Daises. VH. Supplement. 
AnaisTxa ('Adpdoreio), I. a region of Mrsis, in 
Asia Minor, near Priapas, at the entrance of the Pro- 
poses), sad containing a plain and city of tha same 
■seas. The appellation was said to have basn derived 



from Adrsstns, who founded in the latter a temple to 
Nemesis. (Strab. 688. — Stepk. B. t. *.) This ety- 
mology, however, appears very doubtful. A more cor- 
rect one is given under No. II. The city had origi- 
nally an oracle of Apollo and Diana, which was af- 
terward removed to Parium in its vicinity. Homer 
makes mention of Adrastes, but Pliny is in error (6, 
33) when he supposes Parium and Adrastea to have 
been the same. — II. A daughter of Jupiter and Neces- 
sity, so called, not from Adrastus, who is said to have 
erected the first temple to her, but from the impossi- 
bility of the wicked escaping her power: i privative, 
and Apia, " to flee." She is the same as Nemesis.— 
III. A Cretan nymph, daughter of Melisseus, to whom 
the goddess Rhea intrusted the infant Jupiter in the 
Dicuean grotto. In this office Adrastea was assisted 
by her sister Ida and the Curetes (Apollod. 1, I, 6 ; 
CaUim. Hymn, m Jot. 47), whom the scholiast on Cat 
limachus calls her brothers. Apolwnius Rhodius (S, 
133, teqq.) relates that she gave to the infant Jupiter a 
beautiful globe (afojpa) to play with, and on some Cre- 
tan coins Jupiter is represented sitting .on a globe. 
(Spanheim ad Cattim. L e.) 

Adsastos, I. a king of Argos, sen of Tslsns and 
Lysimache. (Fid. Supplement.) — II. A son of the 
Phrygian king Gordius, who had unintentionally killed 
his brother, and was, in consequence, expelled by his 
father, end deprived of everything. He took refuge aa 
a suppliant at the court of Cronus, king of Lydia, who 
received him kindly and purified him. After some 



kindly and purified 
time be was sent out ss guardian of A tys, the son of 
Croesus, who wss to deliver the country around the 
Mysian Olympus from a wild boar which had made 
great havoc in it Adrastus had the misfortune to kill 
the young prince Atys while throwing his javelin at 
the wild beast : Cronus pardoned the unfortunate man, 
aa he saw in tins accident the will of the gods and the 
fulfilment of a prophecy ; but Adrastus could not en- 
dure to live longer, and accordingly killed himself or. 
the tomb of Atys. (Herod., 1, 86-45. >— HI. A Per- 
ipatetic philosopher, born at Apbrodisiss in Caria, and 
who flourished about the beginning of the sscond cen- 
tury of our era. He was the author of a treatise on 
.the arrangement of Aristotle's writings and his sys- 
tem of philosophy, quoted by Simplicius (Prafat. m 
viii. lib. oAjr*.), and by AchiUea Taliua (p. 83). Some 
commentaries of his on the Tinusus of Plato are also 
quoted by Porphyry (p. 370, tn Harm. Plot ), and a 
treatise on the categories of Aristotle by Galen. None 
of these have come down to ua, but a work on Har- 
monica (irepl ' Kpfimiituv) is preserved in manuscript 
in the Vatican library.— IV. Father of Eurydice, and 
grandfather of Laomedon. (Apollod. S, 13, «.)— V. 
Son of the soothsayer Merops of Percote. Ha went 
to the Trojan war with hie brother, against the will of 
his father, and was slam by Diomeds. 

Ao*Ia, AtBXa, or HadsIa, I. in the time of the Ro- 
mans a small city of Cisalpine Gaul, on the river Tar- 
tarus, near the Pe. Its site is still occupied by the 
modern town of Atri. In the sges preceding the Ro- 
man power, Adria appears to have been a powerful 
and flourishing commercial city, as far as an opinion 
may be deduced from 'the circumstance of its having 
given name to the Adriatic, and also from the numer- 
ous canals which were to be found in its vicinity. 

(Compare Lis. 6, 88 — 8trat. 318 Justin, 30, 1. — 

Plin. 3, IS.) It had been founded by a colony of 
Etrurians, to whose labours these canals must evi- 
dently be ascribed, the name given to them by the 
Romans (fotnone* PkilMna) proving that they were 
not the work of that people. (Compare Midler, Etnuk., 
vol. 1, p. 338, m notit.) The fall of Adria waa ow- 
ing to the inroads of the Gallic nations, and the conse- 
quent neglect of the canals. Livy, Justin, and moat 
of the ancient historians, write the name of this city 
Adrim; the geograsawra, on the other hand, prefer 

19 

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Atria. In Strabo alone the reading is doubtful. Ma- 
nutius and Cellarius, on the authority of inscriptions 
and coins, give die preference to the form Hadria. 
Berkel (ad Steph. Byzant., r. 'kipia) is also in favour 
of it. It muat be observed, however, that Adria is 
found on coins as well as the aspirated form. (Ratcke, 
Lex Rti Num., vol. 4, col. 9. — CeUarim, Gcogr. 
Ant. I, 609.) — II. A town of Picenum, capital of the 
Pnetutii, on the coast of the Adriatic. Here the fam- 
ily of the Emperor Adrian, according to his own ac- 
count, took its rise. The modem name of the place 
h Adri or Atri. 

Adrianopolis, or HadrianopSlis, I. one of the 
moat important cities of Thrace, founded by and named 
after the Emperor Adrian or Hadrian. Being of com- 
paratively recent date, it is consequently not mentioned 
by the old geographical writers. Even Ptolemy is 
•dent respecting it, since his notices are not later than 
the reign of Trajan. The site of this city, however, 
was previously occupied by a small Thracian settle- 
ment named Uskudama ; and its very advantageous 
situation determined the emperor in favour of erecting 
a large city on the spot (Ammian. Mareett. 14, 11. 
— Eutrop. 6, 8.) Adrianopolis stood on the right bank 
of the Hebrus,now Mantza, which forms a junction in 
this quarter with the Arda, or Ardiacus, now Arda, 
and the Tonzus, now Tundtcha. (Compare Zorimut, 
2, 22. — Lamprid. Elagab. 7.) This city became fa- 
mous in a later age for its manufactories of arms, and 
in the fourth century aucceoded in withstanding the 
Goths, who laid siege to it sfter their victory over the 
Emperor Valens. (Ammian. Mar cell. 31, 15.) Hier- 
ocles (p. 635) makes it the chief city of the Thracian 
province of Hnmunontius. The inhabitants were prob- 
ably ashamed of their Thracian origin, and borrowed 
therefore a primitive name for their city from the my- 
thology of the Greeks. (Kid. Orestias.) Manncrt 
(7, 263) thinks that the true appellation was Odrysos, 
which they thus purposely altered. The modern name 
of the place is Adnanople, or rather Edrinek. It was 
taken by the Turks in 1360 or 1863, and the Em- 
peror Amurath made it his residence. It continued 
to be the imperial city until the fall of Constantinople ; 
but, though the court has been removed to the latter 
place, Adnanople is still the second city in the empire, 
and very important, in case pf invasion by a foreign 
power, as a central point for collecting the Turkish 
strength. Its present popnlstion is not less than 
100,000 souls. — IT. A city of Bithynia in Asia Minor, 
founded by the Emperor Adrian. D'Anville places it 
in the southern part of the territory of the Mariandyni, 
and makes it correspond to the modern Boli. — III. 
Another city of Bithynia, called more properly Adriani 
or Hadriam ('kdpidvoi). It is frequently mentioned 
in ecclesiastical writers, and by Hierocles (p. 693), and 
there are medals existing of it, on which it is styled 
Adriani nesr Olympus. Hence D'Anville, on his 
map, places it to the southwest of Mount Olympus, in 
the district of Olympena, and make* it the same with 
the modern Edrenos. Mannert opposes this, and places 
it in the immediate vicinity of the river Rhyndacus. — 
IV. A city of Epirus, in the district of Thesprotia, 
situate to the southeast of Antigonea, on the river Ce- 
iydnus. Its ruins are still found upon a spot named 
thinopolu, an evident corruption of its earlier name. 
[Hughe*' Travel*, 2, 236.)— -V. A name given to a 
part of Athens, in which the Emperor Adrian or Ha- 
drian had erected many new and beautiful structures. 
(Grater, Interip., p. 177.) 

AdriIhus, a Roman emperor. (Kid. Hadrianua.) 

AdriIkds. Kid. Supplement. 

AdrIas, the name properly of the territory in which 
the city of Adria in Cisalpine Gaul was situsted. 
Herodotus (5, 9) first speaks of it under this appella- 
tion (i 'kipiac), which is given also by many subse- 
quent Greek writers. (Compare Scylax, p. 6.) Most 
20 



of them, however, considered it very probably a nan 
for the Adriatic. Strabo (123,) certainly uses 
in this sense ('0 $ 'loviof xoAiror fdpof horl ri 
vvv 'kipitnt Xeyopkvov). More careful writers, hoi 
ever, and especially Polybius, give merely i 'Kdpia 
without any mention of its referring to the Adriati 
The latter author, although acquainted with the for 
Adriatiau (rov 'kiptariKW ftvxov, 2, 16), yet, whi 
he wishes to designate the entire gulf, has either 
Kara rov 'kipiav noKnoc (2, 14), or 9 Kara rev 'kip 
av ■idXarra (2, 16). So, in speaking of the moutl 
of the Po, he ussb the expression ol Kara rov 'kipu 
koXhm (2, 14). Hence both Casaubon and Schwe 
ghceuser, in their respective editions of Polybius, a 
wrong, in translating i 'kSpiaf by Afore Adriatim 
and Sinus Adriatiau. 

AdrutIcum (or Hadriaticcm) marc, called all 
Sinus Adriaticua (or Hadriaticus), the arm of the si 
between Italy and the opposite shores of TJlyricui 
Epirus, and Greece, comprehending, in its greatest e 
tent, not only the present Gulf of Venice, but at 
the Ionian Sea. Herodotus, in one passage (7, 2C 
calls the whole extent of sea along the coast of Illyi 
cum and Western Greece, as far as the Corinthii 
Gulf, by the name of the Ionian Sea ('Iuvior ffovroj 
In another passage he styles the part in the vicinity 
Epidamnua, the Ionian Gulf (6, 127). Scylax mak 
the Ionian Gulf the same with what he calls Adri 
(to ii airrb 'kipiaf tori, xal 'Iuvtof, p. 1 IX and plac 
the termination of both at Hydruntum (kipijv "tipo 
M tu toS 'kSpiov # ry rov 'luvtov coAirov aropm 
p. 6). He ia silent, however, respecting the Ioni 
Sea, as named by Herodotus. Thucydiaea, like H 
rodotus, distinguishes between the Ionisn Gulf ai 
Ionian Sea. The former he makes a part of the latti 
which reaches to the shores of Western Greece. Th 
he observes, in relation to the site of Epidamm 
'Eirtdapvoc ion noXtf h> <5ff 14 tncXfom tov 'luvi 
K&kirov (1, 24). These ideas, however, became chang 
at a later period. The limits of what Scylax had styl 
'kipiaf, and made synonymous with 'Iwvior koXwi 
were extended to the shores of Italy and the wests 
coast of Greece, so that now the Ionic Gulf was 1 

farded only as a part of 'kipiaf, or the Adriat 
laatathiua informs us, that the mora accurate wriu 
always observed this distinction (ol ii iutpiUorit 
rov 'luvtov ftipot <vu 'kipiov Qae't. EuMtatk. ad 1 
myt. Perieg. v. 92). Hence we obtain a solution 
Ptolemy's meaning, when he makes the Adriatic 1 
tend along the entire coast of Western Greece to I 
southern extremity of the Peloponnesus. The Mi 
Superum of the Roman writers is represented on cl 
sical charts as coinciding with the Sinus Hadriatic 
which last ia made to terminate near Hydruntum, 1 
modern Otranto. By Mare Superum, however, in ' 
strictest acceptation of the phrase, appears to hi 
been meant not only the present Adriatic, but also 
sea along the southern coast of Italy, as far as the 
cilian straits, which would make it correspond, the 
fore, very nearly, if not exactly, to the i 'kipiaf of 
later Greek writers. ' 
Adbumetux. Yid. Hadrumetom. 
Aboatucbm, a city of Gaul, in the territory of 
Tungri, who appear to have been the same with 
Aduatuei or Aduatici of Ciesar (B. G. 2, 29), unl 
the former appellation is to be regarded aa a gent 
one for the united German tribes, of whom the Adt 
uci formed a part. (Compare Tacitus, it mm. Gn 
c. 2.) This city is called 'Arova'awrov by Ptolei 
and Aduaca Tongrorum in the Jtincrarium Ant 
and Tab. Patting. At a later period it took the na 
of Tongri from the people themselvea. Mannert ma 
it the same with the modern Tongrct, and D'Anv 
with Falait on the Mekaigve. The former of th 
geographers, however, thinks that it muat have b 
distinct from the Aduatuca CaateUum mentioned by < 



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1 



a a c 



-EDI 



ttr (B. G. 6, 32), which he places nearer the Rhine. 
(Jfeaacrr, 2, 300.) 

Adbatcci or Aduatici, a German nation, who ori- 
ginally farmed a part of the great invading army of 
the Teatones and Cimbri. The; were left behind in 
Gaol, to guard a part of the baggage, and finally set-, 
tied there. Their territory extended from the Scaldii, 
«r Sdeld, eastward as far as Moss Pons, or Mattrickt. 
(Maatrt, 2, 199.) 

Anrus, called by Pliny (6, 29) Oppidum Adulita- 
ram. the principal commercial city along the coast of 
Ethiopia. It was founded by fugitive slaves from 
Egypt, bat fell subsequently under the power of the 
neighbouring kingdom of Auxume. Ptolemy writes 
the name 'Adovfaj, Strabo 'ASovXei, and Stephanas 
Byzantinns 'A&ovXtc. Adulis has become remarkable 
on account of the two Greek inscriptions found in it. 
Cosmos Indicopleustes, sa he is commonly called, was 
the first who gave an account of them (J. 2, p. 140, 
apmd Mcmifaxc ). One is on a kind of throne, or rather 
armchair, of white marble, the other on a tablet of 
touchstone (&rd flaaavirov XWov), erected behind the 
throne. Cosmas gives conies of both, and his MS. 
has also a drawing of the throne or chair itself. The 
inscription on the tablet relates to Ptolemy Euergetes, 
and his conquests in Asia Minor, Thrace, and Upper 
Asia. It is imperfect, however, towards the end ; al- 
though, if the account of Cosmas be correct, the part 
of the stone which was broken off was not large, and, 
consequently, but a small part of the inscription was 
lost Cosmas and his coadjutor Menaa believed that 
the other inscription, which waa to be found on the 
throne or chair, would be the continuation of the for- 
mer, and therefore give it aa such. It waa reserved 
for Salt and Buttmann to prove, that the inscription on 
the tablet alone related to Ptolemy, and that the one 
on the throne or chair was of much more recent origin, 
probably as late as the second or third century, and 
made by some native prince in imitation of the former. 
One of the principal arguments by which they arrive at 
this conclusion is, that the inscription on the throne 
speaks of conqaests in .Ethiopia which none of the 
Ptolemies ever made. ( Mutevm ier AUertkumt- WU- 
tauekaft, vol. 2, p. 105, teqq.) 

Adtbmacbidvk, a maritime people of Africa, near 
Egypt. Ptolemy {lib. 4, c. 6) calls them Adyrmach- 
ites, but Herodotus (4, 168), Pliny (S, 6), and Siliua 
Italic m (3, 279), make the name to be Adynnachidss 
f astp»urr;td<u). Hence, aa Larcher observes (Mutant 
IBmiole, vol. 8, p. 10, TabU Gtagr\ the text of 
Ptc£emy ought to be corrected by these authorities. 
The Adyrmachids) were driven into the interior of 
the country when the Greeks began to settle along the 



JEi, the city of kmg.£etes, said to have been situate 
on the river Ptosis in Colchis. The most probable 
opinion is, that it existed only in the imaginations of 
the porta. (Maxnert, 4, 897.) 

ASicn, a tyrant of Samoa, deprived of his tyranny 
by Aristagoras, B C. 500. He fled to the Persians, 
and induced the Samiana to abandon the other Ionians 
in the sea-fight with the Persians. He was restored 
by the Persians in the year B.C. 4*4. {Herodotus, 
4, 139.) 

,£ACimts, I. a patronymic of the descendants of ./Ea- 
rns, soch as Achilles, Peleus, Pvrrhus, dec. (Firf. 
JB*. 1, 99, Are.) The line of the .ABacida ia given 
as follows : jEacus became the father of Telamon and 
Peleus by his wife Endeis. (Tzetza, ad Lueopkr. v. 
175, calta her Deis, AsZf.) From the Nereid Fssm- 
stae was born to him Phoens (Hetiod. Theog. 1003, 
r), whom he preferred to his other sons, snd who 
! more conspicuous in gymnastic and naval ex- 
than either Telamon or Peleua. {Miller, 
jEgia*f-, p. 22.) Pbocua was, in consequence, slain 
by has brothers, who thereupon fled from the vengeance 



of their father. (Dorothevi, apud Plut. Parall. 29, 
277, W—Heyne, ad Apollod. 12, 6, 6.) Telamon 
took refuge at the court of Cychreus of Salamia, Pe- 
leua retired to Phthia in Thessaly. {Apollod. I. e. — 
Pherecyd. apud Tzetz. in Lycophr. ». 178.) From 
Peleus came Achilles, from Telamon Ajax. Achilles 
was the father of Pyrrhus, from whom came the line 
of the kings of Epirus. From Teucer, the brother of 
Ajax, were descended the princes of Cyprus ; while 
from Ajax himself came some of the most illustrious 
Athenian families. (Mutter, Mginet., p. 23.) — II. 
The son of Arymbas, king of Epirus, succeeded to the 
throne on the death of bis cousin Alexander, who waa 
slain in Italy. {Liny, 28, 24.) jEacides married 
Phthia, the daughter of Menon of Pharealua, by whom 
he bad the celebrated Pyrrhus, and two daughters, 
Dcidamea and Troias. In B.C. 317, he aasisted Po- 
ly sperchon in restoring Olympias aud the young Alex- 
ander, who waa then only five years old, to Macedonia. 
In the following year he marched to the assistance of 
Olympias, who was hard pressed by Casaander. But 
the Epi rotes disliked the service, rose against .Etci- 
dea, and drove him from bis kingdom. Pyrrhus, who 
was then only two years old, waa with difficulty saved 
from destruction by some faithful servants. But, be- 
coming tired of the Macedonian rule, the Epirotes re- 
called -Eacides in B.C. 313. Casaander immediately 
sent an army against him under Philip, who conquer- 
ed him the same year in two battles, in the laat of 
which be waa killed. (Patutn. 1, 11.) 
JEicus. Vid. Supplement. 
ASmi, a name given to Circe, because horn at Jta. 
(Fry. JSn. 3, 388.) 

■iEanteom, a small settlement on the coast of Troas, 
near the promontory of Rbtzteum. It waa founded by 
the Rhodians, and waa remarkable for containing the 
tomb of Ajax, and a temple dedicated to his memory. 
The old statue of the hero waa carried away by An- 
tony to Egypt, but waa restored by Augustus. (Stic- 
bo, 59S.) In Pliny's time this place had ceased to ex- 
ist, as msy be inferred from his expression, " Fuit el 
JEanteum" (6, 30). Mannert asserts, that Lccheva- 
lier ia wrong, in placing the mound of Ajax on the sum- 
mit of the hill by lntepe. 

jEantIdes, I. one of the Tragic Pleiades. (Vid. 
Alexandrine Schola.) He lived in the time of the 
second Ptolemy. — IT. The tyrant of Lampsacus, tc 
whom Hippiaa gave hia daughter Arched ice. 

jEas, a river of Epirus, thought to be the modern 
Vajutsa, falling into the Ionian Sea.' Isaac Vossius, 
in hia commentary on Pomponius Mela (3, 3, extr.\ 
charges Ovid with an error in geography, in making 
this river fall into the Peneus (Met. 1, 577). But 
Vossius waa wrong himself in making the verb con- 
veniunt, aa used by Ovid, in the passage in question, 
equivalent to ingrcdhmtnr. Ovid only means that 
the deities of the river mentioned by him met together 
in the cave of the Teneus. 

<Eoinos, a town of Euboea in the district Histueo- 
tia, famed for its hot baths, which even at the present 
day are the most celebrated in Greece. The modern 
name of the place is Dipto. But, according to Sib- 
thorpe ( WalpoU't Coll., vol. 2, p. 71), Lipto. In Plu- 
tarch (Sympos. 4, 4), this place ia called Galepsus 
(TaAirf of ), which many regard as an error of the copy- 
ists. If the modern name aa given by Sibthorpe be 
correct, it appears more likely that Lipto ia a corrup- 
tion of Galepsus, and that the latter waa only another 
name for the place, and no error. 
JSoisu. rid. Supplement. 
iEoiaius, a Cappadocian, called a Platonic, or per- 
haps, more correctly, sn Eclectic philosopher, who liv- 
ed in the 4th century, snd was the friend and most 
distinguished scholar of Iamblichua. After the death 
of hia master, the school of Syria was dispersed, and 
^Edeaias, fearing the real or fancied hostility of the 

21 



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JEOJE 



JEGE 



Christian emperor Constantine to philosophy, took ref- 
uge in divination. An oracle in hexameter verse rep- 
resented a pastoral life as bis only retreat ; but his dis- 
ciples, perhaps calming his fears by a metaphorical in- 
terpretation, compelled him to resume his instructions. 
He settled at Pergamua, where be numbered among 
his pupils the Emperor Julian. After the accession of 
the latter to the imperial purple, be invited iEdesius to 
continue his instructions, but the latter, being unequal 
to the task through age, sent in his stead Chryaanthes 
and Eusebius, his disciples. (Eunap. Vit. Mitt.) 

JEdissa. Vid. Edessa. 

At don. Vid. Philomela. 

JEdIji, a powerful nation of Gaul. Their confeder- 
ation embraced all the tract of country comprehended 
between the AUitr, the middle Loire, and the Saint, 
and extending a little beyond this river towards the 
south. The proper capital was Bibracte, and the sec- 
ond city in importance Noviodunum. The political 
influence of the .(Edui extended over the Mandubea or 
Mandubii, whose chief city Alesia traced its origin to 
the most ancient period* of Gaul, and passed for a 
work of the Tyrian Hercules. (Diod. Sic. 4, 19.) 
This same influence reached also the Ambarri, the In- 
subres, and the Segusiani. The Bituriges themselves, 
who had been previously one of the . most flourishing 
nations of Gaul, were held by the Mdui in a condition 
approaching that of subjects. ( Thierry, Hittoire det 
Gauloit, 2, 31.) 'When Cesar came into Gaul, he 
found that the JSdui, after having long contended with 
the Arvemi and Sequani for the supremacy in Gaul, 
had been cvercome by the two latter, who called 
in Ariovistus and the Germans to their aid. The 
arrival of the Roman commander soon changed the 
aspect of affairs, and the jEdui were restored by. the 
Roman arm* to the chief power in the country. They 
became, of course, valuable allies for Cesar in his Gal- 
lic conquests. Eventually, however, they embraced 
the party of Vercingetorix against Rome ; but, when 
the insurrection was quelled, they were still favourably 
treated on account of their former services. 'Cat. B. 
G. 1, 31, teqqj 

JEkta, or JEktm, king of Colchis, son of Sol, and 
Perseis, the daughter of Oceanus, waa father of Medea, 
Absyrtus, and Chalciope, by Idyia, one of the Oceani- 
ans. He killed Phryxus, son of Athamae, who had 
fled to his court on a golden ram. This murder he 
committed to obtain the fleece of the golden ram. The 
Argonauts came against Colchis, and recovered the 
golden fleece by means of Medea, though it was guard- 
ed by bulls that breathed fire, and by a venomous drag- 
on. ( Vid. Jason, Medea, and Phryxus.) He was 
afterward, according to Apollodorus, deprived of bis 
kingdom by his brother Per sea, but waa restored to it 
by Medea, who bad returned from Greece to Colchis. 
(ApoUod. 1, 9, ZS.—Heyne, ad ApoUod. I. c— Or. 
Met. 7. II, tegq., dec.) 

jEetYab, JSktis, and JSitInb, patronymic forms 
from iEsTie, used by Roman poets to designate his 
daughter Medea. (Olid, Met. 7, 9, 296.) 

JSqa. Vid. Supplement. 

Mom, I. a small town on the western coast of 
Euboea, southeast of jEdepsus. It contained a tem- 
ple sacred to Neptune, and was supposed to have giv- 
en name to the jEgean. (Strab. 386.) — II. A city 
of Macedonia, the same with Edesaa. — III. A town 
of Acbaia, near the mouth of the Crathis. It appears 
to have been abandoned eventually by its inhabitants, 
who retired to ^Egira. The cause of their removal is 
not known. (Strabo, 386.)— IV. A town and sea- 
port of Cilicia Campestris, at the moutb of the Py- 
ramua, and on the upper shore of the Sinus Issicus. 
The modern village of At/at occupies its site. (Strab. 
678.— Pin. 5, 27. — hucan, 3, 226.) 

JEe Mi., I. a city of Mauritania Cesariensis. (Plot ) 
— II. A surname of Venus, from her worship in the 
82 



islands of the iEgssan Sea. (Stetnu, Thebau, 8, 4, 

7,8.) 

Mamox, I. one of the fifty sons of Lycaon, whom 
Jupiter slew. (ApoUod. 3, 8, 1.)— II. A giant, son of 
Uranus by Gsa. (Vid. Supplement.) 

JEomvu mark, that part of the Mediterranean lying 
between Greece and Asia Minor. It is now called the 
Archipelago, which modern appellation appears to be 
a corruption of Egio Pelago, itself a modern Greek 
form for klyaiov neXayof. Various etymologies are 
given for the ancient name. The moat common 
is that which deduces it from JEgeus, father of 
Theseus ; the most plausible is thst which derives it 
from ./Egae in Euboea. (Strab. 386.) In all proba- 
bility, however, neither is correct. The ^Egean waa 
accounted particularly stormy and dangerous to navi- 
gators, whence the proverb rim Alyaioy rrXet (tcit. 
abXvoy). (Eratm. Chil. Col. 632.) 

AZoJtvt, a surname of Neptune, given him as an 
appellation to denote the god of the waves. Compare 
Midler, Gttckichte, £c. (Die Dorter), voL 2, p. 238, 
in notit. 

jEoal^os, a mountain of Attica, from the summit 
of which Xerxes beheld the battle of Salamis. (Her- 
od. 8, 90.) According to Thucydides (2, 19), it was 
situate to the left of the road from Athens to Eleueia. 
Mount ,-Egaleos seems indeed to be a continuation of 
Corydallus, stretching northward into the interior of 
Attica. The modern name is Skaramanga. (Cra- 
mer's Greece, 2, 366.) 

■£oatis, or jEguaaj, three islands off the western 
extremity of Sicily, between Drepana and Lilybsum. 
The name ^Egusa (Juyovaa) properly belonged to but 
one of the number. As this, however, was the prin- 
cipal and most fertile one (now Favignana), the ap- 
pellation became a common one for all three. The 
Romans corrupted the name into JEgtiet. (Mela, 
2, 7. — Florut, 2, 2.) Livy, however (21, 10, &c), 
uses the form JSgates. The northernmost of these 
islands is called by Ptolemy Phorbantia (iopbavria), 
L e., the pasture-island, which the Latin writers trans- 
late by Bucina, i. e., Oxen-isiand, it being probably 
uninhabited, and used only for pasturing cattle. This 
island is very rocky, and bears in modern times the 
name of Lexanzo. The third and westernmost island 
waa called Hiera ('lepd), which Pliny converts into 
Hferoneaus, i. e., Sacred island. At a later period, 
however, the Romans changed the name into Mariti- 
me, as it lay the farthest out to sea. Under this ap- 
pellation the /fin. Marti, (p. 492) makes mention of 
it, but errs in giving the distance from Lilybsum as 
300 stadia, a computation which is much too large. 
The modern name is Maretimo. Off these islands the 
Roman fleet, under Lutatius Catulua, obtained a de- 
cisive victory over that of the Carthaginians, and which 
put an end to the first Punic war. (Lit. 21, 10. — Id. 
Oid. 41.— Id. 22, S4.) 

JCoesta, an ancient city of Sicily, in the western 
extremity of the island, near Mount Eryx. The Greek 
writers name it, at one time jEgesta (Myeora), at an- 
other Egesta ('Eyfora). The cause of this slight va- 
riation would seem to have been, that the city was one 
not of Greek origin, and that the name waa written 
from hearing it pronounced. In a later age, when the 
inhabitants attached themselves to the Roman power, 
they called their city Segctta, and themselves Seget- 
tani, according to Festus (*. v. Stgctta), who states, 
that the alteration was made to obviate an improper 
ambiguity in the term. (Prapoeita ett ei S. littra nt 
obscene nomine appellaretur.) It is more probable, 
however, that the Romans caused it to be done on ac- 
count of the ill-omened analogy in sound between 
jEgesta or Egesta, and the Latin term egettat, " want." 
Thucydides (6, 2) states, that after the destruction 
of Troy, a body of the fugitives found their way to 
this quarter, and, uniting with the Sicani, whom they 



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.i£ G E 



JEGl 



tmnd sealed here, formed with them one people, under 
the name of ElymL In the, course of time their num- 
bers were still farther increased by toe junction of 
some wandering Achati. This seems to have been the 
gmenSy rece 1 red idea among the Greeks, respecting 
the origin of the Elymi and JSgestai. Its improba- 
tttDty. however, ia apparent even at first view. When 
the Romans became masters of these parts, after the 
sost Punic wax, they readily adopted I he current tra- 
dition respecting: the people of yEgesta, as well as the 
ides of an affinity, through the line of JEneta, between 
themselves and the latter, and the legend is interwoven 
also with the subject of the JEnek) (5, 36, ttqq, — Vid. 
^gestes). From the circumstance of the Romans 
having recognised the affinity of the iEgesteana to 
themselves, we find them styled, in the Duilian in- 
scription, " the kinsmen of the Roman people." COC- 
KATI P. K ( CuuxonoLM, de Cel. Rotlr. Duil., Lugd. 
Bet. 1597.) Cicero, too (in Vtrrem. 4, S3), adopts 
the current tradition of the day- Whatever our opm- 
ion may be relative to the various details of these le- 
gends, one thing at least very clearly appears, which 
is, that jEgeata was not of Grecian origin. Thucyd- 
idea (7, 58), in enumerating the allies of Syracuse, 
speaks of the people of Himera as forming the only 
Grecian settlement on the northern coast of Sicily ; 
and in another part (7, 67), expressly classes the 
^gesUEans among Barbarians (Bapoapuv 'EyeoroZot). 
Tie origin of jSgests, therefore, may fairly be as- 
cnfaed to a branch of the Pelasgic race, the Trojans 
mnaselres being of the same stock. (Kid. JEnt»».) 
Prerious to the arrival of the Romans in Sicily, the 
JEgemtweaa were engaged in a long contest with the 
inhabitants of Selinus. Finding themselves, however, 
the weaker party, they solicited and obtained the aid 
of Athena. The unfortunate issue of the Athenian 
expedition against Syracuse, compelled the iEgestav 
aiu to look for new allies in the Carthaginians. These 
came to their aid, and Selinus fell ; but JEgetU also 
shared its fate, and the city remained under this new 
control, until, for the purpose of regaining its freedom, 
it espoused the cause of Agatbocles. The change, 
however, was for the wane ; and the tyrant, offended 
at their unwillingness to contribute supplies, murdered 
a part of the inhabitants, drove the rest into exile, and 
changed the name of the city to Dicasopolis, settling in 
it at roe same time a body of deserters that had come 
over to him. (Polyb. 10, 71.) The death of Agatbo- 
rka very probably restored the old name, and brought 
hick the surviving part of the former inhabitants, since 
w* cad the appellation JEgesta reappearing in the 
int Panic war (Polyb. 1, 84), and since the ^gestag- 
ens, daring that same conflict, after slaughtering a Car- 
lassjaiaa gsrriaoo which had been placed within their 
waSa. were able to declare themselves the kinsmen of 
the Rssnui people. (Ztmorat, 8, 4.) It was this pre- 
tended aSnity between the two communities that pre- 
served Twin from oblivion after it had fallen be- 
neath the Roman sway, and we find Pliny (3, 8) na- 
ming the inhabitants among the number of those who 
enjoyed the pa Latinum. The ruins of the plsce are 
found, at the present day, near the modern Alamo. 
(Mauert, 9, 2, 393, teqg.—Hoare't Cluneal Tour, 
2,61.) 

£mrm*, .fgestns, or, as Virgil writes it, Acestea, 
a son of the river-god Crimisus, by a Trojan mother, 
according to one account, while another makes both 
an parents to have been of Trojan origin. Laomedon, 
k strum, had given the daughters of a distinguished 
person among ms subjects to certain Sicilian mariners, 
to carry away and expose to wild beasts. Tbey were 
hrooght to Sicily, where the god of the Crimisus uni- 
ted hnnserf to one of them, and became father of Jvges- 
tea. This is the first account just alluded to. The 
ether one is as follows : A young Trojan, of noble 
both, being enamoured of one of the three females 



already mentioned, accompanied them to Sicily, and 
there became united to the object of his affect ion. 
The offspring of this union waa iEgeates. (Dim. 
Hal. 1, S3.) Both accounts, of course, are purely 
fabulous. In accordance, however, with the popular 
legend respecting him, Virgil makes ^Egestea, whom 
be calls, as already suited, Acestea, to have given 
.lEneas a hospitable reception, when the latter, as the 
poet fables, visited Sicily in the course of his wander* 
ings. (Kid. ,£gesta.) 

.£aiua, La king of Athena, son of Pandion. His 
legitimacy, however, was disputed ; and when, after 
the death of Pandion, he entered Attica at the head of 
an army, and recovered his patrimony, he was still the 
objeet of jealousy to bis three brothers, although he 
shared his newly-acquired power with them. As he 
was long childless, they began to cast a wishful eye 
towards bis inheritance. But a mysterious oracle 
brought him to Trcesene, where fate had decreed that 
the future hero of Athens should be born. iEthra, the 
daughter of the sage King Plttheus, son of Pelops, 
was his mother, but the Trazenian legend called Nep- 
tune, not JSgeua, bis father. JBgeus, however, re- 
turned to Athens, with the hope that, in the course of 
years, he should be followed by a legitimate heir. At 
parting he showed iEthra a huge mass of rock, under 
which he had hidden a sword and a pair of sandals: 
when her child, if a boy, should be able to lift the stone, 
be was to repair to Athena with the tokens it con- 
cealed, and to claim jEgeus as his father. From this 
deposit*, jEthra gave her son the name of Theseus 
(©TOWf , from Ma, ■Hqou, to depoeitt or piece). When 
Theseus had grown up and been acknowledged by his 
father (vid. Theseus), be freed the latter from the cruel 
tribute imposed by Minos (vid. Minotaurus) ; but, on 
his return from Crete, forgot to hoist the white sails, 
the preconcerted signal oi success, and iEgeus, think- 
ing his son had perished, threw himself from a high 
rock into the sea. (ApoUod. 3, 10, 5, etqq.—PUt. 
Vit. Tie*., dee.) The whole narrative respecting 
iEgeus is a figurative legend. He ia the same as 
Neptune ; his name Alyotoc, indicating " the god of 
the wires," from oi/er, the waves of the sea, and 
hence the Tronenian legend makes Neptune at once 
to have bean the father of Theseus. Theseus himself, 
moreover, appears to be nothing more than a mythic 
personage. He is merely the type of the utoUitkmtnt 
of the warship of Neptune (dqoiur, from dew, &)<rv, to 
place or utebluk). Even hit mother's name, iEihrs. 
would seem to allude figuratively to the pore, clear at- 
mosphere of religious worship connected with the rites 
of Neptune, when firmly established. (kWpa, i. e., 
olOoe, pure, clear ear.) So, also, the contest between 
Theseus sod the Pallantides (vid. Pallantidea), would 
seem to be nothing more than a religious contest be- 
tween the rival systems of Neptune sod Minerva. 
The worship oi Neptune prevailed originally in the 
Ionian cities (Miller, Dorieme, t, 366), end toe legend 
of Theseus is an Ionian one ; whereas the worship o 
Minerva, at Athens, dates back to the time of Ce- 
crops. — II. An eponymic hero at Sparta, son of jEol- 
icus. (Kid. Supplement.) 

iEeuLiA, I. according to the common account, a 
daughter of Adrsstus, but more probably the daughtet 
of bis son ^Egialeus. (Heyru, ad ApoUod. 1, 86.) 
She was the wits of Diomede, and is said to have been 
guilty of the grossest incontinence during her husband's 
absence in the Trojan war. (ApoUod. I. c.—0». Ib. 
350, etc.) The beautiful passage in the Iliad, bow 
ever (6, 413, eeae.% where mention is made of her, 
strongly countenances the idea that the story of het 
improper conduct is a mere posthomeric or cyclic fable. 
—II. An island of the jEgean, between Cythera 
and Crete, now CerigoUo. Bondelmonti (/a*. Arch. 
10, 66) calls it Sicktiue or SeemUae, a corruption, 
probably, from the modem Greek tlf AlyvXiav. (Ik 

33 



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JEQI 



Sinner, ad loe.) — HI. The earliest name for the coun- 
try along the northern ahore of the Peloponnesus. 
(Vid. Achaia, III.) 

.iEqiIleus, son of Adrastus, by Amphithea, daugh- 
ter of Pronaz, and a member of the expedition led by 
the Epigoni against Thebes. He was the only leader 
slain in this war, as his father bad been the only one 
that survived the previous contest. (Vid. Epigoni.) 
Compare the scholiast, ad Pind. Pylh. 8, 68. 

Moivm, a patronymic of Theseus. (Homer, TL. 1, 
866.) 

JEaiLi, a town in Laconia, where Ceres had a tem- 
ple. Aristomenes, the Messenian leader, endeavoured 
on one occasion to seize a party of Laconian females 
who were celebrating here the ritea of the goddess. 
The attempt failed, through the courageous resistance 
of the women, and Aristomenes himself was taken 
prisoner. He was released, however, the same night, 
by Archidamea, the priestess of Ceres, who had before 
this cherished an affection for him. Sbe pretended 
that be had burned off his bonds, by moving himself up 
towards the fire, and remaining near enough to have 
them consumed. (Pout. 4, 17.) 

^Eowlos, a king of the Dorians; reigning at the 
time in Thessaly, near the range of Pindus. (Heme, 
ad Apollod. 2, 7, 7.) He aided Hercules, according 
to the Doric legend, in his contest with the Lapithaj, 
and received, as a reward, the territory from which 
they were driven. (Apollod. I. e.) ./Egimius is a con- 
spicuous name among the founders of the Doric line, 
and mention is made by the ancient writers of an epic 

Siem, entitled klytfuoc, which is ascribed by some to 
esiod, by others to Cecrops the Milesian. (Heme, 
I. c.) The posterity of JSgimius formed part of the 
expedition against the Peloponnesus, and, the Doric 
institutions of jBghnius are spoken of by Pindar (Pylh. 
1, 124), as forming the rule or model of government 
for the Doric race. (Compare Midler, Dorian*, vol. 
8,0. 18.) 

■/Eomoaus, a small island in the Gulf of Carthage. 
There were two rocks near this island, called Ara 
JEgimuri, which were so named, because the Romans 
and Carthaginians concluded a treaty on them. The 
modern Zouamoore is the iEgimorus of antiquity. 

■iEoimus. Vid. Supplement. 

JEaiHk, I. a daugnter of the river Asopus, carried 
away by Jupiter, under the form of an eagle, from 
Phlius to the island of CEnone. (Compare Spanheim, 
ad Callim. Hymn, in Del. v. 77. — Heyne, ad Apollod. 
3, 18, 6.— Sturz, ad Hellanic., p. 60.— Id. ad Phtre- 
eya*.,p. 178.) She gave her name to the island. Some 
authorities make Jupiter to have assumed, on this oc- 
casion, the appearance of a flame of fire ; but this evi- 
dently is corrupted from another part of the same fable, 
which statea mat Asopus was struck with thunder by the 
god for presuming to pursue him. (Apollod. 3, 13, 6.) 
The Asopus here alluded to, is the Sicyonian stream 
which flowed by the walls of Phlius. ft must not be 
confounded with the Boeotian river of the same name. 
(Compare Pindar, Nem. 9, 9.— Arittarch. ad If. 3, I. 
— Pautan. 3, 6, 8.)— II. An island in the Sinus Sa- 
ronicus, near the coast of Argons. The earliest ac- 
counts given by the Greeks make it to have been 
originally uninhabited, and to have been called, while 
m this state, by the name of CEnone ; for such is evi- 
dently the meaning of the fable, which states, that Ju- 
piter, in ord'-. to gratify JSacus, who was alone there, 
changed a swarm of ants into men, and thus peopled 
the island. (Vid. jEacus, Myrmidones, and compare 
Pautan. 3, 29, and Apollod. 3, 13, 7.) It afterward 
took the name of /Egina, from the daughter of the 
Asopus. (Vid. iEgins, I.) But, whoever may have 
been the earliest settlers on the island, it is evident 
that its stony and unproductive soil must have driven 
them at an early penod to engage in maritime affairs. 
Hence they are said to have been the first who coined 
34 



money for the purposes of commerce, and used re( 
1st measures, a tradition which, though no doubt v 
true, still points very clearly to their early commerc 
habits. (Strabo, 876.— Mian, Var. HUt. 12, 10. 
Wat. Phidon.) It is more than probable, that th 
commercial relations caused the people of .-Egina to 
increased by colonies from abroad, and Strabo c 
pressly mentions Cretans among the foreign inhabitai 
who had settled there. Alter Die return of the Hen 
hde, this island received a Dorian colony from E] 
daurus (Pautan. 3, 39. — Tzetz. ad Lye. 176), a 
from this period the Dorians gradually gained the i 
cendency in it, until at last it became entirely Dor 
both in language and form of government. ./Egina, I 
a time, was the maritime rival of Athens, and the coi 
petition eventually terminated in open hostilities, 
which the Athenians were only able to obtain adva 
tages by the aid of the Corinthians, and by means 
intestine divisions . among their opponents. (Here 
8, 46, and 5, 83.) When Darius sent deputies in 
Greece to demand earth and water, the people of £ga 
partly- from hatred towards the Athenians, and part 
from a wish to protect their extensive commerce aloi 
the coasts of the Persian monarchy, gave these toke 
of submission. (Herod. 6, 49.) For this conduct th 
were punished by- the Spartans. In the war wi 
Xerxes, therefore, they sided with their countrymc 
and acted so brave a part in the battle of Salamis 
to be able to contest the prize of valour with the A th 
nians themselves, and to bear it off, as well by tl 
universal suffrages of the confederate Greeks (Hero 
8, 93), as by the declaration of the Pythian oracl 
(Id. ibid. 138 : compare Pint. Vit. Themiet.) Aft 
the termination of the Persian war, however, tl 
strength of Athens proved too great' for them. Tht 
fleet of seventy sail was annihilated in a sea-fight 1 
Pericles, and many of the . inhabitants were driv< 
from the island, while the remainder were reduced 
the condition of tributaries. The fugitives settled 
Thyrea in Cynuria, under the protection of Spar 
(Tkucyd. 1, 105, and 108.— Id. 3, 27.— Id. 4, 57 
and it was not until after the battle of ^Egos Potsmo 
and the fall of Athens, that they were able to rega 
possession of their native island. (Xen. Hit'.. Gr. : 
8, 5. — Strabo, 8, p. 876.) They never attain© 
however, to their former prosperity. The situation 
./Egina made it subsequently a prize for each succcci 
ing conqueror, until at last it totally disappeared fro 
history.' In modern times the island nearly retail 
its ancient name, being called Egina, or with a sligl 
corruption .Bn^ia, ana is represented by travellers i 
being beautiful, fertile, and well cultivated. As fi 
back as the time of Pausanias, the ancient city wou 
appear to have been in ruins. That writer maki 
mention of some temples that were standing, and > 
the large theatre built after the model of that in Ep 
daurus. The most remarkable remnant of antiquil 
which this island can boast of at the present dsy, is tl 
temple of Jupiter Panhellenius, situated on a mow 
of the same name, about four hours' distance from tt 
port, and which is supposed to be one of the most ai 
cient temples in Greece, and one of the oldest spec 
mens of the Doric style of architecture. Mr. Dodwc 
pronounces it the most picturesque and interesting rui 
in Greece. For a full account of the ./Egina mtrbW 
consult Quarterly Journal of Science; No. 12, j 
387, teqq., and No. 14, p. 839, seqq. 

-lEoiNiTA Paulos, 1. or Paul of /Egina, a ce.i 
brated Greek physician, bom in the island of JEgiw 
He appears to have lived, not in the fourth century, I 
Rene Moreau and Daniel Leclerc (Clericus) hsve ai 
serted, but in the time of the conquests of the Cal 
Omar, and, consequently, in the seventh century. W 
have very few particulars of his life hsnded down I 
us. We know merely that he pursued his media 
studies at Alexandres some time before the taking < 



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JE GI 



JE G L 



tats city by Amron, and that, fin the purpose of adding 
to bis stock of professional knowledge, he travelled not 
only through all Greece, but likewise in other countries. 
Paul of JSgina, closes the list of the classic Greek 
physician, for after him the healing art fell, like so 
many others, into neglect and barbarism, and did not 
regain soy portion of its former honours until towards 
the iwdfth century. As Paul made himself very able 
in surgery, and displayed great skill also in accouche- 
mests, the Arabians testified their esteem for him by 
■rrhng him the accoucheur. Though he cannot be 
regarded as altogether original, since he abridged Ga- 
les, and obtained many materials from Aetrus and 
Oribasus, yet he frequently lays down opinions of his 
own, differing from those of Galen, and more than once 
has the courage to refute the positions of Hippocrates. 
His descriptions of maladies are short and succinct, 
but exact and complete. He frequently assumes, as 
die basis of his explanations, the Galenian theory of 
the cardinal humours. It is in surgery particularly 
that Paul of iEgina appears to advantage, not only be- 
cause he had acquired more experience than any other 
Greek physician in this branch of his art, but also be- 
cause he does not servilely copy his predecessors. In 
this respect some authors place him by the aide of 
Cessna, and on certain points even give him the pref- 
erence. One of the most curious chapters in that 
part of his writings which relates to surgery, is the one 
which treats of the various kinds of arrows used among 
the ancients, and of the wounds inflicted by them. 
The work of this physician, which has come down to 
us, is entitled An Abridgment of All Medicine, snd 
consists of seven books, compiled from the writings 
of the more ancient physicians, with his own observa- 
tions subjoined. It has passed through many editions, 
of which the following are the principal ones. The 
Greek text merely, Venet. op. Aid., 1528, and Basil., 
1538, fd. This latter edition is much superior to the 
former, as it was corrected by Gemussus, and contains 
ks learned annotations. Latin editions : Basil., 1532 
and 1546, /of. .- Col. Agr., 1534 and 1548, fol. : Paris, 
1532, foL : Venet., 1553 and 1554, 8vo : Lugd., 1562 
and 1567, 8vo. This last is the best of the Latin 
editions, since it contains the notes and commenta- 
ries of Gonthier, D'Andemscb, Comarius, J. Goupil. 
and Dalechamp. An Arabic edition was published 
also by Honain, a celebrated Syrian physician. Parts 
of use work have also been printed separately at various 
times, and particularly the first book, under the title 
of Precept* SaUbria {Paris, 1510, ap. Henr. Steph., 
4lo. — Argent., 151 1, 4to, etc.). A French translation 

of the surgical writings of Paul of Xgim was given in 

1539, from the Lyons press, in 12mo, by Pierre Tolet 
The excellent version, however, by F. Adams, Esq., 
of Baschory-Ternan, Aberdeen, will supersede all 
others. Osry one volume has thus far been published. 
(Biogr. Dme, vol. 33, p, 186, scqq.—SckSU, Hist. 
LiU. Gr,voL 7, p. 256.)— II. A modeller of ^Egina, 
adverted to by Pliny (35, 11). There is some doubt 
whether JSgneU was his own name, or merely an 
epithet designating the place of his birth. The former is 
the more probable opinion, and is advocated by Miiller 
(JEgn. 107.— StUig, Did. Art. s. «.). 

jEoiocHtrs, or " JZgis bearer" (from alyi{ and fyo), 
a poetical appellation of Jove. ( Vid. jEgis.) 

JEeinx, a poetical appellation of Pan, either from 
ha having the legs of a goat, or as the guardian of 
goats. Plutarch (Parall., p. 311) makes it analogous 
to the I^ori SUvanus. 

.£«iea, a city of Achaia, near the coast of the 
Sous Cormthiacus, and to the northwest of Pellene. 
It was a place of some importance, and the population 
■ supposed to have been from 8 to 10,000. Polybius 
(4, 5T) makes the distance from the sea seven stadia ; 
Pausssias, however (7, 26), removes the harbour 
twelve stadia from the city. There is no contradic- 



tion in this, as the harbour lay, not directly north, bat 
northeast from the city. In the middle ages, jEgira 
took the name of Votstitza. (Gearg. Phranza, 2, 0.) 
It is now Vostica, a deserted place to the east of 
Vostitza, the ancient ^Egium. {Mannert, Geogr., 
vol. 8, p. 896.) 

^Egis, the shield of Jupiter, made for bim by Vul- 
can (H. 15, 310), and borne also by Apollo (Jf2. 15, 289) 
and Minerva (5, 738). It inspired terror and dismay, 
and, by its movements, darkness, clouds, thunder and 
lightning were collected. (II. 17, 594.) Hence, in 
later poets, it has also the meaning of a storm or hurri- 
cane. (JEsch. Choeph. 584. — Eurip. Ion, 996.) Ac- 
cording to some, Minerva had an segis of her own, dis- 
tinct from Jupiter's, and she placed in the centre of it 
the head of Medusa ; but the Gorgon's head appears 
also on Jupiter's shield. (Eustatk. ad II. 6, 741. — 
Heyne, ad Apollod. 2, 43.) As Minerva typifies the 
mind or wisdom of Jove, there is a peculiar propriety 
in her wielding the same egit with her great parent — 
The etymology of the term alyi{ is disputed. The 
common derivation makes it come from alf, aly6{, 
" a goat," and to have been so named from its being 
covered with the skin of the goat that had suckled the 
infant Jove. This derivation, however, appears to be 
based entirely on an accidental resemblance between 
alyit and oif, oiyoc, and is evidently the invention of 
later writers and fabulists. The true etymology is 
from atoeu, at(u, " to move rapidly," " to rush," " to 
arouse," &c, and comports far better with the idea 
of brandishing to and fro a terror-inspiring shield.— 
The meaning of a coat of mail, of, rather, leathern 
tunic, with or without plates of metal, belongs to an- 
other alytc, which is correctly deduced from alf. 
(Compare Herod. 4, 189.) 

^Egisthds, son of Thyestes by his own daughter 
Pelopea. (Vid. Atreus.) Having been left guardian 
of Agamemnon's kingdom when that monarch sailed 
for Troy, he availed himself of his absence to gain the 
affections of Clytemneslra his queen, and, when Ag- 
amemnon returned from the war, caused him to be 
slain. (Vid. Agamemnon and Clytemnestra.) On 
the death of the monarch he usurped the throne, and 
reigned seven years, when he waa slain, together with 
Clytemnestra, by Oresles, the son of Agamemnon. 
(Vid. Orestes. — Hygin. fab. 87, seq—Paus. 2, 16. 
— Soph. Electr. — Msch. Agam. — Eurip. Orest., 4*.) 

jEoitium, a town of ^Etolia, northeast of Naupac- 
tus, and about eighty stadia from the sea. It occupied 
an elevated situation in a mountainous tract of coun- 
try. (Thucyd. 3, 97.) jEgitium is perhaps -E$w 
(Alyai), which Slephanus Byzantinus places in ^Etoua 

-xoiUM, a city of Achaia, on the coast of the Sinus 
Corinthiscus, and northwest of j£girs. After the 
submersion of Helice it became the chief place in 
the country, and here the deputies from the states of 
Achaia long held their assemblies, until a law was 
made by Philopcemen, ordaining that each of the feder- 
al cities should become in its tum the piece of rendez- 
vous, (it's. 38, 7, and 30. — Compare Polybius, % 
54. and 4, t.) According to Slxabo (385, 387), these 
meetings were convened near the town, in a spot call- 
ed -flnarium, where was a grove consecrated to Ju- 
piter. Pausanias (7, 24) affirms, that in his time the 
Achesns still collected together at JSgium, as the 
Amphictyons did at Delphi and Thermopylsj. Ac- 
cording to Strabo, ^Egium derived its name from the 
goat (<wf) which was said to have nourished Jupiter 
here. The modem town of Vostitza lies in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood. 

JSolk. Vid. Supplement. 

iEoLits. Vid. Supplement. 

^£oles, a Samian wrestler, bom dumb. Seeing 
some unlawful measures pursued in a contest, which 
would deprive him of the priae, his indignation gave 
him on a sudden the powers of utterance which hai 

36 



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/EGYPTUS. 



/EGYPTUS. 



been denied him from hie birth, and he ever after apoke 
With ease. (Vol. Max. 1, 8, 4.— Aul. Gell. 6, 9.) 

jEolktes, a surname of Apollo as the god of day. 
(klyiqrrity from aXy^n, " bright™**.") In the legend 
given by ApollodoruB (1, 9, 28) respecting the island 
of Anaphe, the epithet deletes appears to point to 
Apollo as the darter of the lightning also (Apollo Ful- 
gurator). Compare Heyne, ad Apottod. 1, 9, 26, not. 
erit. 

JEgobolus, an appellation given to Bacchus at Pot- 
ato in Bosotia, because he had substituted a goat in 
the place of a youth, who was annually sacrificed 
there. (o!f, and/JaAXw.) Compare Pausanias 9, 8, 
where Kuhn, however, proposes AlyoSopov for Afyo- 
toXov. — By J&goboUum, on the other hand, is meant 
a species of mystic purification. The catechumen was 
placed in a pit, covered with perforated boards, upon 
which a goat was sacrificed, so as to bathe him in the 
blood that flowed from it. Sometimes, for a goat, a 
bull or ram was substituted, and the ceremony was 
then called, in the first case, Taurobolium, in the sec- 
ond Criobolium. (Knight, Inquiry, &c, y 168.) 

jEgob POTinos, i. e., the goaf* river, called also 
JEgos Potamoi, and by the Latin writers JEgo* Flu- 
men, a small river in the Thracian Chersonese, and 
south of Callipolis, which apparently gave its name to 
a town or port situate at its mouth. (Herod. 9, 119. 
— Sttpk. Byx. *. «. Alybe Uorafiot.) Mannert thinks, 
that the town just mentioned was the same with that 
called Cressa by Scylaz (p. 28), and Cissa by Pliny 
(4, 9). But consult Oailrod Seyl. I. c. as regards the 
meaning of the phrase b>rbg klyiQ kotouov, employed 
byScylax. (Geogr. Gr. Min. I, 439, ed. Gail.) At 
Jbgm Potamos the Athenian fleet was totally defeat- 
ed by the Spartan admiral Lysander, an event which 
completely destroyed the power of the former state, 
and finally led to the capture of Athens. (Xen. Hut. 
Gr. 2, 19.— Viod. Sic. 13, 105.— P/ut Vit. Aldb.— 
Corn. Nep. Vit. Alcib.) The village of Galata prob- 
ably stands on the site of the town or harbour. ( Cra- 
mer* Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 330.) 

JEaotiajB, a Gallic nation, who served in the army 
Sf Attalus on one of his expeditions. Re afterward 
assigned them a settlement along the Hellespont. 
(Poiyb. 6, 77, leq.) Casaubon, in his Latin version 
of Polybius, has " JEgotage* (the it sunt Tectota- 
ge*)." Schweigheuser, misled by this conjecture, 
introduces TcKTooayqt into the Greek text of the his- 
torian in place of klyoeayaf, the common reading. 
In his annotations, however, he acknowledges his pre- 
cipitancy. Compare the Historical and Geographical 
index to his edition of Polybius (vol. 8, pt. i., p. 198). 
in which he conjectures that fiyoeayec, which occurs 
in another passage of Polybius (5, 63), ought to be 
written Alybaaytf also. 

Met*, t town Of Laeonia, on the borders of Arca- 
dia, and contiguous to Belmma. (Polyb. 2, 64.) 

jEoTFstiB, or more correctly ^Egyssus, a city of 
Mania Inferior, in the region called Parva Scythia, and 
situate on the bank of the Danube, not far above its 
mouth. It is mentioned by Ovid (Bp. ex. Pont. 1, 8, 
13). Near this place, according to D'Anville, Darius 
'Hystaspis constructed his bridge over the Danube, in 
his expedition against the Scythians. (As regards the 
Wis reading, consult Cellariut, Geogr. 2, 468.) 

JEamu, the inhabitants of Egypt. Viii. JEgypttn. 

iEoYmuM hire, that part of the Mediterranean Sea 
which is on the coast of Egypt. 

iEoYPTUs, I. a son of Belus, and brother of Danaus. 
He received from hia parent the country of Arabia to 
rule over; but subsequently conquered the land of 
"the black-footed race" (UeXafimSuv), and gave it 
hia name. ^Egyptus was the father of 60 sons, and 
Danaus, to whom Libya had been assigned, of 60 
daughters. Jealousy breaking out between Danau* 
and the sons of iEgyptus, who aimed at depriving him 



of his dominions, the former fled with his 50 daugh 
ters, and settled eventually in Argolis. The sons o 
iEgyptus came, after some interval of time, to Argoa 
and entreated their uncle to bury in oblivion all enmi 
ty, and to give them (heir cousins in marriage. Da 
naua, retaining a perfect recollection of the injuries the; 
had done him, and distrusting their promises, con 
aented to bestow his daughters upon them, and divide* 
them accordingly by lot among the suitors. But oi 
the wedding day he armed the hands of the brides wit 
daggers, and enjoined upon them to slay in the nigh 
their unsuspecting bridegrooms. All but Hyperm 
nostra obeyed the cruel order, while ehe, relenting 
spared her husband Lynceus. Her father at first pt 
her in close confinement, but afterward forgave her, an 
consented to her onion with Lynceus. ( Vid. Danatu 
Danaidt*, Jfrc. — Apollod. 2, 1, 5., *eqq. — Hygit 
fab. 168, 170.— Ot. Hereid. 14, &c.)-II. An extei 
sive country of Africa, bounded on the west by pai 
of Marmarica and by the deserts of Libya, on th 
north by the Mediterranean, on the east by the Sinn 
Arsbicus and a line drawn from Arainoe to Rhinocolv 
ra, and on the south by ^Ethiopia: Egypt, properl 
so called, may be described as consisting of the Ion 
and narrow valley which follows the course of the Nil 
from Syene (or Attooan) to Cairo, near the site of tb 
ancient Memphis. To the Nile, Egypt owes its e: 
istence as a habitable country, since, without the ric 
and fertilizing mud deposited by the river in its anno; 
inundations, it would be a sandy desert. At thr< 
different places, previous to its entering Egypt, this n< 
ble stream is threatened to be interrupted in its course t 
a barrier of mountains, and at each place the barrier 
surmounted. The Second cataract, in Turkish Nub : 
is the most violent and unnavigable. The third ia 
Syene, and introduces the Nile into Upper Egyp 
From Syene to Cairo the river flows along a valu 
about eight miles broad, between two mountain ridge 
one of which extends to the Red Sea, and the oth 
terminates in the deserts of ancient Libya. The riv 
occupies the middle of the valley aa far as the strs 
called JcbeUel-SilriU. This apace, about forty mil 
Ibng, haa very little arable land on ita banks. It co 
tains some islands, which, from their low level, easi 
admit of irrigation. At the mouth of the Jebel-il-S, 
sili (Girard, Mem. tur PEgypte, vol. 3, p. 13), tl 
Nile runs along the right side of the valley, which 
several places has the appearance of a steep line 
rocks cut into peaks, while the ridge of the hills < 
the left side is always accessible by a slope of ratio 
acclivity. These laat mountaina begin near the tov 
of Sioot, the ancient Lycopolis, and go down towar 
Faioom, the ancient Arsinoitic Nome, diverging gra 
ually to the weat, so that between them and the cul 
Vated valley there ia a deaert space, becoming era 
ually wider, and which in several places is border 
on the valley-side by a line of sandy downs lying neai 
south and north. The mountains which confine tl 
basin of the Nile in Upper Egypt are intersected 1 
defiles, which on one side lead to the shores of tl 
Red Sea, and on the other to the Oasea. These m 
row passes might be habitable, since the winter rai 
maintain for a time a degree of vegetation, and for 
springs which the Arabs use for themselves and th< 
flocks. The atrip of desert land which generally e 
tends along each side of the valley, parallel to t 
course of the Nile (and which must not be confoun 
ed with the barren ocean of sand that lies on each si 
of Egypt), now contains two very distinct kinds 
land ; the one immediately at the bottom of the moui 
ain, consists of Band and round pebbles ; the othi 
composed of light drifting sand, covers an extent 
ground formerly arable. If a section of the valley 
made by a plane perpendicular to ita direction, t 
surface will be observed to decline from the margi 
of the river to the bottom of the hills, a circumatai 



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J56YPTOB. 



tto remarked on the banks of the Mississippi, the Po, 
put of the Borysthenes, and tome other rivers. Near 
Baa-wotf, the valley of the Nile, already moth widen- 
ed an the west, has on that side an opening, through 
which a view ia obtained of the fertile plains of Fa- 
mm. These plains form properly a sort of table-land, 
separated from the smiuuuding mountains on the 
north sad west by a wide Valley, of which a certain 
pay s TMn , always hid under water, forms what the 
atkbiztna call Btrkct-U-Karnm. (Yid. Maris.) 
rVesr Cairo, the chains which Hmft the valley of the 
Mir diverge on both aides. Hie one, tinder the name 
ef JUtl^lSaxnm, runs northwest towards the Med- 
iterranean: the other, called Jiibrl-ai- Aetata, runs 
•might east of Suez. In front of these chains a vast 
shon extends, composed of sands, covered with the 
mad of the Nfle. At the place called Batu-H-Baha- 
rs, near the ancient Cercaaorus, the Titer divides into 
twe branches ; the one of which flowing to Rotttta, 
rear the ancient Ostium Bolbitinnm, ana the other to 
SmmUtu, the ancient Tsmiaihis, at the Ostium Phat- 
letkum, contain between them the present Delta. 
Bat tins triangoha- piece of insulated land was in for- 
mer times ranch larger, being bounded on the east by 
me Pehisian branch, which is now choked Dp with 
sand or converted into marshy pools; while on the 
west H was boonded by the Canopic branch, Which is 
now partly confounded with the canal of Alexandre*, 
sad partly lost in Lake Elko. But the correspondence 
of the level of the surface with that of the present 
Delta, and its depression ss compared with that of the 
adjoining desert, together with its greater verdure and 
fcrtihtT, stfQ mark the Bnriu of the ancient Delta, al- 
though irregular encroachments are made by shifting 
banks of drifting sand, which are at present on the 
increase. Egypt then, in general language, may be 
described as an immense valley or longitudinal basin, 
terminating in a Delta or triangular plain of alluvial 
formation ; being altogether, from the heights of Syene 
to the shores of the Mediterranean, about 600 miles in 
length, and of Tar ions width. (Malte-Brun, Geegr. 
voL 4, p. 31, nqq .) 

1. Fortuity of Egypt. 

Almost the whore of the productive soil of Egypt 



i of mod deposited by the Nils ; and the Del 
u in «B similar tracts of country, is entirely composed 
ef tGavial earth and sand. To ascertain the depth of 
fta bed, the Preach mrk), who accompanied the mil- 
tan expedition into Egypt, sank several wens at dis- 
tant nterrab ; and from their observations have been 
obtained the fbBowrmr results, ftttt, that the surface 
ef the soil, as already mentioned, descends more or 
less rapidly towards the foot of the hills, which is the 
reverse ef what occurs in most valleys : teamtUy, that 
the depth of the bed of nntd is unequal, being in gen- 
eral about foe feet near the river, and increasing grad- 
ually as it recedes from H : (atrdhr, that beneath the 
and mere is a bed of sand similar to that always 
brought down by the rrrer. The first-mentioned pe- 
culiarity is satisfactorily explained by the absence of 
lain, which, hi other countries, washes down the soil 
from the hma, and, carrying it to the stream in the 
bottom of the valley, forms a basin, the sides of which 
have a concave au i facc ; whereas, in Egypt, the soil is 
t a a ie y ed by the inundation from the rrrer into the 
vaVy, and the deposites, therefore, wSl be greatest 
near its hanks. The more rapid the current, also, the 
■will I ail be the quantity of mud deposited. The 
bed of qnartzose sand upon which it rests is About 
tarty-six feet in depth, and ia s uperpo s ed on the csl- 
cweeos rock which forms the basis of the lower coun- 
try. The waters of the river filter through this bed of 
and. tad springs are found aa soon as the borer has 
reached any considerable depth. Ancient Egypt waa 
i far as fertility. The staple commodity 



was its' gram, the growth of which was so i 
as to afford at aH tunes considerable supplies to tb* 
neighbouring countries, particularly Syria and Arabia ; 
and in times of scarcity or famine, which were fre- 
quently felt in those countries, Egypt alone could sava 
their numerous population from starving. Egypt, hi 
fact, unlike every other country on the globe, brought 
forth Its produce independent of the seasons and the 
skies ; arid white continued drought in the neighbour- 
ing countries brought one season of scarcity after an- 
other, the granaries of Egypt were fall. Hence, too, 
Egypt became regarded as one of the granaries of 
Rome. {Aurd. Victor., Ef*. t. 1.) The Rev. Mr. 
Jewett baa given s striking example of the extraordi- 
nary fertility of the soil of Egypt. -1 picked up at 
random,'' says he, " a few stslks out of the thick corn- 
fields. We counted the number of atafka which sprout- 
ed from single grains of seed; carefully pulling to 
pieces each root, in order to see that ft was but one 
plant. The first had seven stalks ; the next three ; 
the next nine ; then eighteen ; then fourteen. Each 
stalk would have been an eat." Numerous canab 
served to carry the waters of the Nik to some of those 
parts which the inundation could not reach, while ma- 
chinery was employed to eonfey the ED rant of irriga- 
tion to others. Many of theft* canals still e*J*t t many 
hare femg sines oHsameered, sad not s 1cw trtcts of 
sandy country have displayed themselves in modern 
times where formerly aH was smiling and fertile. 
Nearly the whole extent from the southern confines to 
the neighbourhood of Thebes is one barren and sandy 
waste. Assigning to Upper Egypt an average breadth 
of ten railes, and allowing for the lateral valleys stretch- 
ing oat from the Delta, it is supposed that the portion 
of territory, at the present day, in Egypt, capable of 
cultivation, may amount to about 18,000 square miles, 
or, in round numbers, ten millions of seres. The total 
population is estimated at about two millions and a 
half, which would give shout 1M to every square mile. 
Nearly one half of mis territory, it is supposed, is either 
periodically inundated, or capable of artificial irrigation. 
The remaining part requires a more laborious cultiva- 
tion, and ymras a more scanty produce. The hranda 
led lands, though they have successively borne cm 
crop, and frequently two, year after year, without in- 
termission, for more than 8000 years, still retain then 
ancient fertility, without any perceptible impoverish- 
ment, and without any farther tillage than the adventi- 
tious top-dressing of brack, slimy mould by the over- 
flowing of the river. Where the inundation does not 
reach, the crops are very scanty ; wheat does not yieM 
above five or six for one ; but for maize and mmet 
the soil is particularly adapted, and these, with rice, 
lentils, and purse, commute the principal food of nine 
tenths of the mheMtattta, allowing the exportation 
of the greater part of fee wheat produced. Taking, 
then, into consideration the quantity of lend once arable, 
which ia now covered with sand, the double harvest, 
snd, of some productions, more than semi-annual crops, 
the smafler quantity of food which is requisite to sus- 
tain life in southern latitudes, and the extent to which 
the more barren soil was formerly rendered available 
by the cultivation of the olive, the fig-tree, the vine, 
and the date-palm, we shall no longer be at a loss to 
account for the immense fertility and popnlouaness of 
ancient Egypt, a country said to hate contained in 
former days 7,608,000 souls — One of the most cele- 
brated productions of Egypt is the htm. The plant 
usually so denominated ia a species of water-lily 
(nymphaa toots), called by the Arabs natter, which, 
on the disappearance of the foundation, covers all the 
canals snd pooh with its broad found leaves, amid 
which the flowers, in tits form of cops of bright white) 
or azure* expand on the surface, and have a moat 
elegant appearance. Sormini sayf , that its roots form 
a tubercle, which is garnered when the waters ef tho 

S7 

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jEGYPTUS. 



jEGYPTUS. 



Nile subside, and is boiled and eaten like potatoes, 
which it somewhat resembles in taste. Herodotus 
(2, 98) states, that the Egyptians not only ate the root, 
but made a sort of bread of the seed, which resembled 
that of the poppy. He adds, that there is a second 
species, the root of which is very grateful, either fresh 
or dried. The plant which was chiefly eaten by the 
ancient Egyptians, and which is so frequently carved 
on the ancient monuments, is supposed to be the 
nymphaa nelumbo, or nelumbium spcciosvm, the " sa- 
cred bean" of India, now found only in that country, 
Its seeds, which are about the size of a bean, have a 
delicate flavour resembling almonds, and its roots also 
are edible. The lotus of Homer, however, the fruits 
of which so much delighted the companions of Ulysses, 
is a very different plant, namely, the xiziphus lotus 
(rkamnus), or jujube, which bears » fruit the size of a 
aloe, with a large stone, and is one of the many plants 
which have been erroneously fixed on by learned com- 
mentators as the dudaim (mandrakes) of the sacred 
writings. The papyrus, not less celebrated in ancient 
times than the lotus, and which is believed to have 
disappeared from the banks of the Nile, has been re- 
discovered in the a/pent* papyrus of Linnaus. The 
colocasium is still cultivated in Egypt for its large es- 
culent roots. The banks of the river and the canals 
sometimes present coppices of acacia and mimosa, and 
there are groves of rose-laurel, -willow, cassia, and other 
shrubs. Faioom contains impenetrable hedges of cac- 
tus, or Indian fig. But* though so rich in plants, Egypt 
is destitute of timber, and all the firewood is imported 
from Cara mania. (Malte-Brun, Geogr., vol. 4, p. 38, 
seqq. — Modem Traveller (Egypt), p. 18, seqq.) , 

3.- Animal Kingdom. 

The animal kingdom of Egypt will not detain us 
king. The want of meadows. prevents the multiplica- 
tion of cattle. They must be kept in stables during 
the inundation. The Mamelukes used to keep a beau- 
tiful race of saddle-horses. Asses, mules, and camels 
appear here in all their vigour. There are also nu- 
merous herds of buffaloes. In Lower Egypt there are 
sheep of the Barbery breed. The large beasts of prey 
find in this country neither prey nor cover. Hence, 
though the jackal and hyena are common, the lion is 
but rarely seen in pursuit of the gazelles which traverse 
the deserts of the Thebaid. The crocodile and the hip- 
popotamus, those primeval inhabitants of the Nile, 
seem to be banished from the Delta, but are still seen in 
Upper Egypt. The islands adjoining the cataracts are 
sometimes found covered with crocodiles, which choose 
these places for depositing their eggs. The voracity 
of the hippopotamus has, by annihilating his means of 
support, greatly reduced the number of his race. Ab- 
dollatif, with some justice, denominates this ugly ani- 
mal an enormous water-pig. It has been long known 
that the ichneumon is not tamed in Upper Egypt, as 
BufTon had believed. The ichneumon is the same an- 
imal which the ancients mention under that name, and 
which has never been found except 'in this country. 
It possesses a strong instinct of destruction, and, in 
searching for its prey, exterminates the young of many 
noxious reptiles.- The eggs of crocodiles form its fa- 
vourite food ; and in addition to this its favourite repast, 
it eagerly sucks the blood of every creature which it is 
able to overcome. Its body is about a foot and a half 
in length, and its tail is of nearly equal dimensions. 
Its general colour is a grayish brown; but, when 
closely inspected, each hair is found annulated with a 
paler and a darker hue. Zoology has lately been en- 
riched with several animals brought from Egypt, among 
which are the coluber haje, an animal figured in all the 
hieroglyphics] tables as the emblem of Providence ; 
and the coluber vipera, the true viper of the ancients. 
The Nile seems to contain some singular fishes hith- 
erto unknown to systematic naturalists. Of this the 



Polyptere Meter, described by Geoffroy-Saint-Hilai] 
(Armcdcs du Museum, vol 1, p. 57), is a very remarki 
ble example. That able naturalist observes, in genert 
that the birds of Egypt differ not much from those i 
Europe. He saw the Egyptian swan, represented i 
all the temples of Upper Egypt, both in sculptures ar 
in coloured paintings, and entertains no doubt that th 
bird was the chenalopex (vulpanser) of Herodotus, i 
which the ancient Egyptians paid divine honours, at 
had even dedicated a town in Upper Egypt, called t 
the Greeks Chenobostium. It is not peculiar to Egyp 
but is found all over Africa, and almost all over Ei 
rope. The Ibis, which was believed to be a destroyi 
of serpents, is, according to the observations of Cuvie 
a sort of curlew, called at present Aboohannes. Gn 
bert and Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire have brought boa 
mummies of this animal, which had been prepared an 
entombed with much superstitious care. (Mimeire n 
V Ibis, par M. Cutier.— Malte-Brun, Geogr., vol. 4,j 
46, seqq.) 

3. Name of Egypt. 

The name by which this country is known to Eon 
peans comes from the Greeks, some of whose write) 
inform us that it received this appellation from iEgy] 
tus, son of Belus, having ■been previously called Ai 
ria. (Compare Eusebius, Chron., lib. 3, p. 284, « 
Maii el Zohrab.) In the Hebrew Scriptures ft is style 
Mitsraim, and also Matter, and harcts Cham : i 
these names, however, the first is the one most con 
monly employed. The Arabians and other Orient* 
still know it by the name of Mesr or Mizr. Accon 
to general opinion, Egypt was called Mitsrait 
r the second son of Ham. Bochart, however, 0| 
poses this (Geogr. Soar. 4, 24), and contends that tt 
name of Mitsraim, being a dual form, indicates tt 
two divisions of Egypt into Upper and Lower. Ca 
met (Diet., art. Misraim) supposes, that it denotes tl 
people of the country rather than the father of tli 
people. Josephus (Ant. Jud. 1, 6) calls Egypt Me> 
tra; the Septuagint translators, Mettraim; Eusebii 
and Suidas, Mestraia. The Coptic name of Old Can 
is still Mistraim ; the Syrians and Arabs call it Mast 
or Massera. The other appellation, Matsor, as give 
above, Bochart has clearly proved to mean a fortress 
and, according to him, Egypt waa ao called, either froi 
ita being a region fortified by nature, or from the woi 
tsar, which signifies narrow, and which he thinks su 
ficiently descriptive of the valley of Upper Egypt. S 
W. Drummond (Origines, 2, 66) inclines to the fin 
of these two etymologies, because Diodoros Sicuhi 
(1, 30) and Strabo (803) remark, that Egypt was 
country extremely-difficult of access ; and Diodorui 
speaking of the Upper Egypt, observes, that it seem 
not a little to excel other limited places in the kingdon 
by a natural fortification (bxyponjri ayoainy) and b 
the beauty of the country. The third appellation men 
tioned above, namely, harets Cham, "the land c 
Ham," seems to have been the poetical name for Egvj 
among the Hebrewa, and accordingly it occurs only i 
the Psalms. It is a tradition, at least as old aa the tint 
of St Jerome, that the land of Ham was so name 
after the son of Noah. ( Quttst. in Genesin. — Drum 
mend's Origines, 2, 46, seqq.) There may, howevei 
be reason to think, that the patriarch was named afte 
the country where it is supposed he finally settled. Ii 
Hebrew, cham signifies " calidus;" and chom, " fuscus,! 
"niger." In Egyptian we find several words which ar 
nearly the same both in sound and sense. Thus xff 
chmom, signifies " color" and x<H"< chame, " niger.' 
The Egyptians always called their country Chemia o 
Chame, probably from the burned and black appearand 
of the soil. (Compare Plut. de Js. et Os., p. 364 - 
Shaw's Travels, foL ed., p. iSi.—Calmet's Diet., art 
Ham.) The name Airia has a similar reference, am 
would seem to have been a translation of the nativi 



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-fiOYPTU*. 



wart, the primitive iatp denoting obscurity, duskiness. 
Taiu, the scholiast on Apollomus Rbodius (I, 680) 
ays, thai The — m ly wis called Hepia, according to one 
cxpbnauan, on account of the dark colour of ita Mil ; 
and add* that Egypt was denominated 'Hep/a for % 
similar reason. Bryant (6, 149), who cites this pas- 
sage of the scholiast, represents it as a vulgar error ; 
bat his reasoning is, as usual, unsatisfactory. The 
rtjrooiogr of the word Egypt has occupied the atten- 
sjm and baffled the ingenuity of many learned writers. 
The oust common opinion is, that Alytmror is com- 
posed of out (for yaia), land, and yinrroc, or rather *(m- 
•tf, sod that, consequently, Egypt signifies the land of 
Kopt, at the Koptic land. Others derive it from ala, and 
yrf, the black vulture, the colour of that bird (whence 
the Latin nWsHu, " blackish") being, according 
to them, characteristic of the soil or its inhabitants. 
Hods conceives the primitive form to have been Aia 
Casio, the land of Cuphti -, while Bruce says, that 
Y* Gyjt, the name given to Egypt in Ethiopia, means 
the country of canals. Eusebiua, who is supposed to 
have followed Manetho, the Egyptian historian, states, 
that Ramses, or Harnesses, who reigned in Egypt 
(according to Usher) B.C. 1577, was also called 
iEgyptna, and that he gave it his name, as has already 
been nwnbooed. {Etueb. Ckron. 2, p. 384, ed. Man 
a Zebras.) 

4. Division* of Egypt. 

In the bane of (he Pharaohs, Egypt was divided into 
the Tbebais, Middle, and Lower Egypt. TheThebais 
extended from Syene, or, more correctly speaking, Phi- 
be, as far as Abydos, and contained ten districts, juris- 
dictions, or, as the Greeks called them, noma (No/tot. 
Herod. 2, 164). The Coptic word is Ptkotch. (Cham- 
paOon,rEgypU taut let Pkaratnt, 1,68.) To these 
succeeded the sixteen nomea of Middle Egypt (Strabo, 
787), reaching to Cercasorus, where the Nile began to 
branch off. Then came the ten nomes of Lower Egypt, 
or the Delta, extending to the sea. The whole num- 
ber of nomes then waa tkwttf-ra-, and this arrangement 
is said by Diodorns Swains (1, 50) to have been in- 
troduced by Sesostris ( Sethosis- Ramessea) previous to 
ha departure on his expedition into Asia, in order that, 
by means of the governors placed over each of these 
ana, his kingdom might be the better governed du- 
nagha absence, and jnstice more carefully administer- 
ed. H is more than probable, however, that this divis- 
■or. was much older than the time of Sesostris {Cham- 
feUmL. TEgypU, dec , 1, 71), and the account given 
by Stobo, respecting the halls of the labyrinth, would 
seen to confirm this. The geographer informs us, that 
the bob of this structure coincided with the number 
of the bosses, and the building would seem to have oc- 
cupied a central position with respect to these various 
districts, saving eighteen nomes to the north, and as 
many to the sooth, and thus answering a civil as well 
as arefinoa* purpose. (Sitter, Erdbmdt, 3d ed., 1, 
704.) Under the dynasty of the Ptolemies the num- 
ber of the nomes became enlarged, partly by reason of 
the new and improved state of things in that quarter 
of Egypt where Alexandres was situated, partly by the 
addition of the Owes to Egypt, and partly also by the 
eheracioDs which an active commerce bad produced 
■long the borders of the Arabian Gulf. A change also 
look place, about this same period, in the three main 
d-rnaons of the land. Lower Egypt now no longer 
corifined itself to the limits of the Delta, but bad ita 
extent enlarged by an addition of some of the neigh- 
bouring nomes. In like manner, Upper Egypt, or the 
Taebus, received a portion of what had formerly been 
adaded within the limits of Middle Egypt, so that 
eventually \ xt seven nomes remained to this last-men- 
tioned section of country, which therefore received the 
vamtUHcpUaumot. (Mamtert, Gcogr. 10, 1, 303.) 



Under the Roman dominion, Thebsis alone was re- 
garded as a separate division of the country ; all the 
net of the land obtained no farther division than that 
produced by ita nomes. Hence Pliny (5, 0), after 
mentioning eleven nomes ss forming the district of 
Thebsis, speaks of the country around Pelusium as 
consisting of four others, tnd then, without any other 
division, enumerates thirty nomes in the rest of Egypt. 
At tins time, men, the nomea bad increased to 45. 
They became still farther increased, at a subsequent 
period, by vtrioos subdivisions of the older ones. 
Hence we find Ptolemy enumerating still more nomas 
than Pliny, while he omits the mention of others re- 
corded by the latter, which probably existed no longer 
in his own days. At a soil later period we bear little 
more of the nomes. A new division of the country 
took place under the Eastern empire. An imperial 
Prefect exercised sway over not only Egypt, but also 
Libya as far aa Cyrano, while a Comet Miiitari* had 
charge of the forces. The power of the latter extend- 
ed over all Egypt aa far as Ethiopia, but a Dux, who 
was dependant on him, exercised particular control 
over the Thebsis. This arrangement seems to have 
been introduced in the time of the Emperor Theodo- 
sios, as appears from the language of the Natitia. 
From this time, the whole of Middle Egypt, previously 
named Heptsnomis, bore the name of Areas**, in hon- 
or of Arcadins, eldest son of Theodosius. A new 
province asm had arisen a considerable time before 
this, named Augnt l a mnie *, bom ita lying chiefly along 
the Nile. It comprised the eastern half of the Delta, 
together with a portion of Arabia ss far aa the Arabian 
Gulf, tnd also the cities on the Mediterranean coast as 
far as the Syrian frontier. Ita capital waa Perashun 
The name of this province is mentioned by the eccle- 
siastical writers as early as the time of Constantino, 
and it ocours also in the history of Ammianus Marcel- 
linua (S3, 16). About the time of Justinian, in the 
sixth century, the position of the various srehbiahop- 
riee and bishoprics, all subject to the patriarchate of 
Alexandres, gave rise to a new distribution of provin- 
ces. The territory of Alexandras, with the western 
portion of the Delta in the vicinity of the Ostium Ca- 
nopicum, was called " The First Egypt," and the 
more eastern part, as far aa the Ostium Phatneticum, 
was termed "The Second Egypt." The northeast- 
ern quarter of the Delta, on the Pelusiac arm of the 
Nile, together with the eastern tract as far as the Ara- 
bian Gulf, received the appellation of " The First Au- 
gustamnica," tnd had Pelusium for ita capital. The 
inner part of the western Delta, aa far ss the Ostium 
PhatMticum, was named " The Second August am- 
nio." . Its capital wss Leontopolis. Thus the Delta, 
with the country immediately adjacent, embraced four 
small provinces. Middle Egypt still retained a large 
part of its previous extent, under the name of Middle 
Egypt or Arcadia (Mesa; Alyvurror, 4 'Kpnaiia). 
Memphis belonged to it as the northernmost state; 
but it was by this time greatly sunk in importance, 
and Oxyrynchua had succeeded it as the metropolis. 
Amid all these changes, the Thebsis was continually 
regarded as t separate district. It now received new 
accessions from the north, tnd a double appellation 
arose. The northern and smaller portion, which bad 
originally formed a part of Middle Egypt, was called 
he First Thebsis." To it was appended the Os> 
ei* Magna, and ita Metropolis wis Antawpolis. The 
southern regions as far as Phils) tnd Thatis, including 
a small part of .(Ethiopia, formed " The Second The- 
bsis." Its capital was Coptos. It seems unnecessary 
to pursue the subsequent changes that gradually en- 
sued, especially as they are of no peculiar importance 
either in point of history or geography. (Compare 
Hieroclet, Synekdtmot ; in Weese ling's Rom. Itin., 
AvuU, 1735, 1*0.— Maimer!, Gcogr., 10, 1, 306, ttqq.) 



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5. Population of Egypt. 
Diodorua Sicuhis (1, 81) states, on' the authority of 
the ancient Egyptian records, that the land contained, 
in the time of the Pharaohs, more than 16,000 cities 
and villages. The same writer informs us, that, in 
the time of the first Ptolemy, the number was above 
36,000. In this latter statement, however, there is an 
evident exaggeration. Theocritus (UylL 17, 82, tcqq.) 
assigns to Ptolemy Philadelphus the sovereignty over 
33,333 cities. In this also there is exaggeration, but 
not of so offensive a character as in the former case, 
since the sway of Philadelphus did, in fact, extend 
over other countries besides Egypt; such as Syria, 
Phcenicia, Cyprus, Pampbylia, Carhv, &c. Pomponiua 
Mela (1, 9), and Pliny (6, 9), who frequently copies 
him, confine themselves with good reason to a more 
moderate number. According to them, the Egyptians 
occupied, in the time of Amaais, 80,000 cities. This 
number is borrowed from Herodotus (8, 77), sad msy 
be nude to correspond with that first given from Dio- 
dorus Sicurus, if we take into consideration that Ame- 
sie had; extended his sway over Cyreoaica also, and 
that this may serve to swell the number as given by 
Herodotus, Mela, and Pliny, leaving about 18,009 for 
Egypt itself. Diodoms Siestas (i. c) gives the an- 
cient papulation of the country sa seven millions, an 
estimate which does not appear excessive, when com- 
pared with that of other lands. The number would 
seem to. have been somewhat increased during the 
reign of the Ptolemies, and to have continued so under 
the Roman sway, since we find Joeepbus (BelL Jud. 
8, 16) estimating the population of Egypt, in the time 
of Vespasian, at 7,600,000, without counting that of 
Alexandres, which, according to Diodorua (17, 58), 
was 300,000, exclusive of slaves. When we read, 
however, in the aame Diodorua (1, 81), that in his 
days the inhabitants of Egypt amounted to " not leas 
than three million*" (out tteirrovf elvat TpuumaUiv »e . 
ftvptadav), we must regard this number as the interpo- 
lation of > scribe, and must consider Diodorus as mere- 
ly wishing to convey this idea, that, in more ancient 
times, the population was said to have been seven mil- 
lions, and that in his own daya it waa not inferior to this. 
(Toil <5e avftnavrof Xaov to uev iraXawv fact ycymivai 
irept brraxoaiaQ jsvpiddac, xdt naff $p&c di o6« bX&r- 
roue elvat [rpiaKoeiuv]. Compare Wending, ad 
loc Mmnnert, 10, 2, 809, see?.) 

6. Complexion and Physical Structure of the . 
Egyptian*. 

A few remarks relative to the physical character of 
this singular people, may form no uninteresting prel- 
ude to their national history. There are two sources 
of information respecting the physical character of the 
ancient Egyptians. These are, first, the descriptions 
of their persons incidentally to be met with in the an- 
cient writers; and, secondly, the numerous remains 
of paintings and sculptures, aa well aa of human bodies, 
preserved among the ruina of ancient Egypt. It is not 
easy to reconcile the evidence derived from these dif- 
ferent quarters. The principal data from which a 
judgment is to be formed are aa fallows : 1. Account* 
given by the ancient*. If we were to judge from the 
remarks in some passages of the ancient writers alone, 
we should perhsps be led to the opinion that the Egyp- 
tians were a woolly-haired and black people, like the 
negroes of Guinea. There is a well-known passage 
of Herodotus (2, 104), which has often been cited to 
this purpose. The authority of this historian is of the 
more weight, aa he bad travelled in Egypt, and waa, 
therefore, well acquainted, from bis own observation, 
with the appearance of the people; and it ia well 
known that he ia in general very accurate and faithful 
in relating the facts and describing the objects which 
fell under his personal observation. In his account 
80 



of the people of Colchis, be says, that they were a 
colony of Egyptians, and be supports his opinion bv this 
argument, mat they were iieXayxpo*! Kal oiXirpixec, 
or, " black in complexion, and woolly-haired." These 
are exactly the words used in the "description of un- 
doubted negroes. Tbe same Colchians, it may be 
observed, are mentioned by Pindar {Pyth. 4, 377) 
aa being black, with the epithet of KtAawurctc, on 
which passage tbe scholiast observes, that the Col- 
chians were Mack, and that their dusky hue was at- 
tributed to their descent from the Egyptians, who were 
of tbe same complexion. Herodotus, in another place 
(8, 67), alludes to the complexion of the Egyptians, 
as if it was very strongly marked, and, indeed, as if 
they were quite black. After relating tbe fable of the 
foundation of tbe Dodonean oracle by a black pigeon, 
which had fled from Thebes in Egypt, and uttered its 
prophecies from the oaks at Dodona, he adds his con- 
jecture respecting the true meaning of the tale. He 
supposes the oracle to have been instituted by a female 
captive from the Thebaid, who was enigmatically de- 
scribed as a bird, and subjoins, that, " by representing 
the hud aa black, they marked that the woman was an 
Egyptian." Some other writers have left ua expres- 
sions equally strong. ^Eschylus, in the Sopphces 
(t>. 788, teqq.), mentions the crew of an Egyptian 
bark, as seen from an eminence on shore. The per- 
son who espies them concludes them to be Egyptians 
from their black complexion : 

vptxovoi 8 hvdoer vrfioi /icXayxfyoic 
yviouu Xevnuv kx trerXufidrov littv. 

There are other passages in ancient writers, in 
which tbe Egyptians are mentioned as a swarthy peo- 
ple, which might with equal propriety be applied to a 
perfect black, or to a brown or dusky Nubian. We 
nave, in one of the dialogues of Lucian (Navigium ten 
Veto. — vol. 8, 167, ed. Bip.), « ludicrous description 
of a young Egyptian, who is represented as belong- 
ing to the crew of a trading veasel at the Ph-stus. It 
is said of him, that, " besides being black, he had pro- 
jecting lips, and was very slender in the legs, and that 
hie hair and the curia bushed up behind marked him 
to be of servile rank." The words of the original are, 
oirof ii rtpbc iy fie'k&yxpovf thai, Kal Kp&xt0u6c to- 
ri, koI Aeirrdr iyav rolv okcXoXv, ? xo/tn or, 

Kal if Totmioa 6 irMxafior oweairetpaficvo;, ovk IXeth 
diptbv fnmv airrdv rival. The expression, bowevei, 
which is here applied to the hair, seems rather to 
agree with the description of the bushy curls worn by 
the Nouba, than with the Woolly heada of negroes. 
Mr. Legh, in speaking of the Barabras, near Syene, 
says, "The hair of the men is sometimes frizzled at 
the sides, and stiffened with grease, so aa perfectly to 
resemble tbe extraordinary projection on the head of 
tbe Sphinx. But the make of the limbs corresponds 
with tbe negro." (Legh'* Travel* in Egypt, p. 98.) 
In another physical peculiarity the Egyptian race is 
described as resembling the negro. 2Elian (Hut. 
Aram. 7, IS) informs .us, that the Egyptians used to 
boast that their women, immediately after they were 
delivered, could rise from their beds, and go about their 
domestic labour. Some of these passages are very 
strongly expressed, as if the Egyptians were negroes ; 
and yet it must be confessed, that if they really weie 
such, it is singular we do not find more frequent allu- 
sion to tbe fact. Tbe Hebrews were a fair people, 
fairer at least than the Arabs. Yet, in all the inter- 
course they had with Egypt, we never find in the sa- 
cred history the least intimation that the Egyptians 
were negroes ; not even on the remarkable occariou 
of the marriage of Solomon with the daughter of Pha- 
raoh. Were a modem historian to record the nuptials 
of a European monarch with the daughter of a negro 
king, such a circumstance would surely find its place. 
And since Egypt was so closely connected, first with 



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Grecian affairs when under the Ptolemies, ud after- 
wud with toe rest of Europe when it bid become s 
Roman province, it is very singular, on the supposition 
that ibu astioa was so remarkably different from the 
rest of nsskind, that we hare no allusion to it. We 
seldom find the Egyptians spoken of as a very peculiar 
race of ism. These circumstances induce us to hes- 
itate in explaining the expressions of the ancients in 
that Terr strong sense in which they at first strike us. 
— S. Tie second class of data, from which we may 
fcna a judgment on this subject, are Paintings in 
TemjUs, out taker remain*. If we may judge of the 
complexion of the Egyptians from the numerous paint- 
on found in the recesses of temples, and in the tombs 
of the kings in Upper Egypt, in which the colours are 
preserved in a very fresh state, we must conclude that 
the general complexion of this people was a chocolate, 
or a red copper colour. This may be seen in the 
coloured figures given by Belzoni, and in numerous 
pjtes in the splendid "Description de l'Egypte." 
This red colour is evidently intended to represent the 
complexion of the people, and is not pit on m the want 
of a lighter paint or flesh colour : for when the limbs 
or bodies are represented as seen through a thin veil, 
the tint used resembles the complexion of Europeans. 
The same shade might have been generally adopted 
if a darker one had not been preferred, as more truly 
representing the natural complexion of the Egyptian 
race. (Compare Belzoni' s Remarks, p. 339.) Female 
figures am sometimes distinguished by a yellow or 
tawny colour, and hence it is probable that the shade 
of """p**™"" was lighter in those who were protected 
from the son. A very curious circumstance in the 
found in Egyptian temples remains to be 
Besides the red figures, which are evidently 
tt to represent, the Egyptians, there are other fig- 
ures which are of a black colour. Sometimes these 
represent captives or slaves, perhaps from the negro 
countries ; but there are also paintings of a very dif- 
ferent kind, which occur chiefly Jn Upper Egypt, and 
particularly on the confines of Egypt and Ethiopia. In 
these the black and the red figures hold a singular re- 
lation to each other. Both have the Egyptian costume, 
sad the habits of priests, while the black figures are 
represented as conferring on the rod the instruments 
sad symbols of the sacerdotal office. " Tbia singular 
representation," says Mr. Hamilton, " which is often 
repeated in all the Egyptian temples, but only here at 
Pkue and at Elephantine with this distinction of col- 
our, may very naturally be supposed to commemorate 
the Tnnaininsrnn of religious fables and the social in- 
sthouera from the tawny Ethiopians to the compara- 
tively tin Egyptians." It consists of three priests, 
two of vbom, with black faces and bands, are repre- 
sented as pouring from two jars strings of alternate 
sceptres of Osiris and cruets aiuata over the head of 
another whose face is red. There are other paintings 
which seem 10 be nearly of the same purport In the 
temple of PbQat, the sculptures frequently depict two 
persons who equally represent the characters and sym- 
bols of Osiris, and two persons equally answering to 
those of Isis ; but in both esses one is invariably much 
older than the other, and appears to be the superior 
trinity. Mr. Hamilton conjectures that such figures 
represent the communication of religious rites from 
Ethiopia to Egypt, and the inferiority of the Egyptian 
Oaths. In these delineations there is a very marked 
sod positive distinction between the black figures and 
loose of fairer complexion ; the former are most fre- 
eoemlj conferring the symbols of divinity and sov- 
ereignty on the other. Besides these paintings de- 
scribed by Mr. Hamilton, there are frequent repetitions 
of a very singular representation, of which different 
examples may be seen in the beautiful plates of the 
" Description de l'Egypte." In these it is plain, that 
the idea swant to be conveyed can be nothing else than 



this, that the red Egyptians were connected by kindred, 
and were, in fact, the descendants of a black race, prob- 
ably tLe Ethiopian. (Compare plate 98 of the work just 
alluded to, and also plates 84 and 86.) In the sams 
volume of the " Description de l'Egypte" is a plate 
representing a painting at Eilithyia. Numerous fig- 
ures of the people are seen. It is remarkable that 
their hair is black and curled. " Les cheveux noire 
et Crises, sans etre court et crepua comma ceux das 
Negres." This is probably a correct account of the 
hair of the Egyptian race. — 8. The third class of data, 
for the present investigation is obtained from the 
form of the teuU. In reference to the form of the 
scull among the ancient Egyptians, and their osteologi- 
cal characters in general, Sere is no want of informa- 
tion. The innumerable mummies, in which the whole 
nation may be said to have remained entire to modem 
times, afford sufficient means of ascertaining the true 
form of the race and all ita varieties. Blumenbach, who 
has collected much information on everything relating 
to the history of mummies, in his excellent "Beytrage 
cur Naturgeschichte," concludes with a remark that 
the Egyptian race, in his opinion, contains three varie- 
ties. These tie, first, the Ethiopian form ; secondly, 
the " Hindns-artige," or a figure resembling the Hin- 
dus; and, thirdly, the " Berber-ahnliche," or, more 
properly, Berberin-ahnliche, a form similar to that 
of the Berbers or Berberins. It must be observed, 
however, that Blumenbach has been led to adopt this 
opinion, not so much from the mummies he has exam- 
ined, as from the remains of ancient arts and from 
historical testimonies. As far as their osteologies! 
characters are concerned, it does not appear that the 
Egyptians differed very materially from Europeans. 
Tbey certainly had not the character of the scull which 
belonged to the negroes in the western, parts of Africa ; 
and if any approximation to the negro scull existed 
among them, it must have been rare and in no great 
degree. Sbmmering has described the heada of four 
mummies seen by him ; two of them differed in nothing 
from the European formation ; the third had only one 
African character, viz., that of a larger space marked 
out for the temporal muscle ; the characters of the 
fourth are not particularized. Mr. Lawrence, in whose 
work {Lecture* on Physiology, p. 299, Am. ed.) the 
above evidence of Sbmmering ia cited, has collected 
a variety of statements respecting the form of the head 
in the mummies deposited in the museums and other 
collections in several countries. He observes, that 
in the mummies of females seen by Denon, in those 
from the Tbeban catacombs engraved in the great 
French work, and in several sculls and casts in the 
possession of Dr. Leach, the oeleological character is 
entirely European ; lastly, he adduces the strong evi- 
dence of Cuvier, who aaya, that he has examined in 
Paris, and in the various collections of Europe, more 
than fifty heads of mummies, and that not one among 
them presented the characters of the negro or Hot- 
tentot. (Lawrence's Lecture*, p. 301. — Observations 
sur It cadavre de la Venus HottentoUe, par M. Cuvier, 
Mem. du Museum d'Hist. Nat., 3, 173, stqq.) It 
could therefore be only in the features, aa far as they 
depend on the soft parts, that the Egyptians bore any 
considerable resemblance to the negro. And the same 
thing might probably be affirmed of several other na- 
tions, who must be reckoned among the native Afri- 
cans. Particularly it might be asserted of the Berberins 
or Nubians already mentioned, and of some tribes of 
Abyssinians. A similar remark might be made of the 
Copts. In neither of these races is it at all probable 
that the scull would exhibit any characteristic of the 
negro. It is here, then, that we are to look for the 
nearest representatives of the ancient Egyptians and 
Ethiopians, and particularly to the Copts, who are de- 
scended from the former, and to the copper-coloured 
races resembling the Berberins or Nubians. Denon 

31 



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makes mention of the resemblance which the Copts 
bear to the human figures painted or sculptured among 
the ruins of ancient Egypt. He adda the following 
remarks. " As to the character of the human figure, 
as the Egyptians borrowed nothing from other nations, 
they could only copy from their own, which is rather 
delicate than fine. The female forms, however, re- 
sembled the figures of beautiful women of the present 
day ; rojnd and voluptuous ; a small nose, the eyes 
long, half shut, and turned up at the outer angle like 
those of all persons whose sight is habitually fatigued 
by the burning heat of the sun or the dazzling white- 
ness of snow ; the cheeks round and rather thick, 
the lips full, the mouth large, but cheerful and smiling ; 
displaying, in short, the African character, of which 
the negro is the exaggerated picture, though perhaps 
the original type." The visages carved and painted 
on the heads of the sarcophagi may be supposed to 
give an idea of an Egyptian countenance. In .these 
there is a certain roundness and flatnoss of the features, 
and the whole countenance, which strongly resembles 
the description of the Copts, snd in some degree that 
of the Berberins. The colour of these visages is the 
red coppery hue of the last-mentioned people, and is 
nearly the same, though' not always bo dark, as that 
of the figures painted in the temples and catacombs. 
The most puzzling circumstance in this comparison 
refers to the hair. The Copts are said to have frizzled 
or somewhat crisp, though not woolly, hair. The old 
Egyptians, as' well as the Ethiopians, are termed by 
the Greeks o&X&Tpixee.. But the hair found in mum- 
mies is generally, if not alwaya, in flowing ringlets, 
as long and as smooth as that of any European. Its 
colour, which is often brown, may depend on art, or 
the substance used in embalming. But the texture is 
different from what we should expect it to be, either 
from the statements of ancient writers, or from the 
description of the races now existing in the same 
countries. — Conclusion. From what has been ad- 
duced, we may consider it as tolerably well proved, 
that the Egyptians and Ethiopians were nations of the 
same race, whose abode, from the earliest periods of 
history, were the regions bordering on the Nile. 
These nations were not negroes, such as the negroes 
of Guinea, though they bore some resemblance to 
that description of men, at least when compared 
with the people of Europe. This resemblance, how- 
ever, did not extend to the shape of the scull, in any 
great degree at least, or in the majority of instances. 
It perhaps only depended on a complexion and physi- 
ognomy similar to those of the Copts and Nubians. 
These races partake, in a certain degree, of the Afri- 
can countenance. The hair in the Ethiopians and 
' Egyptians must sometimes have been of a more crisp 
or bushy kind than that which is often found in mum- 
mies ; for such is the case in respect to the Copts, 
and the description of the Egyptians by all ancient 
writers obliges us to adopt this conclusion. In com- 
plexion it seems probable that this race was a coun- 
terpart of the Foulahs, in the west of Africa, nearly in 
the same latitude. The blacker Foulahs resemble in 
complexion the darkest people of the Nile ; they are 
of a deep brown or mahogany colour. The fairest of 
the Foulahs are not darker than the Copts, or even 
than some Europeans. Other instances of as great 
a variety may be found among the African nations, 
within the limits of one race, as in the Biahuarie Kaf- 
fera, who are of a clear brown colour, while the Kaf- 
fers of Natal on the coast are of a jet black. From 
some remarks of Diodorus and Plutarch, it would ap- 
pear that the birth of fair, and even red-haired indi- 
vidoals, occasionally happened in the Egyptian race. 
Both these writers say, that Typhon was 7rv/5/Wc, or 
red-haired, ; the former adds that a few of the native 
Egyptians were of that appearance : iltyove rtrac. 
(fhod. Sic. 1, 88.— Piufc de It. et O:, p. 363.— 
93 



Prichard's Physical History of Mankind, 1, 316, teq q 
id ed.) 

7. Origin of Egyptian Civilization. 

The question that now presents itself is one of 
singularly interesting character. Whence arose th 
arts and civilization of Egypt 1 Were they indigenoui 
or did they come to her as the gift of another land 
Everything seems to countenance the idea that civil 
ization came gradually down the valley of the Nile 
from the borders of Ethiopia to the shores of the Med 
ilerranean. It would appear, that when the arts of civ 
ilized life were first introduced into Upper Egypt, th 
lower section of the country formed merely a vast mo 
rass or gulf of the sea, and that they followed in thei 
progressive developement the course of the stream 
(Compare Herodotus, 2, 4.— Id. ibid. 5. — Id. ibid. 1 1 
seqq. — Died. Sic 1, 34 ; — and the memoirs of Girard 
Andrlossy, dec, in the Description de VEgypte. Cora 
pare also the remarks in the present volume under th< 
article Delta.) Monuments, tradition, analogies o 
every kind, are here in accordance with natural prob 
abilities. There was a period when the names o; 
Ethiopia and Egypt were confounded together, whei 
the two nations were thought to form but a singh 
people. (Compare the proofs of this assertion, as col- 
lected and discussed by Creuzer, Commentat. Herodot., 
p. 178, seqq., in opposition to Champollion the youn- 
gef ; and also the remarks in the present volume, un- 
der the articles ^Ethiopia and Meroe.) In all the re- 
citals and legends of the earliest antiquity the Egyp- 
tiansare associated with the Ethiopians, and to the lat- 
ter is assigned s distinguished character for wisdom, 
knowledge, and piety, which testifies to their priority 
in the order of civilization. (Compare Heeren, Ideen, 
2, 1, 314, 405, &c.) We see also the common tradi- 
tions of the two nations referring to Meroe the origin 
of most of the cities of Upper Egypt, and, among oth- 
ers, of -Thebes. It is to Meroe, its ancient metropolis, 
that Thebes attaches itself, when, for the purpose of 
extending their commercial interests, they send a col- 
ony to found, in the midst of the deserts, a new city 
of Ammon. {Herod. Z, Vt.—Diod. Sic. 2, 3.) The 
same institutions, a similar religion, language, and 
mode of writing, together with manners most strongly 
resembling one another, atteat the primitive connexion 
that subsisted between these three sacred cities, though 
so widely apart. It appears, then, that a sacred caste, 
established from a remote period on the borders of the 
Nile, in the island, or, rather, peninsula formed by the 
Astapus and Astaboras, sent forth gradually its sacer- 
dotal colonies, carrying with them agriculture and the 
first srts of civilized life, along the regions to the north, 
and that these, proceeding slowly onward, passed 
eventually the cataract of Syene, and entered upon the 
Valley of Egypt. Placing commerce under the safe- 
guard of religion, and subjugating the inhabitants of the 
regions to which they came, more by the benefits they 
conferred than by any exercise of force, these stran- 
gers became at last the controlling power of the land, 
and laid the foundation of that brilliant character in 
the annals of civilization which has acquired for Egypt 
so imperishable a name. (Compare Heeren, Idecu. 3, 
1, 363, seqq. — Id. ibid. 2, 632, seqq. — Goerres, My- 
thengeschickle, 2, 881, seqq. — Creuzer, Commentat. 
Herodot., p. 178, sea?- — Symboltk, par Guignitul, 
1, 2, 778, seqq.) But whence came the civilization 
of Meroe 1 — This question will be considered in a dif 
ferent article. ( Vid. Meroe.) 

8. Egyptian History. 
The Egyptians, like the Hindus and Persians, had 
allegorical traditions among them respecting the in- 
troduction of agriculture and the first beginnings of 
civilization in their country. Such were the Songs of 
bit, whose high antiquity is attested by Plato (de Leg. 



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J.— ft- 3, voL 2, p. 239, ei. Better). They had, in 
the second place, epic traditions, a kind of poetic chron- 
icles, embracing the succession of high priests, and 
the dynasties of the Pharaohs, or monarcha of the 
coonirf. Such were the volumes of papyrus, , which 
the priests unrolled to satisfy the questions of Herod- 
ots* (J, 100). We would err greatly, however, were 
we t» ■appose that these were actual histories. They 
were lather a species of heroic tales, intermingled with 
leagues legends, and where allegory still played the 
due/ part, as in the Ramaxan and Mehabharat of the 
Hindas, the ScktJmemtk of the Persians, and the 
tadjuens of the Greeks previous to the return, or in- 
vasion, of the Hereclidaa. These originals are unfor- 
tunately lost for as. In their stead we have the sa- 
cred books of the Hebrews, which offer a great number 
of recitals on this subject, but fragmentary in their na- 
ture, without derelopement, and often extremely vague. 
Hence it ia difficult to conciliate these recitals with 
those of the Greeks, which are in general more cir- 
cumstantial and extended. Some time before Herod- 
ores, Hippya of Rhegium and other travellers had 
visited Egypt- Among these Hecatnua of Miletus ia 
the most conspicuous. He travelled thither about the 
59th Olympiad, and described particularly the upper 
part of Egypt, bestowing especial attention on the 
stale or city of Thebes, and the history of its kings. 
Hence the reason why Herodotus says so little on these 
points. (Crasser, fragm. Hilt. Grae. antiquum*., 
p. 16, uqe.—SeUolL, Hitt. Lit. Or. 3, 13S, ieqq.) 
About the same period, Hellanicus of Lesbos also 
save a description of Egypt. (Heilaniei frafm.,ed. 
Start., p. 38, —qq.) Herodotus succeeded. Visiting 
the country about seventy years after its conquest by 
the Persians, he traversed its whole extent, and con- 
signed to his greet work all that he had seen, all that 
he had heard from the priests, aa well with regard to 
the monuments aa the history of Egypt, and added to 
these ma own opinions on what had passed under his 
view or been related to him by others. (Herod , lib. 
1 el 3.) The state or city of Memphis ia the princi- 
pal subject of his narrative. After him came Theo- 
poaipoa of Chios, Ephoraa of C amm ( FragnL ,ti. Marx., 
p. 213, «?*.), Eadoxns of Cnidus, sod Pbilistus of 
Syracuse. Bat their works have either totally perish- 
ed, or at beat only a few fragments remain. At a la- 
ter period, and subsequent to the founding of Alexan- 
dres. Hecatanaa of Abdera travelled to Thebes. This 
tack pbee under the first Ptolemy. ( Crcuzcr.fragm., 
&cp »,«e«y. — Sckili, Hilt. Lit. Gr.3, ill, ieqq.) 
In the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphia, two centuries 
and a fcdf before the Christian era, Msnetho, an Egyp- 
tian prase, of Heliopolis in Lower Egypt, wrote, by 
order of that prince, the history of his own country in 
the Greek language, translating it, as he states himself, 
oat of the mcred records. His work is, most unfor- 
tunately, ha* ; but the fragments which have been 
preserved to as by the writings of Josephus, in the 
first century of the Christian era, aa well as by the 
Christian ehrenoanphists, axe, if entitled to confidence, 
of the highest historical value. What we have re- 
maining at the work of Manetho presents us with a 
chronological list of the successive rulers of Egypt, 
tram the first foundation of the monarchy to the time 
of Alexander of Macedon, who succeeded the Per- 
sons. This list is divided into thirty dynasties. It 
xiguHy contained the length of reign as well aa the 
seme of every king ; but, in consequence of successive 
baafcripiioDs, variations have crept in, and some few 
oausaoos also occur in the record, aa it has reached 
aa through the medium of different authors. The 
esmcdegy of Msnetho, adopted with confidence by 
some, and rejected with equal confidence by others 
(his Ease and his information not being even noticed 
by seme of the modern systematic writers on Egyptian 
history}, baa received the moat unquestionable and 



decisive testimony of his general fidelity by the inter- 
pretation of the hieroglyphic inscriptions on the exist- 
ing monuments ; so much so, that, by the accordance 
of the facts attested by these monuments with the rec- 
ord of the historian, we have reason to expect the en- 
tire restoration of the annals of the Egyptian monarchy 
antecedent to the Persian conquest, and which, indeed, 
ia already accomplished in part. (Quarterly Journal 
of Science, New Series, vol 1, p. 180.) The next 
authority after Manetho ia Eratosthenes. lie was 
keeper of the Alaxandrean library in the reign of Ptol- 
emy Eaergetee, the successor to Ptolemy Philadel- 
phia. Among the lew fragments of his works which 
nave reached us, transmitted through the Greek histo- 
rians, is a catalogue of thirty-eight or thirty-nine kings 
of Thebes, commencing with Menes (who is mentioned 
by the other authoritiea also aa the first monarch of 
Egypt), and occupying by their successive reigns 1065 
years. (Foreign Quarterly, No. 24, p. 868.) These 
names are stated to have been compiled from original 
records existing at Thebes, which city Entoathenea 
visited expressly to consult them. The names of the 
first two kings of the first dynasty of Manetho are the 
same with those of the first two kings in the catalogue 
of Entoathenea ; but the remainder of the catalogue 
presents no farther accordance, either in the names or 
in the duration of the reigns. Next to Herodotus, 
Manetho, and Eratosthenes, the most important author* 
ity, in relation to Egypt and its institutions, is Diodo- 
rus Siculos, who lived under Cesar and Augustus, and 
who, independent of his own observations and hia re- 
searches on the spot, refers frequently, in this part of 
his work, to the old Greek historians, and particularly 
to Heca tarns of Miletua, after whom he describes the 
ancient kingdom of Thebes, and gives an account of 
the monuments of this famous city, with surprising 
fidelity. (Description it VEnpte, t, 69, ieqq.— Com- 
pare Heyne, it fontHmt Did. Sic. in Comment. Sot. 
Giti. 6, 104, ieqq.) Strabo, the celebrated geogra- 
pher, visited Egypt in the suite of JEtiru Gallus, about 
the commencement of our era. He doea not content 
himself, however, with merely recounting what fell 
under his own personal observation, but frequently re- 
fers to the earlier writers. Plutarch, in many or bis 
biographies, and especially in hia treatise on faia and 
Osiris ; Philoatratus, in hia life of Apolloniua ; Por- 
phyry, Iambhchua, Horapollo, and many other writers, 
have preserved for ua a large number of interesting 
particulars relative to the anliquitiea and the religion 
of Egypt. — We have already alluded to the quarter 
whence the genne of Egyptian civilization ia supposed 
to have been derived. The first impression having 
been one of a sacerdotal character, we find the begin- 
nings of Egyptian history partaking, in consequence, 
of the same. Hence the tradition, emanating from 
the priests of Egypt, according to which the supreme 
deities first reigned over the country ; then those of the 
second class ; after these the inferior deities ; then the 
demigods ; and, laat of all, men. The first deity that 
reigned waa Knepk : this embraces the moat ancient 
period, of an unknown duration. To Kneph succeed- 
ed Phtha, who has for his element, fire, and whose 
reign it ia impossible to calculate. Next came the 
Sun, his offspring, who reigned thirty thousand years 
After him, Crones (Saturn) and the other soda occu- 
py, by their respective rules, a period of three thou- 
sand nine hundred and eighty-four years. Then 
succeeded the Cabin, or planetary gods of the second 
class. After these came the demigods, to the number 
of eight, of whom Osiris wss probably regarded as the 
first After the gods and demigods appeared human 
kings and the first dynasty of Thebes, composed of 
thirty-seven kings, who succeeded one another for the 
space of fourteen hundred years, or, according to oth- 
ers, one thousand and fifty-five. (Compare Chron. 
Xgyft., ep.Eutto. TV*. Tent}. 2, p. 7, and Manetho, 

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J2GYPTUS. 



^GYPTUS. 



ap. SynctU.) Gorres think* that these thirty-seven 
kings, who are given as so many mortals, may have 
been nothing else but the thirty-seren Decans, with 
Menes at their head ; so that, by rejecting this dynasty 
as a continuation of the divine dynasties, those of a 
strictly human nature, and, with them, the historical 
times of Egypt, will have commenced, according to 
the calculations of this ingenious and profound writer, 
. 3712 years before the Christian era. (GOrrtt, My- 
thengeschichte, vol. 2, p. 412.— Compare Creuxer, 
Symbolik, 1, 469, seqq., and Guigniout's note, 1, 2, 
841.) Be this, however, as it may, the common ac- 
count makes Menes to have been the first human king 
of Egypt, and his name begins the dynasties of Thebes, 
of This, and of Memphis. Menes completed the 
work of the gods, by perfecting the arts of life, and 
dictatingto men the taws he had received from the 
skies. This Menu, or Menus, or Mines (a name 
which Eratosthenes makes equivalent to Ditmios, i. e., 
Jovudis), can hardly be an historical personage. He 
resembles a Sort of intermediate being between the 
gods and the human kings of the lands, a divine type 
of man, a symbol of intelligence descended from the 
skies, and creating human society upon earth ; similar 
to the Mourn or Motion of India, the Minos of 
Crete, &c. He is a conqueror, a legislator, and a 
benefactor of men, like Osiris-Bacchus ; like him, he 
perishes under the blows of Typhon, for he was killed 
by a hippopotamus, the emblem of this evil genius ; 
like him, moreover, he has the ox for his symbol, Mne- 
vis the legislator being none other than the bull Mne- 
vis of Heuopolis. (Compare Voiruy, Recherckes sur 
rHist. Am. 3, 282, seqq. — Prichard's Analysis of 
Egyptian Mythology, p. 381. — Creuxer' s Symbolik, 
par Guigniaut, 1, 2, 780.) The successor of Menes 
was Thoth, or Atholhes, to whom is ascribed the in- 
vention of writing, and many other useful arts. We 
have in the fragments of Manetho a full list of two dy- 
nasties seated at This, at the head of the first of which 
we find these two names. These two dynasties in- 
clude fifteen kings, and may therefore have continued 
about 400 years ; the duration assigned to their col- 
lective reigns, in Eusebius's version of Manetho, is 
5M years, but this is probably too long, as it is a sum 
that far exceeds what would be the result of a similar 
series of generations of the usual length. From the 
time of Menes to that of Moeris, Herodotus lesves us 
entirely in the dark. He states merely (2, 100) that 
the priests enumerated between them 330 kings. 
Diodorus Siculus (1, 45) counts, in an interval of 1400 
years between Menes and Busiris, eight kings, sev- 
en of whom are nameless, but the Mat was Busiris 
11. This prince is succeeded by eight descendants, 
«ix of whom are in like manner nameless, and the 
seventh and eighth are both called Uchoreus. From 
JJchoreus to Moeris he reckons twelve generations. 
Manetho, on the other hand, reckons between Menes 
and the time at which we may consider his history 
ms becoming authentic, sixteen dynasties, which in- 
cludes nearly three thousand years. But, whatever 
opinion we may form relative to these obscure and 
conflicting statements, whether we regard these early 
dynasties as collateral and contemporary reigns (Creu- 
xer's Symbolik, par Guigniaut, 1, 2, 780), or as be- 
longing merely to the fabulous periods of Egyptian 
history, the following particulars may bo regarded as 
tolerably authentic. Egypt, during this interval, had 
undergone numerous revolutions. She had detached 
herself from Ethiopia ; the government, wrested from 
the priestly caste, had passed into the hands of the 
military order ; Thebes, now become powerful in re- 
sources, and asserting her independence, bad com- 
menced under a line probably of native princes, her ca- 
res of conquests and brilliant undertakings. On a sud- 
den, in the time of a king called, by Manetho, Timaos, 
but who does not appear among the names in his list of 
34 



dynasties, a race of strsngers entered from the ea 
into Egypt. (Josephus, centra Ap. 1, 14. — Compel 
Eusebtus, Prop. Ev. 10, 13.) Everything yielde 
to these fierce invaders, who, having taken Mempbi 
and fortified Avaris (or Abaris), afterward Pelusiuo 
organized a species of government, gave themselvi 
kings, and, if we believe certain traditions, found* 
On (tne city of toe Son ; Heliopolis), to the east i 
the apex of the Delta. (Jubo, cited by Pliny, 6, 3 
Compare VUney, Recherckes sur CHist. Ane. 3, 34' 
seqq. — Prichari's Analysis of Egyptian Mytkol 
gy, p. 66, Append. — Creuxer, Commentot. Herodo, 
p. 188, seqq.) More than two centuries passed und 
the dominion of this race. They are commonly calli 
the shepherd race, and their dynasty that of the Hycsc 
or Shepherd-kings. The sway of these invaders 
said by Manetho to have been tyrannical and era 
They exercved the utmost atrocity towards the nati- 
inhabitants, putting the males to the sword, and red 
cing their wives and children to slavery. The co 
quest of Egypt by the Shepherds, as they are cslle 
dates in the year 2082 B.C. Their dynasty continu 
to rule at Memphis 260 years, and their kings, six 
number, were Salatis, Bonn, Apacbnaa, Apophis, J 
nias, and Asseth. It was during the rule of the she 
herd race that Joseph was in Egypt. Thus we hi 
it at once explained how strangers, of whom the Egj 
tians were so jealous, should be admitted into powc 
how the king should -be even glad of new settlers, c 
cupying considerable tracts of his territory ; and hi 
the circumstance of their being shepherds, though a 
ous to the conquered people, would endear them to 
sovereign whose family followed the "same occupati< 
After the death of Joseph, the Scripture tells us tha 
king arose who knew not Joseph. This strong < 
pression could hardly be applied to any lineal succi 
sor of a monarch who had received such signal benel 
from him. It would lead us rather to suppose, thai 
new dynasty, hostile to the preceding, had obtair 
possession of the throne. Now this is exactly I 
case. For a few years later, the Hycsos, or Shephe 
kings, were expelled from Egypt by Amosis, called 
monuments Amenophtiph, the founder of the ei| 
teenth, or Diospolitan dynasty. Ha would natun 
refuse to recognise the services of Joseph, and wo 
consider all his family as necessarily his enemii 
and thus, too, we understand his fear* lest they sho 
join the enemies of Egypt, if any war fell out w 
them. (Exod. 1, 10.) For the Hycsos, after th 
expulsion, continued long to harass the Egyptians 
attempts to recover their lost dominion. (Rose 
ni, p. 291.) Oppression wsa, of course, die me; 
employed to weaken first, snd then extinguish, 
Hebrew population. The children of Israel w 
employed in building up the cities of Egypt. It 
been observed by ChampoUion, that many of the < 
fices erected by the eighteenth dynasty are upon 
ruins of older buildings, which had been manife: 
destroyed, (ids Lett., p. 7, 10, 17.) This circi 
stance, with the absence of older monuments in 
parts of Egypt occupied by the Hycsos, confirms 
testimony of historians, that these conquerors destro 
the monuments of native princes ; and thus was 
opportunity given to the restorers of a native so 
eignty to employ those whom they considered their 
emies' allies in repairing their injuries. To this 
riod belong the magnificent edifices of Kamac, Lu 
and Medinet-Abou. At the same time we have 
express testimony of Diodorus Siculus, that it was 
boast of the Egyptian kings that no Egyptian had pu 
hand to the work, but that foreigners had been c 
polled to do it (I, 56). With regard to the opii 
entertained by many learned men, that the childro 
Israel were themselves the shepherd race, it ma} 
sufficient to remark that the Hycsos, as represei 
on monuments, have the features, colour, and o 



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JEGYFTUS. 



jEOTPTOS. 



Dot of the Jewish, bat of the Scythian 
tubes. It was under a king of the eighteenth dynasty 
oat the roseate* went out from Egypt, namely, Ram- 
ies V., toe 16th monarch of the hoe. We have here, 
m this eighteenth dynasty, the commencement of what 
any be j s upeily termed the second period of Egyptian 
history. The names of the monarch* are given as fol- 
low sy the aid of ChampoUion's discoreries : 1. 
T WfMu L, of whom there is a colossal statne in 
Ibe stream at Toxin. S. Thoutmont II. (Amon- 
Mb\ whose name appears on the most ancient parts 
sf Ae palace of Karnac. 3. His daughter Amenri, 
who governed Egypt for the space of twenty-one yean, 
sad erected the greatest of the obelisks of Karnac. 
This Test monolith is erected in her name to the god 
Annuo, and the memory of her father. 4. TkSui- 
m> III., snrnamed Jfm, the Mocru of the Greeks. 
The remaining monuments of his reign are the pilaster 
and granite haBs of Karnac, several temples in Nubia, 
the great Sphinx of the Pyramids, and the colossal ob- 
elisk now in front of the church of St. John Late ran 
at Rome. 5. His successor was Antrwphu I., who 
was sacceeded by, 6. Tkoutmont IV. This king 
Braked the temples of the Wady Alfa and Arnada, in 
Nobis, which Amenoph had begun. 7. Atnenophit 
II., whose vocal statne, of colossus size, attracted the 
notice of me Greeks and Romans. ( Vuf. Memnon, 
sod Merananiam.) The most ancient parts of the pal- 
ace at Luxor, the temple of Cnouphis at Elephantine, 
the Kemnonrom, and a palace at Sohled, in Nubia, are 
monuments of the splendour and piety of this monarch. 
8. Hants, who bnrh the grand colonnade of the palace 
at Loxor 9. Queen Amenchera, or Tmau-Mot, com- 
memorated in an inscription preserved in the museum 
at Term. 10. Ramie* I., who built the hypostyle 
ball at Karnac, and excavated a sepulchre for himself 
at Beban-el-Moakrak. 11 and 12. Two brothers 
sfsWnscfi and Otutrei. They have left monuments 
ef their existence, the last in the grand obelisk now in 
the Piazza del Popolo at Rome ; the first, in the beau- 
uful palace at Rooms, and the splendid tomb discov- 
ered by Bebeoni. 13. Their successor caused the two 
great obehaks at Loxor to be erected. This was the 
second Sssuu. 14. Harnett III. Of this king dedi- 
catory inscriptions are found in the second court of 
(he palace of Karnac, and his tomb still exists at 
Thebes. 15. Ramie* IT., snrnamed Mci-Amoun, 
bait the great palace of Medinet- Abou, and a temple 
near ate southern gate of Karnac. The magnificent 
saieopaagas which formerly enclosed the body of this 
king, ass keen removed from the catacombs of Beban- 
d-Mo u Bs uk , and is now in the Museum of the Louvre. 
He was sacceeded by his son, 16. Raima V., snr- 
named AmaapkU, who is considered as the last of 
this dynasty, snd who was the father of Sesostris. 
The acta of mne of the kings of this dynasty are com- 
memorated by the Greek historians, with the exception 
of Moeris. He is celebrated by them for a variety of 
nsefbl labours, and appears to have done much to pro- 
mote the prosperity of Egypt, particularly by form- 
ing a lake to receive the surplus waters of the Nile 
during' the inundation, and to distribute them for Ag- 
ricultural purposes during its fall. (Fid. Moeris.) 
The reign of Ramses Amenophis is the era of the Ex- 
odus. The Scripture narrative describes this event as 
i man i U il with the destruction of a Pharaoh, and the 
caoDoiogieal calculation adopted by Rossellini would 
■aiut it eoineide with the last year of this monarch's 
«ogn. Wilkinson snd Greppo, however, maintain that 
«a need not necessarily suppose the death of a king to 
eomeide with the exit from Egypt, as the Scripture 
speaks, with the exception of one poetics] passage, of 
lbs oastnetion of Pharaoh's host rather than of the 
n death. But in RosseDini's scheme, this 
: from the received interpretation is not want- 
ed. - Wakmssn makes the exodus to have taken place 



in the fourth year of the reign of Tho throes III. (Hat, 
IBtrog., p. 4. — Mrniurt end Customs, dec., vol. 1, p. 
84.) Vast, however, aa was the glory of this line of 
kings, it was eclipsed by the greater reputation of the 
chief of the next, or nineteenth dynasty, Ramses VI., 
the famed Sesostris (called also Setootu or Seiko* 
and likewise JEgyphu, or Ramttee* tke Great. — Con 
pare Champolhon, Sytt. Hierogl., p. 334, eeqq .). Se- 
sostris regenerated, in some sense, his country and na- 
tion, by chasing from it the last remnant of the stran- 
ger-races which had dwelt within the borders of Egypt, 
by giving to the Egyptian territory certain fixed limits, 
by dividing it into Domes, and by giving a powerful 
impulse to arts, to commerce, and to the spirit of con- 
quest. One may see in Herodotus and Diodorus what 
a strong remembrance his various exploits in Africa, 
Asia, and perhaps even Europe, bad left behind them. 
His labours in Egypt are attested by numerous monu- 
ments, not only from the Mediterranean to Syene, but 
far beyond, in Ethiopia, which at this time probably 
formed a portion of Egypt. (Champollion, Syet. Hit- 
rogl, p. 839, 891.) The result of his military expe- 
ditions wbb to enrich his country with the treasures of 
Ethiopia, Arabia Felix, and India, and to establish a 
communication with the countries of the East by means 
of fleets which he equipped on the Red Sea. That 
the history of his conquests hss been exaggerated by 
the priests of Egypt, whose interests he favoured, can- 
not be denied. Equally apparent is it that his history 
bears some resemblance to the legends of Osiris. 
These assimilations, however, of their heroes to their 
gods, were familiar to the priests of the land. (Vid. 
Sesostris.) This nineteenth dynssty, at the head of 
which stands Sesostris, consisted of six kings, sll of 
whom bear, upon monuments, the name of Ramses, 
with various distinguishing epithets. The last of these 
is supposed to have been contemporary with the Tro- 
jan war, and to be the one called Polybus by Homer. 
The twentieth dynasty of Manetho also took its tills 
from Thebes. Their names may still be read upon 
the temples of Egypt ; but the extracts from Manetho 
do not give their epithets. In the failure of his testi- 
mony, Champollion Figeac baa had recourse to the list 
given by Syncellns. The chief of this dynssty is cel- 
ebrated, under the name of Remphis, or Rempsinitus, 
for his great riches. Herodotus gives him, for his suc- 
cessor, Cheops, the builder of the largest of the Pyra- 
mids. The same authority places Cephrenas, the build- 
er of the second Pyramid, next in order ; and, after 
him, Mycerinus, for whom is claimed the erection of 
the third Pyramid. The researches of the two Cham- 
poll'ions have not discovered any confirmation of 
this statement of the father of profane history. The 
next dynasty, the twenty-first of Manetho, derived its 
name from Tenia, a city of Lower Egypt. It was 
composed of seven kings, the first of whom was the Men- 
it* of the Greek historians, the Smendu of Manetho, 
whose name Champollion reads, upon the monument 
of his reign, Mandouihtph. He was the builder of the 
fabric known in antiquity by the name of the labyrinth. 
The other kings of this family are also commemorated. 
The account which has reached us of the building of 
the labyrinth, throws great light upon the state of the 
government of Egypt during the reign of Mendee and 
his successors, ft was divided into aa many separate 
compartmenta as there were nomee in Egypt, and in 
them, at fixed periods, assembled deputations, from 
each of these districts, to decide upon the most impor- 
tant questions. Hence we may infer, that, in the change 
of dynasty, the Egyptians had succeeded in the estao- 
lishment of a limited monarchy, controlled like the con- 
stitutional governments of Europe, if not by the im- 
mediate representatives of the people, at least by the 
expression of the opinion of the notables. The ruins 
of Bubastis, in turn, present memorials of the reigns 
of the Bubastite kings. (Bulletin iu Scienet* But., 

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jEGYPTUS. 



jESYPTUS. 



7, 472.) These succeeded the first dynasty of Ta- 
nites ; end we find Egypt again immediately connect- 
ed with Judea, and its history with that of the Scrip- 
tures. Sesonchis, the head of this dynasty, was the 
conqueror of Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, and the 
plunderer of the treasures, of David. This king, the 
Steak of the second Book of Kings, built the great 
temple of Bubastis, which is described by Herodotus, 
and likewise the first court of the palace of Karnac at 
Thebes. His son Otorchon (Zoroch), who also led 
an army into Syria, continued the important works com- 
menced by bis father. But their successor Takclliothis, 
is only known to us by a simple funereal picture, con- 
secrated to the memory of one of his sons. This paint- 
ing has been broken, and one half is preserved in the 
Vatican, while the other forms a part of tbe royal col- 
lection at Turin. Various buildings are found among 
the ruins of Heliopolis, and still more among those of 
Tanis, constructed in the reigns of the Pharaohs of 
the second Tanite dynasty. (Bulletin des Sciences 
Hut., 7, 472.) Upon these the names of three of them 
have been deciphered, Pctubastts, Osorthos, and 
Psamnws. Champollion considers them ss having 
immediately preceded the great Ethiopian invasion, 
which gave to Egypt a race of kings from that country. 
Manetho, however, places Bocchons between these two 
races, forming his twenty-fourth dynasty of one Saite. 
The yoke of these foreign conquerors does not appear 
i to have been oppressive, as is evident from the number 
of monuments that exist, not only in Ethiopia, but in 
Egypt, bearing dedications made in the name of the 
kings of this race, who ruled at the same time in both 
countries. The names inscribed on these monuments 
are Schabak, Sevekotheph, Tahrak, and Amenasa, all 
of whom are mentioned, either by Greek or sacred his- 
torians, under the names of Sabacon, Seveckus, Tha- 
raca, snd Ammeris. (Bulletin det Science* Hist., ubi 
supra.) No more than three of these kings are men- 
tioned in the list of Manetho as belonging to this dy- 
nasty, the last being included in that which follows. 
On the departure of the Ethiopians, the affairs of Egypt 
appear to have fallen into great disorder. This civil 
discord was at last composed by Psammiticus I. Me- 
morials of his reign are found in the obelisk now on 
Monte Litorio at Rome, and in the enormous columns 
of the first court of the palace of Karnac at Thebes. 
(Bulletin det Sciences Hist, vol. 7, p. 471.) The 
rule of Nechso II. is commemorated by several stela 
and statues. It was this monarch that took Jerusalem, 
and carried King Jehoabaz into captivity. On the isle 
of Phils are found buildings bearing the legend of 
Psammiticus II., as well as of Apries (the Hophra of 
Scripture). An obelisk of his reign also exists at Rome. 
The greater part of the fragments of sculpture, scatter- 
ed among the ruins of Sais, bear the royal legend of 
the celebrated Amasis, and a monolith chapel of rose 
granite, dedicated by him to the Egyptian Minerva, is 
in the museum of the Louvre. Psammenitus was the 
last of this dynasty of Saites. Few tokens of his short 
reign are extant, besides the inscription of a statue in 
the Vatican. He was defeated and dethroned by Cam- 
byses : nor did he long survive his misfortune. With 
bun fell the splendour of the kingdom of Egypt ; and 
from this date (525 B.C.), the edifices and monu- 
ments assume a character of far less importance. Still, 
however, we find materials for" history. Even the fe- 
rocious Cambyscs is commemorated in an inscription 
on the statue of a priest of Sais, now in the Vatican. 
The name of Darius is sculptured on the columns of 
the great temple of the Oasis ; and in Egypt we still 
read inscriptions dated in different years of the reigns 
of Xerxes and Artaxerzes. (Bulletin des Sciences 
Hist., 7, 471.) During the reigns of the last three 
kings, a constant struggle was kept up by the Egyptians 
for their independence. The Persian yoke was for a 
moment shaken off by Amyrtceus and tfepkereus. Two 



Sphinges in the Louvre bear the legend of Nepheitvt 
and his successor Achoris, who are also commemorated 
by the sculptures of the temple of Ely tbya. In the In- 
stitute of Bologna there is a statue of the Mendesian 
Nepherites; and the names of the two Nectanebi, who 
succeeded him in the conduct of this national war, are 
still extant on several buildings of the isle of Phils, and 
at Kamac,.Kourna, and Saft. Darius Ochus, in spite 
of the valiant resistance of these last kings, again re- 
duced Egypt to tbe condition of a Persian province - 
but his name is nowhere to be found among the re- 
mains yet discovered in Egypt. Thus, then, the re- 
searches of Champollion have brought to our view an 
almost complete succession of the kings of Egypt, from 
the invasion of the Hycsos to the final conquest by the 
Persians, whose empire fell to Alexander in 332 B.C. 
It tallies throughout, in a remarkable manner, with the 
remains of the historian Manetho ; and, by the aid of 
his series of dynasties, the gaps still left by hieroglyphic 
discoveries may be legitimately filled Up. Before the 
former era all is dark and obscure ; in the next part 
we have little but a list of names ; but, from the reign 
of Psammiticus I., ample materials exist in the histo- 
ries of Herodotus and Diodorus ; and. from the reign 
of Darius Ochus, the annals of Egypt become incorpo- 
rated with those of Greece. Any farther reference, 
therefore, to the history of Egypt becomes superfluous 
inthisplace. (Vid. Ptolemams.) With regard, how- 
ever, to tbe discoveries of Champollion, the following 
interesting particulars may be stated. Philip Arida- 
us, the brother of Alexander, is commemorated at Kar- 
nac, and on the columns of the temple at Aschmouneun, 
The name of tbe other Alexander, the son of the con- 
queror by Roxana, is engraved on the granite propylaei 
at Elephantine. Ptolemy Soter, and his eon Ptolemy 
PUladelpkus, have left the remembrance of their pros 

rrous reigns in various important works. Euergeiei 
not only ruled over Egypt, but rendered his nami 
celebrated by his military expeditions, both in Africi 
and Asia. His titles are, therefore, not only inscribe) 
on the edifices constructed during his reign in Egypt 
but are to be met with in Nubia, particularly on thi 
temple of Dakkhe ; and the basso relievos, on a tri 
umphal gate constructed by him st Thebes, may be ad 
mired even among the ancient relics of the magnif 
cence of the eighteenth dynasty. The temple of An 
tsopolis dates from the reign of Ptolemy Philopaior an 
Arsinoe bis wife. In his reign, too, the ancient palace 
of Karnac and Luxor, at Thebes, were repaired. Ptolt 
my Epiphanes, and his wife Cleopatra of Syria, ded 
cated one of the many temples of Phils, as well as th 
temple of Edfou. Of the Roman emperors we find ii 
scribed in hieroglyphics the names and titles of A\ 
guslus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius* Ncrj>, Vctpt 
sian, Titus, Domitian, Nerva, Trajan, Adrian, Mm 
cue Aurelius, Lucius Vents, and Comnodus. Th 
last name is to be read four times among the inscri] 
tions of the temple of Esne ; which, before this disco 
ery, was considered to have been erected in an age fi 
more remote than is reached by any of our historie 
So far from this, it is, in truth, with but one exceptio 
the most modern of all the edifices yet discovered 
the Egyptian style of architecture. Thus, then, as f 
down as the year 180 of our present era, the worst 
of the ancient Egyptian deities was publicly exercise 
and preserved all its external splendour ; for the tei 
pies of Dendera, Esne, and others constructed und 
the Roman rule, are, for size and labour, if not for thi 
style of art, well worthy of the ages of Egyptian ind 
pendence. Previous to these discoveries, it had t 
come a matter of almost universal belief, that the ar 
the writing, and even the ancient religion of Egyi 
had ceased to be used from the time of the Persian cc 
quest (American Quarterly Rev., No. 7, p. 34, «« 
—Quarterly Journal of Science, etc., Tfcxo Scries. 
183, seqq.) 



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9. Egyptian Writing. 
in writing their language, tbe ancient ] 



luis em- 
ployed three different kinds of character*. Pint : fig. 
arsM* ; or representations of the objects themselves. 
Secondly: tym t Wic ; or repreaentations of certain 
physical or materisJ objects, expressing metaphorically, 
or ranrentionalry, certain ideas ; such as, a people 
ilrfrt to their king, figured, metaphorically, by a 
he; the universe, conventionally, by a beetle. Third- 
ly: / gam et i c , or representatiTe of sounds, that is to say, 
tncth alphabetical characters. The phonetic signs 
im also portraits of physical and material objects ; 
isd each stood for the initial sound of the word in the 
Egyptian language which expressed the object por- 
trayed : thus a Hon was the sound L, became a lion 
was called Laho ; and a hand a T, because -a hand 
was called Tot. The form in which these objects 
■mat presented, when employed as phonetic charac- 
ters, was conventional and definite, to distinguish 
them from the same objects need either figuratively or 
symbolically. Tiros, the conventional form of the 
paoceue T was the hand open and outstretched. In 
any other form the hand would be either a figurative or 
a symboEc sign- The number of distinct characters 
empWyed as phonetic signs appears to hare been about 
ISO ; consequently, many were homophones, or hav- 
ing the same signification. The three kinds of char- 
acters were used indiscriminately in the same writing, 
and occasionally in the composition of the same word. 
The formal Egyptian writing, therefore, snch as we 
see it suH existing on the monuments of the country, 
was a series of portraits of physical and material ob- 
jects, of which a small proportion had a symbolical 
meaning, a still smaller proportion a figurative mean- 
ing, bat the great body were phonetic or alphabetical 
signs : and to these portraits, sculptured or painted 
with sufficient fidelity to leave no doubt of the object 
represented, the name of hieroglyphics or sacred char- 
acters has been attached from their earliest historic 
notice. The mannscripts of the same ancient period 
make na acquainted with two other forms of writing 
practised by the ancient Egyptians, both apparently 
satinet from the hieroglyphic, but which, on careful 
exasamation, are found to be its immediate derivatives ; 
every hieroglyphic having its corresponding sign in the 
farine, or writing of the priests, in which the funeral 
ntsats, forming a large portion of the manuscripts, are 
pt^DcipaDy composed ; and in the demotic, called also 
The athnrud, which was employed for all more ordi- 
nary sad popular usages. The characters of the hie- 
ratic are, for the most part, obvious running imitations 
or abridgments of the corresponding hieroglyphics ; 
bert in tat demotic, which is still farther removed from 
the original type, the derivation is leas frequently and 
less obvtoasVy traceable. In the hieratic, fewer figu- 
rative or aytsbohc ngns are employed than in the Be- 
rogrypjiie ; their absence being supplied by means of 
the phonetic or alphabetical characters, the words be- 
ing spelt instead of figured ; and this is still more the 
ease in the demotic which is, in consequence, almost 
entirely alphabetical. After the conversion of the 
Egyptians to Christianity, the ancient mode of writing 
their bngnage fell into disuse ; and an alphabet was 
toopted m substitution, consisting of the twenty-five 
Greek letters, with six additional signs expressing ar- 
nrshtions and aspirations unknown to the Greeks, the 
eanteters for which were retained from the demotic. 
Tka is the Coptic alphabet, in which the Egyptian ap- 
peals as a written language in the Coptic books and 
aaaae ri pt s preserved in our libraries ; and in which, 
consequently, the language of the inscriptions on the 
BMesawnts may be studied. The original mode in 
which the language was written having thus fallen into 
disuse, it happened at length that the signification of 
the characters, ami even the nature of the system of 



writing which they formed, became entirely lost, sack 
notices on the subject as existed in the early histori- 
ana being either too imperfect, or appearing too vague, 
to furnish a clew, although frequently and care fully 
studied for the purpose. The repossession of this 
knowledge will form, in literary history, one of the roost 
remarkable distinctions, if not the principal one, of the 
age in which we live. It is due primarily to the dis- 
covery by the French, during their possession of Egypt, 
of the since well-known monument, called the Roaetta 
Stone, which, on their defeat and expulsion by the 
British troops, remained in the handa of the victors, 
was conveyed to England, and deposited in the Brit- 
ish Museum. On this monument the same inscription 
is repeated in the Greek and in the Egyptian language, 
being written in the latter both in hieroglyphics and in 
tbe demotic or enchorial character. The worda Ptole- 
my and Cleopatra, written in hieroglyphics, and recog- 
nised by means of the corresponding Greek of the 
Roaetta inscription, and by a Greek inscription on the 
base of an obelisk at Philse, gave the phonetic charac- 
ters of the letters which form those worda : by their 
means the names were discovered, in hieroglyphic wri- 
ting, on tbe monuments of all the Grecian kings and 
Grecian queens of Egypt, and by the companion of 
these names one with another, the value of all the pho- 
netic characters was finally ascertained. The first step 
in this great discovery waa made by a distinguished 
scholar of England, the late Dr. Young ; the key found 
by him has been greatly improved, and applied with 
indefatigable perseverance, ingenuity, and skill to the 
monuments of Egypt, by the celebrated Charopollioo. 
(Quarterly Journal of Science, dec, New Sertet, vol. 
1, p. 176, teqq. — Compare Edinburgh Review, Not. 
89 and 90. — American Quarterly Review, No. 3, p. 
438, teqq. — Foreign Quarterly Review, No. 8, p. 438, 
teqq., and the Supplement to the Encyclopedia Rri- 
(annua, vol. 4, pt. 1, ». v. Egypt. — Wueman't Lec- 
tures, p. 365, teqq.) 

10. Animal Worthip. 
There was no single feature in the character and 
customs of the ancient Egyptians which appeared to 
foreigners so strange and portentous aa the religious 
worship paid to animals. The pompous processions 
and grotesque ceremonies of this celebrated! people ex- 
cited the admiration of all spectators, and their admi- 
ration was turned into ridicule on beholding the object 
of their devotions. It waa remarked by Clemens 
(Padag. lib. 3) and Origen (adv. Celt. 3, p. 121), that 
those who visited Egypt approached with delight its 
sacred groves, and splendid temples, adorned with su- 
perb vestibules and lofty porticoes, the scenes of many 
solemn and mysterious rites. " The walls," says Cle- 
mens, " shine with gold and silver, and with amber, and 
sparkle with the various gems of India and Ethiopia ; 
and the recesses are concealed by aplendid curtains. 
But if you enter tbe penetralia, and inquire for the 
image of the god for whose sake the fane waa built, 
one of the Pastophori, or some other attendant on the 
temple, approaches with a solemn and mysterious as- 
pect, and, putting aside the veil, suffers you to peep in 
and obtain a glimpse of the divinity. There you be- 
hold a snake, a crocodile, or a cat, or some other beast, 
a fitter inhabitant of a cavern or a bog than a temple." 
The devotion with which their sacred animals were re- 
garded by the Egyptians, displayed itself in the most 
whimsical absurdities. It was a capital crime to kill 
any of them voluntarily (Herod. 8, 65); but if an 
ibis or a hawk were accidentally destroyed, the unfor- 
tunate author of the deed waa often put to death by 
the multitude, without form of law. In order to avoid 
suspicion of such an impious act, and the apeedy fate 
which often ensued, a man who chanced to meet with 
the carcaas of such a bird began immediately to wail 
and lament with the utmost vociferation, and to protest 

37 



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that he found it already dead. (Diodanu Sicuhu, 
1, 83.) When a house happened to be set on fire, the 
chief alarm of the Egyptians arose from the propensity 
ef the cats to rush into the flames over the heads or 
between the legs of the spectators : if this catastrophe 
took place, it excited a general lamentation. At the 
death of a cat, every inmate of the honse cat off his 
eyebrows ; but at the funeral of a dog, he shaved his 
head and whole body. (Herod. It, 66.) The carcasses 
of all the cats were salted, and carried to Bubastus to 
be interred (Herod. 2, 67) ; and it is said that many 
Egyptians, arriving from warlike expeditions to foreign 
countries, were known to bring with them dead cats 
and hawks, which they had met with accidentally, and 
had salted and prepared for sepulture with much pious 
grief and lamentation. (Diod. Sic. 1, 88.) In ihe ex- 
tremity of famine, when they were driven by hunger 
to devour each other, the Egyptians were never ac- 
cused of touching the sacred animals. Every nome in 
Egypt paid a particular worship to the animal that was 
consecrated to its tutelar god ; but there were certain 
species which the whole nation held in great reverence. 
These were the ox (vid. Apis), the dog, and the cat ; 
the hawk and the ibis ; ana the fishes termed oxyrhyn- 
chus and lepidotus. (Strabo, 812.) In each nome 
the whole species of animals, to the worship of which 
it was dedicated, was held in great respect ; but one 
favoured individual was selected to receive the adora- 
tion of the multitude, and supply the place of an image 
of the god. Perhaps this is not far from the sense in 
which Strabo distinguishes the sacred from the divine 
animals. Thus, in the nome of Arsinoe, where croc- 
odiles were sacred, one of this species was kept in the 
temple and worshipped as a god. He was tamed and 
watched with great care by the priests, who called him 
M Suchos," and he ate meat and cakes which were of- 
fered to him by strangers. (Strabo, 811.) In the 
tame neighbourhood there was a pond appropriated to 
the feeding of crocodiles, with which it was filled, the 
Arainoites carefully abstaining from bunting any of 
them. Sacred bulls were kept in several towns and 
villages, and nothing was spared that seemed to con- 
tribute to the enjoyment of these horned gods, which 
were pampered in the utmost luxury. Among insects, 
the cantharus, scarabsus, or beetle, was very celebra- 
ted as an object of worship. Plutarch says it was an 
emblem of the sun ; but Horapollo is more particu- 
lar, and informs as that there were three species of 
sacred beetles, of which one was dedicated to the god 
of Heliopolis, or the Sun ; another was sacred to the 
Moon ; and a third to Hermes or Thoth. The reasons 
he assigns for the consecration of this insect are de- 
rived from the notions entertained respecting its mode 
of reproduction and its habits, in which the Egyptians 
traced analogies to the movements of the heavenly 
bodies. It was believed that all these insects were of 
die male sex. The beetle was said to fecundate a 
round ball of earth, which it formed for the purpose. 
In this they saw a type of the son, in the office of dem- 
iurgus, or as forming and fecundating the lower world. 
(Horapoll. Hieroglyph. 1, 10.— Plvt. de It. et 0*., p. 
856.— Porphyr. de Abetin., Kb. 4. — Euttb. Pray. 
Evang. 3, 4.) Nor was the adoration of the Egyptians 
confined to animals merely. Many plants were re- 
garded as mystical or sacred, and none more so than 
the lotus, of which mention has already been made, in 
the section that treats of the fertility of Egypt. In 
the lotus, or nymptuea nelumbo, which throws its flow- 
ers above the surface of the water, the Egyptians found 
an allusion to the sun rising from the surface of the 
ocean, and it is on the blossom of this plant that the 
Infant Harpocrates is represented as reposing. The 
peach-tree was also sacred to Harpocrates ; and to him 
the first fruita of lentils and other plants were of- 
fered, in the month Mesori. It is well known, too, that 
the Egyptians worshipped the onion. Plutarch refers 



this superstition to a fancied relation between this plant 
and the moon. Leeks also, and various legiimina, 
were held in similar veneration. (MimUau Felix, p. 
278.) The acacia and the heliotrope are said to have 
been among the number of those plants that were con- 
secrated to the sun. (Compare Kirchtr't (Edtpiu, 3, 
2.) The laurel was regarded as the most noble of all 
plants. We learn from Clemens Aiexandrinus that 
there were thirty-six plants dedicated to the thirty-six 

Sinii, or decsns, who presided over their portions of 
e twelve signs of the zodiac. (Prichari't Analyst* 
cj Egyptian Mythology, p. 801, teqq.) 

11. Explanation of Animal Worship. 
The origin of animal worship, and the reasons or 
motives which induced the Egyptians to represent their 
gods under such strange forms, or to pay divine hon- 
ours to irrational brutes, and even to the meanest ob- 
ject* in nature, is an inquiry which has occupied the 
attention of the learned in various times. Herodotus 
pretended to be in possession of more information on 
this subject than he chose to make public. It has been 
conjectured that he was desirous of concealing his ig- 
norance under a cloak of mystery. The later Greek 
writers seem to have been more intent on offering ex- 
cuses for the follies of the Egyptians, than on unfold- 
ing the real principle* of their mythology ; and we find 
various and contradictory opinions maintained with 
equal confidence. It appears, indeed, that the Egyp- 
tian priests themselves, in the time of the Ptolemies, 
and at the era of the Roman conquest, were by no 
means agreed on this subject. To endeavour to ex- 
plain it by a reference to the metamorphoses which the 
gods underwent, when they fled from Typhon and 
sought concealment under the forms of animals, is to 
account for an absurdity by a fable. To go back, aa 
some do, to the standard*, or banner*, borne by the dif- 
ferent tribes or communities that formed the compo- 
nent parts of the earlier population, is to invert the or- 
der of ideas. A people may choose for a standard the 
representation of an object which they adore ; but they 
will not be found to adore any particular object be- 
cause they may have chosen it for a standard or ban- 
ner. The opinion, on the other hand, which refers an- 
imal worship to the policy of kings, and to their seek- 
ing to divide their subjects by giving them different 
objects of religious veneration, is an awkward applica- 
tion of the system of Euhemerus, according to which 
all religions were nothing in effect but civil institu- 
tion*, the offspring of skilful legislators. Feticbism 
has been anterior to all positive law. Favoured by the 
interests of a particular class, it has been enabled, it ia 
true, to prolong itself during a state of civilization and 
by the force of authority ; but it must spring originally 
and freely from the very bosom of barbarism. Equally 
untenable is the position, which supposes, that the 
Egyptians were induced to pay divine honour* to ani- 
mals, out of gratitude for the benefits which they de- 
rived from them ; to the cow and the sheep, for the 
clothing and sustenance which they afford ; to the dog, 
for his care in protecting their houses against thieves ; 
to the ibis, for delivering their country from serpents ; 
and to the ichneumon, for destroying the eggs of the 
crocodile. This conjecture is refuted by the well- 
known fact, that a variety of animal* which are of nc 
apparent utility, and even several species which an 
noxious and destructive, and the natural enemiea oi 
mankind, received their appropriate honours, and wen 
regarded with a* much reverence as the more obvious 
ly useful members of the animal creation. The shrew- 
mouse, the pike, the beetle, the crow, the hawk, th< 
hippopotamus, can claim no particular regard for th< 
benefits they are known to confer on the human race 
still less can the crocodile, the lion, the wolf, or th 
venomous asp urge any such pretension. Yet w 
have seen that all these creature*, and others of a aim 



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4GYPTDS. 




by Egyptian* 
profound devotion : nay, mothen even 
their children were devoured by croeo- 
kme/ be farther obaerred, that aomeof tboM 
which afford mm food and raiment, and which 
the moat serviceable, wen 



no utility to the Egyptian on ac- 



peradtion. They regarded it as nn- 
for the sake of food, and not only sb- 
60m ssa.ngfaterinsT the aheap , bat likewise, na- 
ncies* of eueumstancea, from wearing any gar- 
aaade of it» wool, which was regarded as impure, 
dealing the body thmt was clothed with it. These 
to prove, that thesdontion of an- 
' die Egyptians wu not founded on the 
derive from them. An- 
at rrplaiTiinn; this* mystery, which re- 
ecmvrm rvemtxx conntenance from the general cbsracter 
aaf the Egyrpdma msnea and araperaution, is the eon- 
j e t r me of Lmrimn- <J9e Asereiog. — -est Btp., to). 5, p. 
XVii ) Ties writer pretends, thmt the sacred animal* 
only types or emblems of the astsrisms, or of 
figures or groape into which the sn- 





had,at a rery early period, distributed the stare ; 

by the 11- — ea of living creatures 
objects). According to Locian, 
the woswarapen of the boil A. pas adored a tiring image 
of the ceseaoal Taurus* ; and Anobm represented the 
Dog-star or the constellation of Sirioe. This hypoth- 
" nore attention then eny other among 
Dopoia has made it the basis of a 
to explain the mytbologue of 
other fables of antiquity, 
into aatroBomietl figments, 
er figaratire accounU of certain changes in the posi- 
rjeas of the bearealy bodiea. (Origne it lout Us 
Cade*, X, *TO, eel. 1833- ) The hypothesis of 

werer, wiU not endure the test of a rigid 
For if we examine the consleQationsof the 
find bat few coincidences 
ir*aagco and that exten- 
of hrote u e alurws which wen adored as 

(he banks of the Nile. Where, for M- 

•atnle. snail we dieocrrer the ibia. the eat, the hrppopot- 
^ttaaTor the crocodile? Beaidee, if we could trace 
'Vwhrile aeries of deified bra tee in the heavens, it 
*wii still retnsin doubtful, whether the Egyptian 
<~1^L, eonaecrated anbaeqoently to the forma- 
W7dJ«faeto aa types or ion-gee of the coostelb, 
W» "th^^ar- dia*ni>ut^d into groups^nd thwe 

JLZ^d with ^«^ c « W J^ q °tSe^T^re 
SL. that were f^^^Sm^M^L %Z 

tbe atttr slu-ro-trre the ^^the ephere and those of 
lbs Erjpooi etro b>v far too limited to warrant 



arsd i»ticiaa», moreover, is aa an. 
j^aerring of much credit on 
»o»rpbyry. in his conjectures, 
„_ The divinity, according 
. h*> Teaides, therefore, in 
■*hix» wberererbe is found. 

. • n f art**"* 1 * was intimately 

^eJa ether a-arde. the worstti^ ^iuiT, with the doctrine 
aecordin«J» ^iZtinentia, 4, 9-Com- 

' ^Z^^tA^&of** enough. It takes no 

doee J^v^natioxi by which the wor- 

, of tbat V~**^^£*££Z£, * regular form, and 
, of ansroaOe «■ ^".^.rTso has placed the deity 
nounue itaelf long *»2** i ™ J eaWncI-Tbe dis- 
abo« the Wi»» ot J^*j^ Ki „ .niong certain savage 




soy 

thorwho is by no 
a subject of 



the trot-b- 






at a node of 



dsva, perfecUy .-logons to the sys- 
f^^aW which prersiled among the 




perceive, remarks Heeren (idem, Tol. J, p. 
worship of snimsls from Ethiopia to Senegi 
nations completely uncivilised. Why, then, 
different origin among the Egyptians ! Plat 
the Africsn negroes of the present day corpo: 
priests srriTed at the knowledge of the mor 
the besTSnly bodies, sad preserving in their 1 
this branch of human science screened from 
osity of the uninitiated and profane. These 
tal corporations will never seek to change th 
of vulgar adoration ; on the contrary, they w 
crate tbe worship that is paid them, aad will 
worship mor* of pomp ana regularity. They 
above all, to make the intervention of the a 
caste a n e cess a ry requisite in every caremoi 
will then attach, in a mystic sense, these ma 
jects of worship te their bidden science ; an 
suit will be a system of religion precisely ■ 
that of Egypt, with Fstidnem for its basis, Um 
of the heavenly bodiea for its outward chars 
and within, a science founded en sstronom* 
the operation of which the fetiche, that earn 
for the people, become merely symbols for th 
It was thus that the priests of Meroe, in send 
their sscerdotal colonies, carefully reserved 
of attaching to themselves the natives am 
they chanced to coma, by adopting a part of 
teroal worship, and by assigning to the anhni 
these natives adored a place in the temples ei 
them, which, thence became the common sat 
and the centres of religion for aU. To iavei 
der to which we have rust alluded is s palpal 
What had been for a long time seknowledf 
sign or symbol, could not, on a sudden, be trs: 
into a god ; but it is easy to conceive how tl 
passes for s god with the mess of the people 
eome an allegory or emblem with s more en! 
caste. Apia, for example, owed to certain 
first fortuitous, afterward renewed by art, th 
of being one of the signs of the iodise. Thi 
ef the goat nude it a type of the gnat product 
er in nature. The eat was indebted to its gl 
and the ibis te its equivocal colour, which spp 
it were, something intermediate between the 1 
the dsy, for being symbols of the moon ; tl 
became one of the year, and the scsrsbwos ol 
The case waa the same with trees and plant 
no lew highly revered than animals. The ! 
the palm, the longevity of which tree seemed 
privilege from on high, adorned the conchf 
priests, because this tree, putting forth brand 
month, marks the renewal of the lunar cycle. 
Sic. 1, 34.— Pha. 13, 17.) The lotus, fat 
as a sacred plant to the people of India, the . 
Brahms (Maurice, Hut. of IndoX. 1, 60), ft 
that of Hsrpocrates ; the persea, brought hoi 
pia by a sacerdotal colony (Diss*. Sic. L c— 
Nicandr. Tkerapeut. 9. 764) ; the smogtosssn 
seven side* recall to mind the seven plsai 
which was styled, on this account, the ghx 
skies (Kneker, (Erf. JBfyfL 8, 3) ; the onio 
pellicles were thought to resemble so many o 
spheres, sod which was therefore viewed ss 1 
ble image of the universe, always different ai 
waya the same, and where each part served as 
resentativo of the whole ; all these became 
symbols laving; mors or lees connexion with a 
icsl science. In them the people beheld tb< 
of ancient adoration, and the priests character* 
enabled them to mark oat and perpetuate thi 
tine discoveries. To these elements of wor 
added, without doubt, the influence of locali 
at one time disturbed by partial differences 
formity which the sacred caste were desirous 
liabmg, and at another associated with the r 
had refer ante to the general principles of astr 



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science, certain practices which resulted merely from 
peculiarity of situation. Hence, on the one hand, the 
diversity of animals adored by the communities of 
Egypt. Had these been merely pure symbols, would 
the priests, who sought to impart a uniform character to 
their institutions, have ever introduced them? These 
varieties in the objects of worship are only to be ex- 
plained by the yielding, on the part of a sacerdotal or- 
der, to the antecedent habits of the people. (Vogel, 
Set. der J£g„ p. 97, stqq.) Hence, too, on the other 
hand, those numerous allegories, heaped up together 
without being connected by any common bond, and 
forming, if the expression be allowed, so many layers 
of fable. Apis, for example, at first the manitou-pro- 
totvpe of his kind, afterward the depository of the 
soul of Osiris, is found to have a third meaning, which 
holds a middle place between the other two. He is 
the symbol of the Nile, the fertilizing stream of Egypt ; 
and while his colour, the spots of white on his front, 
and the duration of his existence, which could not ex- 
ceed twenty-five years, have a reference to astronomy, 
the festival of his reappearance was celebrated on the 
day when the river begins to rise. The result, then, 
of what we have here advanced, is simply this : The 
animal- worship of the Egyptians originated in fetichism. 
The sacerdotal caste, in allowing it to remain unmo- 
lested, arrayed it in a more imposing, garb, and, while 
they permitted the mass of the people to indulge in this 
gross and humiliating species of adoration, reserved for 
themselves a secret and visionary system of pantheism 
or emanation. (Constant, de la Religion, 3, 68, teqq. 
— Priehard't Analysis of Egyptian Mythology, p. 830, 

IS. Egyptian Castes. 

Among the institutions of Egypt, none was more 
important in its influence on the character of the na- 
tion, than the division of the people into tribes or fam- 
ilies, who were obliged by the laws and superstitions 
of the country to follow, without deviation, the profes- 
sions and habits of their forefathers. Such an institu- 
tion could not fail of impressing the idea of abject ser- 
vility on the lower classes ; and, by removing in a great 
measure the motive of emulation, it must have created, 
in all, an apathy and indifference to improvement in their 
particular professions. Wherever the system of castes 
has existed,, it has produced a remarkably permanent 
and uniform character in the nation ; as in the example 
famished by the natives of Hindustan. These people 
agree in almost every point with the description given 
of them by Megaethenes, who visited the court of an 
Indian king soon after the conquest of the East by the 
Macedonians. We have no very accurate and cir- 
cumstantial account of the castes into which the Egyp- 
tian people were divided, and of the particular customs 
of each. It appears, indeed, that innovations on the 
old civil and religious constitution of Egypt had begun 
to be introduced as early as the time of Psammetichus, 
when the ancient aversion of the people to foreigners 
was first overcome. The various conflicts which the 
nation underwent, between that era and the time when 
Herodotus visited Egypt, could not fail to break down 
many of the fences, which ancient priestcraft had es- 
tablished for maintaining the influence of superstition. 
Herodotus is the earliest writer who mentions the 
tastes or hereditary classes of the Egyptians, snd his 
account appears to be the result of his personal obser- 
vation only. Had this historian understood the native 
language of the people ; had he been able to read the 
books of Hermes, in which the old sacerdotal institu- 
tions were contained, we might have expected from 
him as correct and ample a description of the distribu- 
tion of the castes in Egypt, as that which modem wri- 
ters have sained in India from the code of Menu, re- 
specting the orders and subdivisions of the community 
in Hindustan. Diodoms, who had more favourable 
40 



opportunities of information, and who teems to have 
made a very diligent use of them, may be supposed to 
be more accurate, in what refers to the internal polity 
of this nation, than Herodotus. Strabo has mentioned, 
in a very summary manner, the division of the Egyp- 
tians into classes. He distinguishes the two higher 
ranks, namely, the sacerdotal and -the military classes, 
snd includes all the remainder of the community under 
the designation of the agricultural class, to whom he 
assigns the employments of agriculture and the arts. 
Diodoms subdivides this latter class. After distin- 
guishing from it the sacerdotal and military orders, he 
observes, that the remainder of the community is dis- 
tributed into three divisions, which he terms Herds- 
men, Agriculturist*, and Artificers, or men who la- 
boured at trades. Herodotus very nearly agrees in his 
enumeration with that of Diodoms. His names for 
the different classes are as follows : I. Priests, or the 
sacerdotal class. 3. Warriors, or the military class. 
3. Cowherds. 4. Swineherds. 6. Traders. 6. in- 
terpreter*. 7. Pilots. In this catalogue the third and 
fourth classes are plainly subdivisions of the third of 
Diodoms, whom that writer includes under the gener- 
al U tie of herdsmen. The caste of interpreters, as well 
as that of pilots, mnst have comprised a very email 
number of men, since the Egyptians had little inter- 
course with foreigners, and, until the time of the Greek 
dynasty, their navigation was principally confined to 
sailing up and down the Nile. The pilots were proba- 
bly a tribe of the same class with the artificers or la- 
bouring artisans of Diodoms. The traders of Herod- 
otus must be the same class who are called agricul- 
turists by Diodoms. Thus, by comparing the differ- 
ent accounts, we are enabled to arrange the several 
branches of the Egyptian community into the follow- 
ing classes. 1 . The Sacerdotal order. 2. The Mil- 
itary. 3. The Herdsmen. 4. The Agricultural and 
Commercial class. 6. The Artificers, or labouring 
artisans. The employments of aU these classes were 
hereditary, and no a/an was allowed by the law to en- 
gage in any occupation different from that in which he 
had been educated by bis parents. It was accounted 
an honourable distinction to belong either to the sacer- 
dotal or the military class. The other orders were 
considered greatly inferior in dignity, and no Egyptian 
could mount the throne who was not descended from 
the priesthood or the soldiery. (Priehard't Analysis 
of Egyptian Mythology, p. 873, stqq.) After death, 
however, no grade was regarded, and every good soul 
waa supposed to become united to that essence from 
which it derived its origin. ( Wilkinson, Manners and 
Customs, etc., 1, 845.) 

13. Egyptian Priesthood. 
The inquiry respecting the sacerdotal caste of 
Egypt is rendered a difficult one principally on the 
following account, because the writers, from whose 
statements we obtain our information, lived in an age 
when the Egyptian priesthood had already suffered 
many and important alterations, and had been deprived 
of a large portion of their former consideration and in- 
fluence. Each successive revolution in the state must 
have had a direct bearing upon them, or, rather, they 
must have been the first with whom it came in con- 
tact. Their political influence, therefore, must have 
been gradually diminished, and their sphere of action 
circumscribed. Under the Persian sway, in particu- 
lar, their power most have been reduced to within but. 
narrow limits, snd our only wonder is, when we con- 
sider the strong hostility displayed by these conquer- 
ors towards the sacerdotal or ruling caste, that it did 
not fall entirely to the ground. Herodotus then, and 
still more the writers from whom Diodoms Siculus has 
received his information on this subject, saw merely 
the shadow of that extensive power and influence 
which the priests of Egypt had formerly possessed 



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had ret, even in the statements which we obtain from 
tu quarter, tncaa may easily be found of what the 
Egyptian hierarchy once waa; so that from th ese, 
when taken together, we are enabled to form a tolera- 
bly accurate idea of the earlier power which this re- 
■miilili order bad enjoyed. The sacerdotal caste 
was speed over the whole of Egypt ; their chief places 
of abode, however, were the great cities, which, at one 
daw w other, had been the capitals of the land, or else 
had Ui a high rank among the other Egyptian cities. 
Then were Thebes, Memphis, Sais, Hebopolis, dec. 
Here, too, were the chief temples, which are so often 
nitifmiri in the accounts of Herodotus and other 
Every Egyptian priest had to belong to the 
s particular deity, or, in other words, to 
me temple. The number of priests 
for any deity waa never determined ; nor could it in- 
deed am* been subjected to any regulations on this 
bead, an priesthood waa hereditary in families, and 
these must have been more or lees numerous accord- 
ing to Not only waa the priestly caste 
hereditary in its nature, but also the priesthoods of in- 
dividual demea. The sons, for example, of the priests 
of Vukan at Memphis, could not enter as members 
Mo the sacerdotal college at Heliopolis ; nor could 
the offspring of the priests of Heliopoue belong to the 
college of Memphis. Strange aa this regulation may 
appear, it waa nevertheless a natural one. Each tem- 
ple had extensive portions of land attached to it, the 
l ei euues of which, belonging as they did to those 
whose forefathers had erected the temple, were receiv- 
ed by the priests as matters of hereditary right, and 
made those who tilled these lands be regarded as their 
dependants or subjects. Hence, as both the temple- 
lands and revenues were inherited, the sacerdotal col- 
leges had of consequence to he kept distinct. The 
* moreover, of each temple was carefully 
They had a high-priest over tbem, whose 
i likewise hereditary. It need hardly be re- 
marked, that there most have been gradations also 
among the various high-priests, and that those of 
Thebes, Memphis, and the other chief cities of the coun- 
try, moat have stood at the bead of the order. These 
were, in a certain sense, a species of hereditary princes, 
who stood by the side of the monsrcha, and enjoyed al- 
most equal privileges. Their Egyptian title was Pi- 
raeus, which Herodotus translates by KtXbf Karya66(, 
v e_ "noble and good," and which points not so much 
Is ratal excellence as to nobility of origin. (Com- 
paw Wetter, Theogtuii* Setiquio, p. xxiv.) Their 
stataes were placed in the temples. Whenever they 
are mentioned in the history of the country, they ap- 
peal as the first persons in the state, even in the Mo- 
saic see. 'When Joseph was to be elevated to power, 
he hat to connect himself by marriage with the sacer- 
dotal easts, and waa united to the daughter of the 
highrpraat at On, or Hebopolis. The organization of 
the inferior priesthood wss different probably in differ- 
ent ernes, according to the situation and wants of the 
s ur ro und ing country. They formed not only the ru- 
ling caste, and supplied from their number all the of- 
fices of government, but were in possession likewise of 
afl the learning and knowledge of the land, and the ex- 
ercise of this hut had alwaya immediate reference to 
the wants of the adjacent population. We must ban- 
ish the idea, then, that the priests of Egypt were 
utsrey the ministers of religion, or that religious ob- 
servances constituted their principal employment. 
They were, on the contrary, judges also, physicians, 
astronomers, architects ; in a word, they had charge of 
every department mat waa in any way connected with 
learning and science. It appears, from the whole ten- 
oat of Egyptian history, that each of the great cities of 
me bod possessed originally one chief temple, which, 
m process of time, became the head temple of the sur- 
■sendag district, and the deity worshipped in it the 



local or natron deity of the adjacent country. The 
priests of Memphis were always styled (according to 
the nomenclature of the Greeks) priests of Vulcan ; 
those of Thebes, priests of the Theban Jove ; those ot 
Sais, priests of the Sun, dec. These bead-temples 
mark the first settlements of the sacerdotal colonies a* 
they gradually descended the valley of the Nile. The 
number of deities to whom temples were erected, in 
Upper Egypt at least, seem to have been always very 
limited. In this quarter we hear merely of the tem- 
ples of Ammon, Osiris, Isis, and Typbon. In Middle 
and Lower Egypt, the number appears to have been 
gradually enlarged.— The next subject of inquiry has 
reference to the revenues of the sacerdotal order. Here 
also we must dismiss the too common opinion, that the 
priests of Egypt were a class supported by the mon- 
arch or the state. They were, on the contrary, the 
principal landholders of the country, and, besides them, 
the right of holding lands waa enjoyed only by the king 
and the military caste. Changes, of course, must 
have ensued amid the various political revolutions to 
which the state has been subject, in this important 
branch of the sacerdotal power, yet none of such a 
nature aa materially to affect the right itself; and 
hence we find that a large, if not the largest and fair- 
eat, portion of the lands of Egypt, remained alwaya in 
the hands of the priests. To each temple, aa has al- 
ready been remarked, were attached extensive do- 
mains, the common possession of the whole fraternity, 
and their original place of settlement. These lends 
were let out tor a moderate sum, and the revenue de- 
rived from them went to the common treasury of the 
temple, over which a superintendent, or treasurer, waa 
placed, who was also a member of the sacerdotal body. 
From this treasury were supplied the wants of the va- 
rious families that composed the sacred college. Tbey 
had also a common table in their respective temples, 
which was daily provided with all the good things, not 
excepting imported wines, that their rules » flowed. 
So that no part of their private property waa required 
for their immediate support. For that they possess ed 
private property is not only apparent from the circum- 
stance of their marrying and having families, but it is 
also expressly asserted by Herodotus. From all that 
has been said then, it follows, that the sacerdotal fam- 
ilies of Egypt were the richest and most distinguished 
in the land, and that the whale order formed, in fact, 
a highly privileged nobility. The priests of Egypt 
were distinguished for great cleanliness of person and 
peculiarity of attire. It cannot be doubted but that 
the nature of the climate and the character of the 
country exercised a great influence, not only on these 
points, but also on their general mode of life; though, 
independent of this, they would seem to have been 
well aware how important agenta general cleanliness 
and frequent ablations become in producing and es- 
tablishing the blessings of health, both in individuals 
and communities. Hence the conspicuous example of 
external cleanliness which they made a point of show- 
ing the lower orders. They wore garments of linen, 
not, as some think, of fine cotton {Schmidt, de £s> 
ecrdotibut JEgypt., p. 26), fresh washed, taking particu- 
lar care to have them always clean. They shared all 
parts of their body once in three days. They wore 
shoes made of byblus, bathed themselves twice in cold 
water by day and twice by night, and entirely rejected 
the use of woollen garments. (HetrtiCt Ideen, 8, 9, 
1», sew.) 

14. Motive* for Embalming Bodiet. 
It has often been observed, that the practice of em- 
balming the dead, and preserving them with so mock 
care and in so costly a manner, seems to indicate soma 
peculiarity in the opinions of the Egyptian philosophers 
respecting the fate of the soul. On this subject we 
have no precise and satisfactory information.^ The aa> 



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dent writer* hare left us only a few hints, more or leaf 
obscure, which scarcely afford anything beyond a mere 
foundation for conjectures. The President de Goguet, 
relying on a statement of Serviua, supposes that the 
Egyptians embalmed their dead for the sake of main- 
taining the connexion between the soul and the body, 
and preventing the former from transmigrating. (Ori- 
gin of Lams, Sue., vol. 8, p. 68, Eng. tranol.) Ac-J 
cording to the Egyptian doctrine of transmigration, as 
explained by Herodotus (8, 137), the soul of a man 
passed through the bodies of living creatures, and re- 
turned to inhabit a human form at the expiration of 
three thousand years. The cycle, however, does not 
commence until the body begins to perish, and the sec- 
ond human habitation of the soul is a new one. The 
pains and torments, therefore, of passing through this 
cycle of three thousand years, and through animsis in- 
numerable, might be reserved for those whose actions 
in life did not entitle them to be made into mummies, 
and whose bodies would therefore be exposed to de- 
cay. In a second trial in the world, the unfortunate 
penitent might avoid bis former errors. Hence, say 
the advocates for this opinion, the body of a father or 
ancestor was often given as a pledge or security, and it 
was one that waa valued mom highly than any other. 
It was the most sacred of all the obligations which a 
man could bind himself by, and the recovery of the 
pledge, by performing the stipulated condition, was an 
indispensable duty. (Long 1 * Ane. Geogr., p. 91.) 
Others have imagined, that the views with which the 
Egyptians embalmed their dead bodies were more 
akin to those which rendered the Greeks and Romans 
so anxious to perform the usual rites of sepulture to 
their departed warriors, namely, an idea that these so- 
lemnities expedited tbe journey of toe soul to the ap- 
pointed region, where it waa to receive judgment for 
its former deeds, snd to have its future doom fixed ac- 
cordingly. This, they maintain, is implied by the pray- 
er, said to hare been uttered by the embakners in the 
name of the deceased, entreating the divine powers to 
receive his soul into the regions of the gods. (Par- 
pkyr. de Abstinent., 4, W.—Prickard't Analysis of 
Egyptian Mythology, p. 200.) Perhaps, however, the 
practice of embalming in Egypt waa the result more of 
necessity thsn of choice, and, like many other of the 
customs of the land, may have been identified by the 
priests with the national aligion, in order to ensure its 
continuance. The rites of sepulture in Egypt grew 
out of circumstances peculiar to that country. The 
scarcity of fuel precluded tbe use of tbe funeral pile ; 
the rocks which bounded the valley denied a grave ; 
and the sands of the deserts afforded no protection from 
outrage by wild beasts ; while the valley, regularly in- 
undated, forbade it to be used ss a charnel-house, un- 
der penalty of pestilence to the living. Hence grew 
the Use of antiseptic substances, in which the nation 
became so skilled, aa to render the bodies of their dead 
inaccessible to the erdinsry process of decay. 

15. Art* and Manufacture* of the Egyptian*. 

The topics on which we intend hers to touch, derive 
no small degree of elucidation from the paintings dis- 
covered in the tombs of Egypt. Weaving appears to 
have been the employment of a large majority of the 
nation. According to Herodotus (2, 35), it was an 
occupation of the men, and, therefore, not merely a do- 
mestic employment, but a business carried on also in 
large establishments or manufactories. The process 
of weaving is frequently the subject of Egyptian paint- 
aigs. It is depicted in the most pleasing manner in 
the drawing given by Minutoli (pi. 24, 2) from the 
tombs of Beni Hassan. The loom is here of very 
simple construction, and is fastened to four props or 
supports driven into the ground. The finished part of 
the work is checkered green and yellow, the byssus 
being generally dyed before weaving. Even as early 



aa the time of Moses, this das* of manufactures had 
attained a very great perfection (Gopttt, Origin of 
Lout, dec., vol. 2, p. 86, seqq.) ; and, at a still mora 
distant period, the time of Joseph (Genesis, 45, 22), 
fine vestment* were among the article* most usually 
bestowed as presents. We have no necessity, how- 
ever, to go back to these authorities ; tbe monument*; 
speak a language that cannot be misunderstood. Both 
in the plates accompanying the great French work 
on Egypt, aa well aa the drawings obtained by Belxoni 
from the tombs of the king* at Thebes, and those given 
by Minutoli, we see these vestment* in all their gay 
colours, snd of various degree* of fineness. Some are 
so fine that tbe limbs appear through them. (Compare, 
in particular, the vestment of tbe king, as given in the 
Description at P Egypt, Planches, vol. % pi. 81, and 
Belzoni's plates.) Others, on the contrary, are of a 
thicker texture. The kings and warriors commonly 
wear abort garment* ; the agricultural snd working 
classes, merely a kind of white apron. Tbe priests 
have long vestment*, sometimes white, at other times 
with white snd red stripes : sometimes adorned with 
star*, at other time* with flowers, and again glittering 
with dl the colours of the East. Whether silk vest- 
ments can be found among them remains still unde- 
cided. (Heercn's Idem, vol. 8, pt 2, p. 868, stqq.) 
The Egyptians, from a moat remote era, were cele- 
brated for their manufacture of linen. The quantity, 
indeed, that waa manufactured and used in Egypt was 
truly surprising ; and, independently of that made op 
into articles of dress, the great abundance used for en- 
veloping the mummies, both of men and animals, show 
how large a supply must have been kept ready for the 
constant demand at home, as well sa for that of the 
foreign market. That the bandages employed in 
wrapping the dead are of linen, and not, aa some have 
imagined, of cotton, baa been ascertained by the most 
satisfactory tests. ( Wilkinson, vol. 3, p. 115.) That 
the skill of tbe Egyptians in tbe application of colour* 
kept pace with that displayed in the art of weaving, is 
evident from what baa already been remarked. We 
find among them all colours ; white, yellow, red, bine, 
green, snd buck. What the colouring materials them- 
selves were, bow far they were obtained from Egypt, 
or te what extent they were brought from Babylonia, 
and India, cannot he clearly determined. That the 
Tyriana had a share in these will appear more than, 
probable, when we call to mind that they were per- 
mitted to have an establishment or factory at Memphis. 
Pliny (36, 42) extols the beautiful pigment* of the Egyp- 
tians, snd the testimony of all modern travellers is in 
full accordance with his statements. The Egyptians 
mixed their paint with water, and it ia probable that a 
little .portion of gum waa sometimes added, to render it 
more tenacious and adhesive. In moat instances we 
find red, green, and blue adopted; a union which, 
for all subjects snd in all parts of Egypt, was a par- 
ticular favourite. When black waa introduced, yellow 
waa added to counteract or harmonize with it ; and, ha 
like manner, they sought for every hue its congenial 
companion. The following analysis of -Egyptian col- 
ours, that were brought by Wilkinson from Thebes, 
is given by Dr. Ure. " The colours sre green, blue, 
red, black, yellow, and white. 1. The green pigment, 
scraped from the painting in distemper, resists toe sol • 
vent action of muriatic acid, but becomes thereby of sv 
brilliant blue colour, in consequence of tbe abstraction 
of a small portion of yellow ocbreous nutter. The 
residuary blue powder has a sandy texture ; and, when 
viewed in tbe microscope, is seen to consist of small 
particles of blue glass. ■ Cm fusing this vitreous matter 
with potash, digesting the compound in diluted muri- 
atic acid, and treating tbe solution with water of am- 
monia in excess, the presence of copper becomes 
manifest. A certain portion of precipitate fell, which, 
being dissolved in muriatic acid and tested, proved t« 



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be the oxyde of iron. We may hence conclude, that 
the green pigment ia a mixture of a lilt]* ochre, with a 
pulverulent glass, made by ntrifymg the oxyde* of cop- 
per tad ken with aaod and soda. 2. The blue pigment 
ia a paberolent blue glass, of like composition, witboat 
mi echnwas admixture, brightened with a little of the 
easily matter used in the distemper preparation. 8. 
The nd pigment ia merely a red earthy bole. 4. The 
black ia bone black, mixed with a little gam, and con- 
tamag some traces of iron. 5. The white is nothing 
•at a my pore chalk, containing hardly any alumina, 
mi a mete trace of iron. 6. The yellow pigment is 
* yellow iron ochre." (Wittrssoa, voL 3, p. SOI.) 
Next in importance to wearing moat be ranked Metal- 
hogs. As far as we can judge from the colour, which 
a always green, brass seems to bare been constantly 
employed where in other nations iron would be. The 
war-chariots appear to be entirely of the former metal. 
Their green colour, as well as their shape, and the 
ashmen and elegance of their wheels, are thought 
clearly to indicate tins. The arms, moreorer, of the 
Egyptians appear to be Many all of brass, and not 
only the sword s, bat the bows also, and quiver* are 
made of it. These, together with the instrument* far 
catting that are ft) trod depicted among the hieroglyph- 
ics, are always green. Ia the infancy of the arts and 
sciences, the difficulty of working son might long 
withhold the secret of its superiority over copper or 
bronze ; hot it cannot reasonably be supposed that a 
asm so far advanced, and so einmenUy skilled in the 
art of westing metals as the Egyptians, should hays 
remained ignorant of its use, even if we bad no evi- 
dence of its baring been known to the Greeks and 
ether people ; and the constant employment of bronse 
urns snd implements is not a sufficient argument 
•gainst their knowledge of iron, since we find the 
Greeks snd Romans made the same thing* of bronse, 
long after the period when iron was murereally known. 
If we reject this view of the oueetioe, we most come 
at once to the conclusion that the Egyptians p ossessed 
an art of baldening copper and bronze which is now 
last to the world. The skill of the Egyptians in eom- 
a Blak is abundantly proved by the rases, 
arms, and implements of bronze discovered at 
Thebes ; snd the numerous methods they adopted far 
varying the composition of bronze by a judicious 
mixture of alloys, axe shown in the many qualities 
ef the metal. They had even the secret of giving to 
sroase or brass blades a certain degree of elasticity, 
a* assy be seen in the dagger of the Berlin museum, 
remarkable feature in their bronze ia the re- 
it offers to the effects of the atmosphere ; 
continuing smooth and bright, though buried for 
sad since exposed to the damp of European 
lea. {Wm-mson, vol. 8, p. 853.) Other lost 
aria ia aattaUunjy may be evidenced by the well-known 
met, that the Hebrew legislator inferentially ascribes 
to the Egyptian chemists the art of making gold liquid, 
and of lasaamg it in that state. This we hare not 
the power to do. . Still, however, it must be confessed, 
that the Ejypnans cannot properly be considered as at 
any time acq sainted with the science of chemistry ; 
though they were early made aware of various chemi- 
cal facts, snd many and indubitable proofs of this hare 
been collected in one or two not inconsiderable works 
devoted to the subject. Their progress in the manu- 
facture of not only white but coloured glass may also 
be instanced. Seneca informs us that they made arti- 
ficial gema of extraordinary beauty. (Em**., 90.) 
They had a method of ratifying natron, and of ex- 
*aeting potash from cinders. They prepared lime by 
»e calcination of calcareous atones, and bad an inti- 
nate knowledge of the uses to which it may be applied, 
tt the (Bat it renders the carbonate of soda caustic, 
lavage, together with the vitriolic and many other 




salts, were perfectly known to them. They made 
wine, vinegar, and even beer. Their method of em- 
balming, whatever it was, may be reckoned among 
the evidences of their chemical knowledge. The 
statements on this subject by Herodotus and Diedoru* 
Sicuhw are very unsatisfactory ; and there is reason 
to believe, as it was ths object of the embalmere to 
shroud their art in mystery, that those writers were 
either totally deceived, or, at least, that the mummi- 
fying drug was artfully concealed from their knowledge. 
Another Important branch of the domestic arts waa 
Pottery, in which the Egyptians displayed a skill not 
at all inferior to that of the Greeks; snd they who sap- 
pose that graceful farms in pottery, porcelain, bronze, 
or even mors precious materials, were indigenous 
to Greece alone, will find many tiling* to undeceive 
them in the painting* of Egypt The country pas. 

wed a species of clay extremely well adapted to 
this purpose, snd which is still found there. (Rty- 
iner, Bormmtee die Egypt., p. 874.) Centos was 
the chief seat of this branch of industry, as Keft 

Sr Kuft), in its immediate vicinity, ia at the present 
y. The rases thus man ufa ctu red served for bald- 
ing the water of the Nile, to which they were believed 
to impart an agreeable coolness, an opinion that pre 
vans even m modern times. Besides, however, being 
applied to household purposes, they were used also fat 
the purpose of holding ths mummies of the sacred 
animal*, such a* the ibis and others. The vases 
depicted on the monuments of Egypt are sometimes 
adorned with the most brilliant colours. As to the 
elegance of form and ornament in domestic sad other 
articles, the Egyptians can stand comparison with any 
other nation of antiquity, the Greeks not excepted. 
Their couches and seata might serve as patterns even 
far our own ; their surer tripods, beautiful baskets, 
and distafis, as we see them in paintings, were known 
even in ths days of the Odyssey (4, 188), and their 
musical instruments sxcssd those of modern times am 
the beauty and variety of their shape. Those who 
wish to examine mote falhr into this branch of out 
subject are referred to RoeseHmi'a great work, or the 
more accessible one of Wilkinson. The productions 
of the goldsmith* and adveramiths of Thebes are ex- 
hibited by Rossellini, and they fully demonstrate the 
high pitch of refinement to which they had brought 
the working of the precious me talk He exhibits gold 
and silver tureens, urns, vases, banqueting cups, Sc., 
of the meet exquisitely beauoTnl workmanship, and of 
the moat tasteful ss well as elegant form*. In eur- 
reyiag them, the classical reader will be convinced 
that Homer drew little on bis imagination in describing 
the gift of piste mads to Helen by ths wifs of the 
Egyptian king Thane. But Homer ascribes still 
more extraordinary wonders to the goMaanitha of the 
same time. They must bsve succeeded in uniting the 
most akHfnl mechanical clockwork with the workman- 
ship of gold *, for he describee golden etatnes, thrones, 
and footstools moving about aa if instinct with Kfe. 
It would appear, indeed, that we had made, at the 
present day, little or perhaps no improvement on the 
form* of the vases ana vessel* to which we have shore 
referred, and that aa Egyptian buffet of eideboard, with 
all its details, not excluding dishes, pistes, knives, and 
spoons, near four thousand yearn ago, bore * striking 
resemblance to the sideboards ef modem palaces sad 
villas. SU11 farther, a surrey of the trades and manu- 
factures of Egypt, as afforded by the ancient paintings, 
exhibits, in a great degree, the asm* tools, implements, 
and processes, ss are employed in workshops sad 
manufactories at the present day. The whole process 
of manufacturing silk snd cotton, with all its detaile of 
reeling, carding, weaving, dying, and patterning, may 
be mora -especially named, (rtreign Quarterly £*» 
maw, No. 88, p. 908, ##«•) ^ 



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16. Trade of Egypt. 

Nature has destined Egypt, by its products, He gen- 
eral character, and its geographical position, for one of 
the principal trading countries of the globe. Neither 
the despotism under which it has groaned for centu- 
ries, nor the bloody feuds and wars of which it has so 
often been the scene, have operated, for any length of 
time, to deprive it of these advantages ; the purposes 
of Nature may be impeded, but they cannot be wholly 
destroyed. The situation of Egypt, a fertile district, 
abounding in the first necessaries of life, botween the 
and deserts of Asia and Africa, has in all ages given 
it a value which, in another position, it could not have. 
From the time of Jacob to the present day, it has been 
the granary of the less fertile neighbouring countries. 
The natural facilities for internal communication were, 
at an early period, increased by the formation of canals, 
which united the various arms of the river that bound 
or flow through the Delta. From Syene to about lat. 
31° N. there is one uninterrupted boat-navigation, 
which is seldom impeded for want of water. The 
conveyance of articles up the stream is favoured at cer- 
tain seasons by the steady winds from the north. A 
description of the Nile-boat, called Bans, is given by 
Herodotus (8, 96). One of the great national festivals, 
that of Artemis at Bubastis, was celebrated during the 
annual inundation : the people, in boats, sailed from 
one town to another, and their numbers were increased 
by the inhabitants of every town that was visited. As 
it was an idle time for the agriculturists, like the winter 
of other climates, it was spent in carousing and drunk- 
enness. The quantity of wine consumed was immense, 
and the whole of it was procured by giving in exchange 
Egyptian commodities. The Egyptians were never a 
nation of sailors, for their country furnished no mate- 
rials for bnilding large vessels. Till the time of Psam- 
metichus, foreigners, though allowed to trade there, 
were subject to many strict regulations, and were 
regarded as suspicious persons. Egypt, being a 
grain-country, would be more likely to receive the 
visits of foreigners, than to make, herself, any active 
commercial speculations. The later Pharaohs, after 
Psammetichus, as also die Ptolemies, could only then 
build fleets when the woods of Phoenicia were under 
their control ; and it is well known what bloody wars 
were carried on for the possession of these regions be- 
tween the Ptolemies and Seleucida). It may be easily 
imagined, too, that the Tyrians and Sidoniana were 
never anxious to make the Egyptians a maritime peo- 
ple, even if the latter had possessed the inclination to 
become such. The true reason why the Egyptians 
forbade all foreigners to approach their coast, is to be 
found in the peculiar character of early commerce. 
All the nations that trafficked on the Mediterranean 
were at that time pirates, with whom the carrying 
•way the inhabitants from the coasts and selling them 
for slaves had become a lucrative branch of commerce. 
It waa natural, then, that a people who had no ships 
of their own to oppose to such visitants, should forbid 
them, under any pretext, to approach their coasts. 
Passagea occur, it is true, in the ancient writers, 
which render it doubtful whether there were not some 
exceptions to what has just been remarked. Homer 
makes Menelaus to have sailed to Egypt, and Diodo- 
rus Siculns mentions a maritime city, named Thonis, 
to which he assigns a great antiquity. The colonies, 
too, that are said to have sailed from Egypt to Greece, 
as, for example, those of Danaus and Cecrops, suppose 
an acquaintance with the art of navigation. The ques- 
tion, however, admits of a serious consideration, wheth- 
er the Phoenicians were not in these cases the agents of 
commerce and transportation. The reign of Psam- 
metichus and his successors changed the character of 
the Egyptians, or at leaat altered tbe old and settled 
pofiry si the country. Foreign merchants were sub- 



ject to fewer restraints ; the exchange of Egyptian 
commodities was extended; and, as Herodotus ex- 
pressly remarks, agriculture and individual wealth 
were never so much improved in Egypt as under Uus 
system of free trade. The Egyptian kings now ac- 
quired a fleet, tbe materials for which, or the vessels 
themselves, they could procure from the Phoenicians or 
the Greeks. Neco, the successor of Psammetichus, 
and the conqueror of Jerusalem [Herod., 2, 169.— Com- 
pare King*, book 2, eh. 88, and Jeremiak, ch. 46), 
formed the project of uniting the Nile to the Red Sea 
by a canal : this canal was not completed till the time 
of Darius I., the Peraian'king. The object of the Pha- 
raohs and the monarcha of Persia waa to facilitate the 
transportation of commodities from the Red Sea to 
Egypt ; for the Egyptians had long been accustomed 
to receive the products of India and Arabia up this 
gulf. This artificial channel was neglected on ac- 
count of the difficulty of navigating the northern part 
of the Red Sea ; it existed under the Ptolemies, but 
a land communication was also formed between Cop- 
tos and the ports of Myoa-hormos and Berenice on the 
gulf, and this remained for a longtime the great com- 
mercial road between the western and the eastern 
world. In Upper Egypt, the city of Thebea waa once 
the centre of commerce for Africa and Arabia : under 
its colossal porticoes and market-houses, tbe wares of 
southern Africa, and the products of Arabia and India, 
were collected. Its fame had spread, probably through 
the Phoenician traders, as far as the country of the Ho- 
meric poems (iZ., 9, 381). A modern traveller, Denon, 
standing amid the ruins of Thebes, could feel and 
comprehend the advantages of its situation : he could 
compute tbe number of days' journey which separated 
him from the towns of Arabia, the emporium of Me- 
roe, and the cities of central Africa. In the mount- 
ains eaat of Thebes, the precious metals were once 
found : the mines were worked by prisoners of wai 
or by slaves. Agatharchides, a Greek geographer 
(Qeogr. Gr. Min., vol. 1, p. SIS, ed. Hudson), in the 
time of the sixth Ptolemy, visited these mines, ot 
which he has given a moat exact description. Thus 
Thebes possessed, in the precious metals, one of those 
articles of commerce which invite strangers. Mem- 
phis, in Lower Egypt, was the centre of commerce 
when Herodotus visited Egypt. The gold, the ivory, 
and tbe slaves of Africa, the salt of the desert, wine 
imported from Greece and Phoenicia twice a year, with 
the products of India and Yemen, were collected in 
this market. In exchange, the merchants received the 
precious metals, grain, and linen (or perhaps cotton) 
cloths, which Herodotus compares with those of Col- 
chis. Amasis, who was a usurper, and a prince fond 
of foreign luxuries, did not scruple to make great in- 
novations. He admitted foreigners more freely into 
Lower Egypt, and appointed Naucratis, on the Cano- 

?ic branch, as the residence of the Greek merchants, 
[e carried hie liberality so far aa to permit non-resi- 
dent Greeks to build temples to their national gods, 
and use the precincts aa market-places : several Ionian 
and Dorian cities of Asia, together with the town ol 
Mytilene, built a noble temple, calied the Hellenium, 
and, by their joint votes, appointed the superintendents 
of the market and the commercial establishment. 
Some other Greek towns also followed their example. 
{Long'* Ane. Geogr., p. 64, ttqq. — Heeren't Iditn, 
vol. 2, pt. 8, p. 873, teqq.) 

17. Siylt of Egyptian Art 

Tbe same veneration for ancient usage and the stern 
regulations of the priesthood, which forbade any inno- 
vation in the form of the human figure, particularly in 
subjects connected with religion, fettered the genius 
of the Egyptian artists, and prevented its developement. 
The same formal outline, the same attitudes and pos- 
tures of the body, tbe same conventional mode of rep- 



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^EGYPTUS. 



jfiGYFTUS. 



•esenting the different puts, were adhered to it the 
blot as at the earliest periods. No improvements, 
resulting from experience and observation, were admit- 
ted in the mode of drawing the figure ; no attempt was 
made to copy nature, or to give proper action to the 
bah*. Certain rules, certain models, had been estab- 
lished by law, and the faulty conceptions of earlier 
turn were copied and perpetuated by every successive 
■tat Egyptian bas-relief appears to have been, in 
fa origin, a mere copy of painting, its predecessor. 
The first attempt to represent the figures of the gods, 
■acred emblems, and other subjects, consisted in paint- 
ing ample outlines of them on a flat surface, the details 
bang afterward pot in with colour. But, in process of 
time, these forms were traced on stone with a tool, and 
the intermediate space between the various figures 
being afterward cat away, the once level surface as- 
sumed the appearance of a bas-relief. It waa, in fact, 
a pictorial representation on stone, which is evidently 
the character of all the bas-reliefs on Egyptian monu- 
ments, and which readily account* for the imperfect 
arrangement of their figures. Deficient in conception, 
and, above all, in a proper knowledge of grouping, they 
were unable to form those combinations which give 
true expression. Every picture was made op of iso- 
lated parts, put together according to some general 
notions, but without harmony or preconceived effect. 
The human nee, the whole body, and everything they 
introduced, were composed, in toe same manner, of 
separate members, placed together one by one, accord- 
ing to their relative situations : th* eye, the nose, and 
other features, composed a face; but the expression 
of fadings sod passions was entirely wanting ; and the 
countenance of the king, whether charging an enemy's 
phalanx in the heat of battle, or peaceably offering in- 
cense in a sombre temple, presented the same outline, 
and the same inanimate look. The peculiarity of the 
front view of an eye, introduced in a profile, is thus ac- 
counted for ; it was the ordinary representation of that 
feature added to a profile, and no allowance was made 
for any change in the position of the head. It was the 
same with drapery. The figure was first drawn, and 
the drapery was then added, not as a part of the whole, 
but as an accessory. They had no general conception, 
no previous idea of the effect required to distinguish 
the warrior or the priest, beyond the impression re- 
ceived from costume, or from the subject of which they 
formed s part ; and the same figure was dressed accord- 
wig to the character it was intended to perform. Every 
portion of a picture was conceived by itself, and in- 
serted as it waa wanted to complete the scene ; and 
whan the walls of a building, where a subject was to 
be drawn, had been accurately ruled with squares, the 
agon were introduced, and fitted to thia mechanical 
arrangement. The members were appended to the 
body, and these squares regulated their form and dis- 
tribution, in whatever posture they might be placed. 
In the paintings of the tombs, greater license was al- 
lowed in the representation of subjects relating to pri- 
vate life, the trades, or the manners and occupations 
of the people ; and some indications of perspective in 
(be position of the figures may occasionally be ob- 
served ; but the attempt was imperfect, and, probably, 
to an Egyptian eye, unpleasing ; for such is the force 
of habit, that, even where nature is copied, a conven- 
tional style is sometimes preferred to a more accurate 
representatioo. In the battle scenes on the temples 
of Thebes, some of the figures representing the mon- 
arch pursuing the flying enemy, despatching a hostile 
chief with his sword, and drawing his how, as his 
horses carry his car over the prostrate bodies of the 
shun, are drawn with much spirit ; but still the same 
"nnperfoitions of style and want of truth are observed ; 
there is action, but no sentiment, no expression of the 
passions, or life in the features. In the representation 
of animals they appear not to have been restricted to 



the same rigid style ; but genius once cramped eta 
scarcely be expected to make any great effort to rise, 
or to succeed in the attempt ; and the same union of 
parts into a whole, the same preference for profile, are 
observable in these as in the human figure. It must, 
however, be allowed, that, in general, the character and 
form of animals were admirably portrayed ; the parts 
were put together with greater truth ; and the same 
license was not resorted to as in the shoulders and 
other portions of the human body. ( WUIcinion, vol 8, 
p. 263, wee.) 

18. Egyptian Architecture. 
The earliest inhabitants of Egypt appear to have 
been of Troglodytic habits, or, in other words, to 
have inhabited caves. The mountain ranges on either 
side of the stream would easily supply them with 
abodes of this kind. From the site of ancient Mem- 
phis, until we ascend the Nile beyond Thebes, these 
mountains are composed of stratified limestone, full of 
organic remains. Such rocks, it is well known, abound 
in natural caverns in all eastern countries ; and although 
no cavities are now found in Egypt that do not bear 
marks of human skill, we have no right to assert that 
it was not in many cases merely called in for the aid 
of nature, to smooth and embeluah abodes originally 
provided by her. Much of thia rock, too, waa of a 
highly sec tile and friable nature, and easily worked, 
therefore, by the hand of man. When the natural 
caverns then became insufficient for the growing pop- 
ulation, the artificial formation of others would be no 
difficult task. "With the demand, the skill of work- 
manship would naturally increase; harder limestone 
would be worked, then the flinty but friable sandstones 
of the quarries of Selseleh, sod, finally, the hard and 
imperishable rock that still bears the name of the city 
of Syene. To understand fully the causes which led 
to the erection of such enormous works by the Egyp- 
tians, ss still astonish and have for ages astonished the 
world, we must investigate other circumstances besides 
those of climate and position. The government of 
Egypt was monarchical from the very earliest date ; 
and a monarchical and despotic government, if it be 
only stable, it incontestibly more favourable to the ex- 
ecution of magnificent structures than one more free. 
Hence one cause for tot vast structures of Egypt. 
The population, too, of the country was probably re- 
dundant beyond any modern parallel. Considered at 
a grain country alone, it was capable of supporting a 
population three times as great at one of equal extent 
in a leas favoured climate. It producea, besidea, thoae 
tropical plants which yield more fruit on a given space 
of ground than any of the vegetables of the temperate 
zone, and which grow where, from the aridity of the 
soil, the cereal gramina cannot vegetate. Domestic 
animals, too, multiply with great rapidity, and the pro- 
lific influence of the waters of the Nile is said to extend 
to the human race. With a population created and 
supported by such causes, we cannot wonder that a 
government, commanding without fear of accountabil- 
ity the whole resources of the country, could project 
and execute works, at which the richest and most pow- 
erful nations of modem times would hesitate. Many 
causes must hsve conspired to induce the abandonment 
of the cavern habitations of the early inhabitants. Be- 
sides the necessity which existed of providing recep- 
tacles for the embalmed bodies of the dead, and for 
which purpose these caverns would admirably answer, 
a growing and improving people could not long endure 
to be shut up in rocky grottoes during the inundation, 
or to pursue their agricultural labours at other seasons, 
far from a fixed abode. A. remedy for these incon 
veniences was found in the erection of mounds in the 
plain, and quays upon the banks of the river, exceeding 
m elevation its utmost rise, and extended with the in- 
crease of population until they could contain important 

46 



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.XGYFTW 



JBLI 



Such artificial mounds in still to be seen 
forming the basis of all the important ruins that exist. 
When we consider the remarkable skill exhibited by 
the Egyptians in the art of stone-cutting, manifested, 
too, at the most remote period to which we can trace 
them historically, we cannot but ascribe this charac- 
teristic taste to something in their original habits. 
Tbe first necessities of their ancestors must have given 
this impulse to tbe national genius, and determined the 
character which their architecture manifests, down to 
the latest period of their existence, not merely as an 
independent nation, but as a separate people. In the 
same way that the Tynans, and the inhabitants of Pal- 
estine, owed to their cedar forests their taste and skill 
m the workmanship of wood, tbe Egyptians derived 
from their original mode of life, from their abundant 
quarries, and from the facility they found in excavating 
tbe rocks into dwellings, the taste for the workmanship 
of stone which distinguishes them ; and this taste ex- 
plains the high degree of perfection they attained in 
this art. In inquiring into the origin and principles of 
Egyptian architecture, certain prominent characters 
strike us at once that cannot be mistaken. The plans 
and great outlines of their buildings are remarkable 
for simplicity and sameness, however diversified they 
may be in decoration and ornament. Openings are 
extremely rare, and the interior of their temples is aa 
dark aa the primitive caverns themselves; so that, 
when within them, it is difficult to distinguish between 
an excavation and a building ; the pillars are of enor- 
mous diameter, and resemble in their proportions the 
masses left to support the roofs of mines and quarries. 
Nay, their hypostyle halls are almost similar in appear- 
ance to this kind of excavation ; the portals, porticoes, 
and doors are enclosed in masses, in such a way as to 
present the appearance of the entrance of a cave ; and 
the roofs of vast stones, lying horizontally, could have 
been imitated from no shelter erected in the open air. 
All the buildings yet existing between Dendenh and 
Syene are constructed of a kind of sandstone, furnished 
in abundance by the quarries of the adjacent country. 
This stone is composed of quartzose grains, usually 
united by a calcareous cement. Its colours are gray- 
ish, yellowish, or even almost white ; some have a 
slight tinge of rose colour, and others various veins of 
different shades of yellow. But when forming a part 
of the mass of a building, they produce an almost uni- 
form effect of colour, namely, a light gray. One great 
advantage connected with this species of stone is the 
ease with which it can be wrought ; and the mode of 
its aggregation, and the uniformity of its structure, so 
far from resisting, offer the greatest facilities for the ex- 
ecution of hieroglyphic and symbolic sculptures. The 
obelisks and statues, on the other hand, which adorned 
the approaches and entrances of tbe sandstone struc- 
tures, were made of a more costly and enduring sub- 
stance, the granite of Syene, tbe Cataracts, and Ele- 
phantine. The most important of the rocks of this 
species is the rose-granite, remarkable for the beauty 
of its colours, the large size of its crystals, its hardness 
and durability. A part of the monuments which have 
been made of it have been preserved almost uninjured 
for many centuries. The mode of building among the 
Egyptians was very peculiar. They placed in their 
columns rude stones upon each other, after merely 
smoothing tbe surfaces of contact, and the figure of 
the column, with all its decorations, was finished after 
it was set up. In their walls, the outer and inner 
surfaces of the atones were also left unfinished, to be 
reduced to shape by one general process, after the 
whole mass had been erected. Of the private archi- 
tecture of the Egyptians, but few remains hare come 
down to us. It was composed chiefly of perishable 
materials, namely, of bricks dried in the sun ; those 
burned in a kiln being rarely employed, except in damp 
situations. The arch appears to have been known to 
46 



the Egyptians at a very early period. It consisted oi 
brick, aa appears from monuments, as far back as the 
year 1540 before our era, and of stone in B.C. 600.— 
Before concluding this head it may not be unimportant 
to remark, that the Greek orders of architecture, more 
especially the Doric and Corinthian, can all be traced 
to Egyptian originals. (Detcrintion it VEgyvte, 1. 1, 
2, 3, &c. — Quatremere de Qwiuy, de VArchitecturt 
Egyptiemu.— American Quarterly Rev., No. 9, p. 1, 
eeqq. — Wiltnuon, vol. S, p. 96, eeqq. ; vol. 3, p. 316, 

*!$5tfA, I. Gent, a celebrated Plebeian house, of which 
there were various branches, such as the Pah, Lamia, 

Tubermu, Golli, &c— II. The wife of Sylla. (Pint. 

Vit. Syll.y—lU. Patina, of the family of the Tuberos, 
and wife of tbe Emperor Claudius. She was repudi- 
ated, in order to make way for Messalina. (Suelon. 

Cloud., 26.}— IV. Lex, a law proposed by the tribune 
jElios Tubero, snd enacted A.U.C. 669, for sending 
two colonies into Bruttium. (Lit., 34, 53.) — V. An- 
other, commonly called Lex JElia el Futia. Theae 
were, in fact, two separate laws, though they are some- 
times joined by Cicero. The firtt (Lex Mlia) was 
brought forward by the consul Q. JSlius Partus, A.U.C. 
586, and ordained, that, when the comitia were to be 
held for passing laws, the magistrates, or the augurs 
by their authority, might take obserrationa from the 
heavens, and, if the omens were unfavourable, might 
prevent or dissolve the assembly. And also, that any 
other magistrate of equal or greater authority than be 
who presided, might declare that he had beard thunder 
or seen lightning, and in this wsy put off the assembly 
to some other time. — The second (Lex Furia or Futia), 
proposed either by the consul Furius, or by one Fusius 
or Fufius, was passed A.U.C. 617, and ordained that 
it should not be lawful to enact laws on any diet fatlut. 
— VI. Sentia Lex, brought forward by the consuls 
jElius and Sentius, and enacted A.U.O. 756. It or- 
dained that no slave who had ever, for the sake of ■ 
crime, been bound, publicly whipped, tortured, or brand- 
ed in tbe face, although freed by his master, should ob- 
tain the freedom of the city, but should always remain 
in the class of the dedititii, who were indeed free, but 
could not aspire to the advantages of Roman citizens. 
(Suet. Aug., 40.)— VIT. A name given to various cities, 
either repaired or built by the Emperor Hadrian, whose 
family name was iElius. — VIII. Capitolina, a name 
given to Jerusalem by the Emperor Hadrian, when he 
rebuilt the city, from his own family title JSlius, and 
also from his erecting within that city a temple to Ju- 
piter Capitolinua. (Fid. Hierosolyma.) 

JSlunos, I. a Greek writer, who flourished about 
the middle of the second century of our era. He com- 
posed a treatise on military tactics, which he dedica- 
ted to the Emperor Hadrian. The beet edition is that 
of Arcerius and Meursius, Lugd. Bat., 1613, 4to. — II. 
Claudius, a native of Prcneste, who flourished during 
the reigns of Heliogabahu and Alexander Severus 
(218-235 A.D.). Although bom in Italy, and of Latin 
parents, and almost constantly residing within the lim- 
its of hia native country, he nevertheless acquired so 
complete a knowledge of the language of Greece, that 
Philostratus, if his testimony be worth quoting, makes 
him worthy of being compared with the purest Atticists, 
while Suidas states that he obtained the appellations 
of MeXfyBoyyof (" Honey-voiced*'), and tteteyXuaoor- 
(" Honey-tongued"). He appears to have been a man 
of extensive reading and considerable information. Hia 
"Various History," IIouc&9 laropia, in fourteen 
booka, is a collection of extracts from different works, 
themes very probably which he composed for the pur- 
pose of exercising himself in the Grecian tongue, and 
which his heirs very indiscreetly gave to the world 
These extracts may he regarded as the earliest on the 
list of Ana. The Various History of /Elian evinces 
neither taste, judgment, nor powers of critical discrim- 



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JEM 



JEM I 



■ML Its chief claim to attention rests on it* having 
pre s erved from oblivion mm fragment* of authors, the 
ml of whom work* are lost. It u to be regret tod that 
£ban,BBtead of giving these extract* in the language 
ef the writers themselves, ha* thought fit to array them 
in a garb of bis own. jBian composed also a pretend- 
ed history of animals. Kept (uwv Idtorwror, in seven- 
teen books, ea ch of which is subdivided into small chap- 
tan. This zoological compilation is full of absurd sto- 
nes, intermingled occasionally with interesting notices. 
To this same writer are also ascribed twenty epistles 
as rural affairs QA.ypouiuuu. bnaroiat) which possess 
iery little interest. ./Elian led a life of celibacy, and 
awd at the age of 60 years or over. The best editions 
of the Various History are, that of Gronoviua, Amet., 
bo, 1731, 3 vols., and that of Knhniua, Line., 8vo, 
1780, 3 vote. The best edition of the History of Ani- 
mals is that of F. Jacobs, Lips., 8vo, 1784.— ill., IV. 
(Kid. Supplement.) 

JEiIas, a name common to many Romans, and roari- 
ng also the plebeian house of the JEM. (Vid. JEUa, 
L) The most noted individuals that bore this name 
were, L Pobtioa, a quaestor, A.U.C. 346, the first year 
that the plebeians were admitted to this office. (Lte., 
4, 54.)— II. C. Staleous, a judge, who suffered him- 
self toba corrupted by Statins Albius. (Cic. pro Sect., 
81.) — III. Sextos iElius Catus, an eminent Roman 
lawyer, who lived in the sixth century from the founda- 
tion of the city. He filled in succession the offices of 
adik, consul and censor, and gave his name to a part 
of the Roman law. When Cneius Flavins, the clerk 
of Apows Cteodins Cscns, had made known to the 
people the forms to be observed in prosecuting law- 
suits, and the days upon which actions could be brought, 
the patricians, irritated at this, contrived new forms of 
process, and, to prevent their being made public, ex- 
pressed them in writing by certain secret marks. 
These forms, however, were subsequently published 
by JSius Cains, and his book was named Jut Jitia- 
us, as that of Flavins was styled Jut Flavian**. 
Ennio* calls him, on account of bis knowledge of the 
civil law, tgrtgia cordatus homo, " a remarkably wise 
man." (Cic. de Oral., 1, 46.) Notwithstanding the 
opinions of Grotius and Bert rand, Julius must be re- 
garded as the author of the work entitled Tripartita 
JEiu, which is so styled from its containing, 1st. The 
text of the law. 2d. Its interpretation. 3d. The It- 
fa sens, or the forms to be observed in going to law. 
Stem Catus, on receiving the consulship, became re- 
rssrkabie for the austere simplicity of his manners, eat- 
ing Cram earthen vessels, and refusing the silver onea 
which the JDtciian deputies offered him. When cen- 
sor, wsh M. Cethegus, be assigned to the senate at 
the pobae games separate seats from the people. — TV. 
Lucius, ssmaraed Lamia, the friend and defender of 
Cicero, was driven out of the city by Pi so and Ga- 
btoius. (Cic r* Pit., 37.)— V. Oallua, a Roman 
knight, and the friend of Strabo, to whom Virgil dedi- 
cated his tenth eclogue. ( Vid. Gallus, III.)— VI. Seja- 
nt**, (sad. Sejanoa.)— VII. An engraver on precious 
sto n es, who hved in the first century of our era. A gem 
exhibiting the bead of Tiberius, engraved by him, is de- 
scribed by Brscci, tab. 3. — VIII. Promotus, an ancient 
physician. (Kid. Supplement.) — IX. Gordianus, an 
(■mars it lawyer, in the reign of Alexander Severua. — X. 
Sefenianns, a lawyer, and pupil of Papinian. He flour- 
ished daring the reign of Sereros, and ia highly praised 
by Latnpndios. (Lampr. Vit. Set.) 

Abllo CAeAAii), one of the Harpies. (Kid. Har- 
pysa.) Her name is derived from atXXa, a tempest, 
tee rapidity of her course being compared to a stormy 
wmd. Compare Hctiod, Thug., 267, and Schol. ad 
itc 

ijurtu. Vid. Emathia. 

iEatmoar. Vid. Emathion. 

Xmnix lxx, I. a law of the dictator Mameicus 



Emilias, A.U.C. 309, ordaining that the censers 
should be elected aa before, every five years, but that 
their power should continue only a year and a half. 
(.La., 4, 34.— Id., 9, 83.)— II. Sumtuaria, tel dbaria, 
a sumptuary law, brought forward by M. yEmiliua Le- 
pidus, and enacted A.U.C. 676. It limited the kind and 
quantity of meata to be used at an entertainment. ( Ma- 
troh. Sat., 3, 13 — AuL Gel/., 3, 34.) Pliny ascribes 
this lsw to M. Scaurua (8, 67). 

JSmiIa, 1. Gent, the name of a distinguished Ro- 
man family among the patricians, originally written 
Aikilu. (Vid. Supplement.)— II. The third daugh- 
ter of L. ^Emilias Paullus, who fell in the battle of 
Canne. She was the wife of the elder Africanus, and 
the mother of the celebrated Cornelia. She was of a 
mild disposition, and long survived her husband. Her 
property, which was large, was inherited by her adopt- 
ed grandson Africanua the Younger, who gave it to his 
own mother Papiria, who had been divorced by his own 
father L. iEmiliu*.— III. Lepida. (Kid. Lepida, I.) 
—IV. A part of Italy, extending from Ariminum to 
Plaoeotia. It formed one of the later subdivisions of 
the country.— V. Via Lepidi, a Roman road. There 
were two roads, in fact, of this name, both branch- 
ing off from Mediolamim (JhTilan) to the eastern and 
southern extremities of the province of Cisalpine Gaul ; 
the one leading to Verona and Aquileia, the latter to 
Placentia and Ariminum. The same name, howev- 
er, of Via ^Emilia Lepidi, waa applied to both. They 
were made by M. .Emilia* Leptdus, who was con- 
sul A.U.C. 667, in continuation of the Via Flamin- 
ia, which bad been carried from Rome to Arimi- 
num.— VI. Kia Seauri, a Roman road, e continuation 
of the Aureban way, from Piss to Dertona. (Strai., 
317.) 

JEmimInus, I. the second agnomen of P. Cornelius 
Scipio Africanus the younger, which he received aa 
being the son of Paulas jEroilios. His adoption by 
the elder Africanus united the houses of the Scrpios 
andjEmilii. — II. A native of Mauritania, who waa gov- 
ernor of Pannonia and Mcesia under Hoatilianua and 
Callus. Some successes over the barbarians caused 
him to be proclaimed emperor by hia soldiers. Gallus 
marched against him, but waa murdered, together with 
his son Voluaianus, by his own soldiers, who went 
over to the side of .Emilianus. The reign of the lat- 
ter, however, was of short duration. Less than four 
months intervened between hie victory and hia fall. 
Valerian, one of the generate of Gallus, who had been 
sent by that emperor to bring the legions of Gaul and 
Germany to hia aid, met iEmilisnus in the plaina of 
Spoletum, where the latter, like Genoa, waa murdered 
by hie own troops, who thereupon went over to Vale- 
rian. (Zostmua, 31, p. 25, ttqq. — Avrcl. Vict. — Eu- 
trap., 9, 6.)— III. A prefect of Egypt, in the reign of 
Gallienus. He assumed the imperial purple, but was 
defeated by Theodotus, a general of the emperor's, who 
sent him prisoner to Rome, where he was strangled. 
(7Ve*. Gall. Tr. Tyr., Va.—Euteb. Hit. Eultt.,X) 
—IV. Vid. Supplement. 

jE«ilIo8, I. Ceneorinua, s cruel tyrant of Sicily. A 
person named Aruntius Paterculus having given him 
a brazen horse, intended aa a means of torture, was 
the first that waa made to suffer by it. Compare the 
story of Phalaris and his brazen bull. (Pint, de Fart. 
Ram., 816.) — II. L., three times consul, and the con- 
queror of the Volsci, A.U.C. 373. (Ln., 3, 42.)— III. 
Mamercus, once consul snd three times dictator, ob- 
tained a triumph over the Fidenatee, A.U.C. 339. 
(Lie. 4, 16.)— IV. Paulus, father of the celebrated 
Paulus ^Emilius. He was one of the consuls slain 
at Carina?. (Lit., 23, 49.) — V. Paulas Maredonicus. 
(Vid. Paulus I.)— VI. Scaurua. (Vid. Scaums.)-VII. 
Lepidus, twice consul, once Censor, and six times Pon- 
tile! Maximus. He was also Princeps Scnatus, and 
guardian to Ptolemy Epiphanet>, in the name of the 

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.ENEAS. 



.ENEAS. 



Roman people. It was this individual to whom a 
civic crown was given when a youth of 15, for having 
saved the life of a citizen, an allusion to which is made 
on the medals of the .Erailian family. (Ltd., 41, 42. 
— Epii. 48.) — VIII. Lepidus, the triumvir. (Vid. Le- 
pidus.) 
jEmonTa. Vid. Hamonia. 

JEnjliU an island off the coast of Campania, at the 
entrance of the Bay of Naples. Properly speaking, 
there are two islands, and hence the plural form of the 
name which. the Greeks applied to them, al HtBi/Koi- 
aai (Pilheaaa). This latter appellation, according to 
Pliny (3, 6), was not derived from the number of apet 
(mm/icoi) which the islands were supposed to contain, 
but from the earthen eatkt or barrels (mddxiov, doUo- 
lum) which were made there. The Romans called 
the largest of the two islands JEnaria, probably from 
the copper which they found in it. .Enaria was a 
volcanic island, and Virgil ( J3n., 9, 716) gives it the 
name of Inarime, in accordance with the old traditions 
which made the body of Typhoeue to have been placed 
under this island and the Phlegratan plain. Homer, 
however (R, 3, 783), describes Typhoeus as lying in 
Arima (elv 'kpipott ). The modern name of -Enana is 
Itchia. 

JEsix or .Enkia, a town of Macedonia, on the 
coast of the Sinus Thermaiaus, northwest from Olyn- 
thus, and almost due south from Thessalonica. It was 
founded by a colony of Corinthians and Potidsans. 
The inhabitants themselves, however, affected to be- 
lieve that .Eneas was its founder, and consequently 
offered to him an annual sacrifice. .Enea was a place 
of some importance in the war between the Macedoni- 
ans and Romans. Soon afterward, however, it dis- 
appeared from history. (Scymnui, v. 627. — Lh., 40, 
4, and 44, 10.— Strabo, epit. 7.) 

I. the companions of .Eneas, a name 
(rivtn them in Virgil. (JBn., 1, 157, <&c.)— II. The 
descendants of jEneas, an appellation given by the 
poets to the whole Roman nation. Hence Venus is 
called by Lucretius (1, 1), JEneaddm gtnetrix. 

JEvikt, a celebrated Trojan warrior, son of Anchi- 
ses and Venus, whose wanderings and adventures form 
the subject of Virgil's .Eneid, and from whose final 
settlement in Italy the Romans traced their ' origin. 
He was born, according to the poets, on Mount Ida, 
or, as some legends stated, on the banks of the Stmois, 
and was nurtured by the Dryads until he had reached 
his fifth year, when he was brought to Anchises. The 
remainder of his early life was spent under the care of 
his brother-in-law Alcathous, in the city of Dardanus, 
his father's place of residence, at the foot of Ida. He 
first took part in the Trojan war when Achilles had de- 
spoiled him of his flocks and herds. Priam, however, 
gave him a cold reception, either because the great 
Trojan families were at variance with each other, 
from the influence of ambitious feelings, or, what is 
more probable, because an oracle had declared, that 
.Eneas and his posterity should rule over the Trojans. 
Hence, although he married Creusa, the daughter of 
Priam, he never lived, according, to Homer (//., 13, 
460), on very friendly terms with that monarch. .Eneas 
was regarded as the bravest and boldest of the Trojan 
leaders after Hector, and is even brought by Homer 
in contact with Achilles. (/(., 20, 175, teqq.) He 
was also conspicuous for his piety and justice, and was 
therefore the only Trojan whom the otherwise angry 
Neptune protected in the fight. The posthomeric 
bards assign him a conspicuous part in the scenes that 
took place on the capture of Troy, and Virgil, taking 
these for his guides, has done the same in his .Eneid. 
/Eneas fought manfully in the midst of the blazing 
rity until all was lost, and then retired with a large 
number of the inhabitants, accompanied by their wives 
and children, to the neighbouring mountains of Ida. 
[t was on this occasion that he signalized his piety, by 
48 



bearing away on his shoulders his aged parent Ancht- 
ses. His wife Creusa, however, was lost in the hur- 
ried flight. From this period the legends respecting 
.Eneas differ. While, according to one tradition, of 
which there are traces even in the Homeric poems, he 
remained in Troas, and ruled over the remnant of the 
Trojan population, he wandered from his native land 
according to another account, and settled js. \<Aj, 
This latter tradition is adopted by the Roman writers, 
who trace to him the origin of their nation, and it forms 
the basis of the .Eneid, in which poem bis vsrioui 
wanderings are related, until he is brought to the Ital- 
ian shores. Following the account of Virgil and the 
poets from whom he has copied, aa far as any remains 
of these last have come down to us, we find that 
.Eneas, in the second year after the destruction of 
Troy, set sail, with a newly-constructed fleet of twenty 
vessels, from the Trojan shores, and visited, first 
Thrace, and then the island of Sicily. From this lat- 
ter island he proceeded with his ships for Italy, in the 
seventh year of hia wanderings, but was driven by a 
storm on the coast of Africa, near Carthage. After a 
residence of some time at the court of Dido, he set sail 
for Italy, and reached eventually, after many dangers 
and adventures, the harbour of Cums. From Cums 
he proceeded along the shore and entered the mouth 
of the Tiber. After a war with the neighbouring na- 
tions, in which he proved successful, and slew Tur- 
nus, the leader of the foe, -Eneas received in marriage 
Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinos, and built the 
city of Lavinium. The Trojans and native inhabitants 
became one people, under the common name of Latv- 
ia. The flourishing state of the new community ex- 
cited, however, the jealousy of the neighbouring na- 
tions, and war was declared by them against the sub- 
jects of .Eneas, Mezentius, king of Etruria, being 
placed at the head of the coalition. The arms of 
-Eneas proved successful, but he lost hia life in the 
conflict. According to another account, he was 
drowned during the action in the river Numkus. 
Divine honours were paid him after death by his sub- 
jects, and the Romans also in a later age regarded him 
as one of the Dii Indigetet. The tale of /Eneas and 
hie Trojan colony is utterly rejected by Niebuhr, but 
he thinks it a question worth discussion, whether it 
was domestic or transported. Having shown that 
several Hellenic poets had supposed .Eneas to have 
escaped from Troy, and that Stesichorus had even ex- 
pressly represented him as having sailed to Hesperia, 
L e., the west ; and then noticed the general belief 
among the Greeks, of Trojan colonies in different 
parts, he still regards all this aa quite insufficient to 
account for the belief in a Trojan descent becoming an 
article of state-faith, with so proud a people as the Ro- 
mans. The fancied descent must have been domes- 
tic, like that of the Britons from Brute and Troy, the 
Hungarians from the Huns, dec, all of which have 
been related with confidence by native writers. The 
only difficulty is to account for its origin, on which 
Niebuhr advances the following hypothesis : Every- 
thing contained in mythic tales respecting the affinity 
of nations indicates the affinity between the Trojans 
and those of the Pelasgian stem, aa the Arcadians, 
Epirotes, CEnotrians, and especially the Tyirhenian 
Pelasgians. Such tales are those of the wanderings 
of Dardanus from Corythus to Samothrace and thence 
to the Simois, the coming of the Trojans to Latinm, 
of the Tyrrhenians to Lemnos. Now, that the Pe- 
nates at Lavinium, which some of the Lavinians told 
Timaus were Trojan images, were the Samothracian 
gods, is acknowledged, ana the Romans recognised the 
affinity of the people of that island. From this nation- 
al as well as religions unity, and the identity of lan- 
guage, it may have happened that varioui branches of 
the nation may have been called Trojans, or have 
claimed a descent from Troy, and have boasted tb* 



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.ENEAS. 



JENO 



s oas e ssi o ns of relics which ^Encas was reported to 
km raved. Long after the original natives of Italy 
hid orercome them, Tyrrhenians may hare visited 
Samouiraee ; Herodotus may there have heard Cres- 
toniaas and Placianians conversing together ; and Le- 
rains and Gergtthiaue may have met there, and ac- 
ecsnted for their affinity by the story of jEneas. 
"We have," the Lavinians may have said, " the same 
bagasge and religion with you, and we have day 
mages it home, just like these here." •Then," 
an the o hers have replied, " you must be descended 
fm -Eneas and his followers, who saved the relies to 
Troj, and sailed, our fathers say, away to the west 
with them." And it requires but a small knowledge 
af human nature to perceive how easily such reason- 
ing as this would be embraced and propagated. (Nie- 
bukr's Asm. Hist. , 3d ed., vol. 1, p. ISO, ttqa., Cam- 
bridge trans/. — Foreign Quarterly Review, No. 4, p. 
583 ) — II. Silvius, a son of -Eneas and Lavinia, said 
to hsve derived his name from the circumstance of his 
having been brought up in the woods (in eiltie), 
whither his mother had retired on the death of ./Eneas. 
( Fid. Lavinia.) Virgil follows the account which 
makes nun the founder of the Alban Une of kings. 
{£n., 6, 766.) According to others, he was the son 
and successor of Ascanins. Others again give a dif- 
ferent statement. (Compare Lis., 1, 3. — Aurtl. Viet., 
16, 17.— Dum. Hal., 1, 70 — Ovid, Fast., 4, 41. and 
consult Heyne. td Virg., i. c.) — III. An ancient writer, 
somamed Teciieus. By some he is supposed to hsve 
flourished about 148 B C. ; others, however, make 
aid anterior to Alexander the Great. Casaubon sus- 
pects tost be is the same with ^Eneas of Stympbalus, 
viu, according to Xenophon (Hiat. Gr„ 7, 3). was 
commander of the Arcadians st the time of the battle 
of Mcntinea, about 360 B.C. (Compare Sax. Onom , 
1, p. 73.) Of his writings on the military art (irparti- 
jira fliiXia) there remains to us a single book, enti- 
tled Taxrutav re Ktu XlaXiopKirrucbv VKS/tinj/ia, Stc. 
This work is not only of great value on account of the 
somber of technical terms which it contains, but serves 
also to elucidate various points of antiquity, and makes 
mention of facts which cannot elsewhere be found. 
The best edition is that of Orellhis, Lips., 1818, 8vo, 
published as a supplement to Schweigharcser'a edition 
of Polybius. — TV. A native of Gaza, a disciple of 
Hieroctes, who flourished during the Istter part of the 
5th century of our era, or about 480 A C. He ab- 
jured paganism, and was an eyewitness of the perse - 
caow which Huneric, king of the Vandals, instituted 
against the Christiana, 484 A.C. Although a Chria- 
Uuu he professed Platonism. We have a dialogue of 
ins twining, entitled Oeofpaorot, which treats of 
the snaurubty of the soul and the resurrection of tho 
body. The interlocutors are jEgyptus an Alexan- 
dresn, Axsheos a Syrian, and Theophrastus an Athe- 
nian, tnm exhibits and illustrates the Christian 
doctrine* in the person of Axitbeus, and Theophras- 
tns conducts the srgmnent for the heathen schools, 
while .Egyptss now and then interrupts the grave dis- 
cussion by a specimen of Alexandres!) levity. jEneaa 
defends the immortality of the soul and the resurrec- 
tion of the body against the philosophers who deny it. 
He explains how the soul, although created, may be- 
come immortal, and proves that the world, being ma- 
terial, must perish. In conducting this chain of argu- 
ment, be mingles the Platonic doctrine of the Legos 
and Anima vaiadi with that of the Christian Trinity. 
He then refutes the objections urged against the res- 
tnrection of the body : this leads htm to speak of holy 
men who have restored dead bodies to life, and to re- 
Wte as an eyewitness the miracle of the confessors, 
who, after having bad their tongues cut out, were stui 
abfe to speak distinctly. This piece is entitled to 
h'ga anise for the excellence of the design, and the 
general ability with which the argument is sustained ; 
O 



although, aa the author waa of the school of Pis to, 
there is something in it, of course, that savours of the 
Academy. (An able analyeis of ita contents is given 
in the If. Y. Churchman, vol. 9, No. 4, by an anony- 
mous writer. ) There also remain of his writings twen- 
ty-five letters. These last are contained in the epis- 
tolary collections of Aldus and Cujss. The latest edi 
lion is that of Bath, Lips., 1655, 4to. 
JEvtU. rid. .Enee. 

iEsiis, the celebrated epic poem of Virgil, com- 
memorating (he wanderings of /Eneas after the fall of 
Troy, and bis final settlement in Italy. (Kid. VirguV 
ius ) 

^EwxaiDimja, a philosopher, bora at'Gnossns in 
Crete, but who lived at Alexandres. He nourished, 
very probably, a short period subsequent to Cicero. 
JBnesidemus revived the scepticism which had been 
silenced in the Academy, with the view of making it 
aid in re- introducing the doctrines of Heraclitua. For, 
in order to show that everything has ita contrary, we 
must first prove that opposite appearances are present- 
ed in one and the same thing to each individual. To 
strengthen, therefore, the cause of scepticism, he extend- 
ed its limits to the utmost, admitting and defending 
the ten Topics attributed to Pyrrho, to justify a sus- 
pense of all positive opinion. He wrote eight books 
on the doctrines of Pyrrho (Hvjifiwtuv Xoyoi 17), of 
which extracts are to be found in Photius, cod. SIS. 
{Tennemann, Geseh. Phil., ed. Wend/, p. 196./ 

JSauNis, Or Enienes, a Thessalian tribe, appa- 
rently of great antiquity, but of uncertain origin, whose 
frequent migrations naive been alluded to by more than 
one writer of antiquity, but by none more than Plu- 
tarch in his Greek Questions. He states them to have 
occupied, in the first instance, the Dotian plain (compare - 
GeWs Itineraty, p. S4S) ; after which they wandered 
to the borders of Epirua, and finally settled in the up- 
per valley of the Spemhius. Their antiquity and im- 
portance are. attested by the fact of their belonging la- 
the Amphictyonic council. (Pauss*., 10,8. — Harpo- 
crat.,s. s. 'Aft+iKTVovtf. — Herod., 7, 198.) • At a later 
period we find them joining other Grecian states against 
Macedonia, in the confederacy which gave rise to the 
Lamiac war. (Dud. Sic., 17, 111.) But in Strabo's 
time they had nearly disappeared, having been almas* 
exterminated, as that author reports, by the iEtoliana 
and Athamanes, upon whose territories they bordered. 
( Strabo, 427.) Their principal town waa Hypata, on ■ 
the river Sperchios. 

•Eniocbi. rid. Heniochi. 

iEKSsixsos, or Ahinobarbos, the surname of L. 
Domitius. When Castor and Pollux acquainted him 
with a victory, he discredited them ; upon which they 
touched his chin and beard, which instantly became of 
a copper colour, whence the surname given to himself - 
and bis descendants. This fabulous story is told by 
Plutarch, in his life of Paulas vEmiliua (e. SS) ; by 
Suetonius, in his biography of Nero(e. 1), that emper 
or being descended from yEnobarbus ; by Livy (4ft, 
1 ) ; and by Dionyaius of Hslicarnassus (6, 13). Many 
of the descendants of iEnobarbus are said to have been 
marked by beards of a reddish hue. [Sutton., I. e.) 
The victory mentioned above waa that at the Lake Re- 
gillus. For an account of the members of this family, 
mat. Supplement. 

iEwos, a city on the coast of Thrace, at the mouth 
of the estuary formed by the river Hebrus ; and where 
it communicates by a narrow passage with the sea. 
Scymnus of Chios ascribes its foundation to Mytilene. 
(Seyms., ». 696. — Compare Eustath., ad Dionys. Pe- 
rxtg., v. 538, and Gail, ad Seymn., I. c.) Stephanos 
Byzanunua, however, makea Cuma to have been tho 
parent-city. Apollodoros (2, 5, 9) and Strabo (319) 
inform ub, that its more ancient name waa Pollyobria. 
(" City of Poltys"), from a Thracian leader. The ad- 
jacent country was occupied by the Ciconea, whom, 

49 



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JEQLBS. 



J30LES. 



Homer enumerates a mans the allies of the Trojans. 
Virgil suppose* jfinees to hare landed on this coast af- 
ter quitting Troy, and to have discovered here the tomb 
of the murdered Polydorus (JBn., 3, 92; teg j.): be 
also intimates that he founded a city iu this quarter, 
which was named after himself. Pliny (4, 11) like- 
wise slates, that the tomb of Polydorus was at JEnos. 
But it is certain, that, according to Homer (II., 4, £80), 
the city was called -Enoa before the siege of Troy. 
Jinos first makes its appearance in history about the 
time of the Persian war. It fell under the power of 
Xerxes, and, after his expulsion from Greece, was al- 
ways tributary to that state which chanced to have the 
ascendency by sea. The Romans declared it a free 
eitjr. Thie place ia often mentioned by the Byaantine 
writers. The modern town, or, rather, village of Eno 
oocupiea the site of the ancient city, but the harbour is 
now a mere marsh. The climate of JEaot, it seems, 
was peculiarly ungenial, since it was observed by sn 
ancient writer, that it was cold there during eight 
months of the year, and that a severe frost prevailed 
for the other four. (Alhtmtut, 8, 44 — vol. 3, p. 298, 
td. Sckvxigk.y — 11. A small town in Thesssly, near 
Mount Ossa, situate on a river of the same name. 
{Steph. By*., «. e. Alvor.) 
jWs. Vid. CEous. 

^E5l»s, or .Eolii, one of the main branches of the 
gnat Hellenic race (aid. Hellenes), who an said to 
have derived their name from jEoIus, the eldest son 
of Hellen. The father reigned over Phtbiotis, and 
particularly over the city and district then called Hel- 
las. To these dominions jEolus succeeded, sad his 
brothers Dorussnd Xuthus were compelled to look for 
settlements elsewhere. {Strata, 383. — Co*on,Nar- 
ral., H.—Pauun., 7, 1. — Herod., 1, 58.) According to 
Apollodorns (1, 7, 2), .Eolua ruled over all Thesssly ; 
this, however, is contradicted by the authority of He- 
rodotoa, from whom it appears (1, 66) that the Dori- 
ans held Histisotis under their sway. Froiri .Eolua, 
the Hellenes, in Hellas properly so called, and the 
Phthiotic Pelaagi, who became blended with them into 
one common race, received the appellation of kalians. 
(Compare Herod., 1, 57 — Id., 7, 96.) The sons and 
later descendants of iEolus spread the name of jEo- 
lia beyond these primitive seats of the iEolic tribe. 
Cretheue, the eldest son of .Eolua, reigned at first over 
the territories of his parents, Phtbiotis and Hellas ; 
subsequently, however, he led s colony to Iolcos 
(Apollod., I, 9, 11), and from this latter place, Pheree, 
his son, colonized Phers), on the Anaurus. (Apollod,, 
1, 9, 14.) Magnea, the second son of jEolus, found- 
ed Magnesia (Apallod. : 1, 9, 6), and his own son*. Poly- 
dectes and Dictye led a colony to Seriphoa. Another 
eon, Pierus, settled in Pieria. (Apollod., I. e.) Sisy- 
phus, the third son of /Eolua, founded Corinth (Apol- 
tsd.,1, 9, 18), whose jEolic population, previous to the 
irruption of the Dorians into the Peloponnesus, is ac- 
knowledged even by Thuevdides (4, 48). Athsmas 
led an .Eolic colony into Bo»tis(j4»»0«i., 1,9, 1), end, 
.ss Pausanias m farms us, to Orcbomenus, and to the 
district where Hetiertue and Coronas were afterward 
built. (PotsM., 9, 34.-Compare the scholiast on 4k><- 
Imma Rhodiut, 8, 1 190, who calls the Orchomenisns 
broom ruv QtoaaXCm) Hence Apoilodorua calls 
Orcbomenus an iEolic city, although it existed long 
i this, in the time of Ogyges, under the name of 
mb. (Steph. By*., t. a. 'kdir*u.) Thucydides 
ition* the jEoiic origin of the Boeotians (TAvoys!., 3, 
%—Id., 7, 67), and we see from Pausanias (9, 28), that 
thelaninage of the Boeotians wss more iEolic than Do- 
ric. The name of Athamsa may be traced in that of 
the Atbamantian field, between Mount Acnephnium 
and the sea (Peawa*., 9, 84), and which was called af- 
ter the Athamantisn field, in the primitive iEolic set- 
tlements m Thesssly. where Athamaa had killed his 
earn sob. (Btym. Mag., «. a. Affapdvnov. — Raoul- 



Roehette, CoL Gr., vol. 2, p. 26, calls this " un cantos 
de la Boeotie" merely, but the words of the etymolo- 
gist are express : Ion ii ireAof tv BeaocMf «a/.o*- 
fuvti 'MSoftavTca, iid to £*««,*. r. X.) Even Thebes 
itself, built at the foot of the Phoenician mountain Oad- 
roea, would seem, from the remark of the scholiast on 
Pindar (Nen., 8, 187), and from the analogy between 
its name and that of Phthiotic Thebes, to have been 
so. jEolisn settlement. From the sons of Athamas 
the city #f Schosnus snd Mount Ptous received tbr-ir 
appellations. (Steph. Byz.,:v.Sxotvoie. — Pantos., 
9, 23.) The name, too, of the Boeotian national god- 
dess, the Ilonian Minerva, at Orcbomenus, is, moat 
probably, not to be derived from a fabulous hero I tonus 
(Steph. By*., t. v. 'AcmXr/duv. — Pa.uso.rt , 9, 34), but 
from the city of 1 tonus, in the primitive settlements of 
the .Eolic Bceolisns. Aspledon also was founded by 
the seme .Italians who had settled in Orcbomenus. 
(Steph. Bft.,1. c.) An jEolic colony, according to 
Apoilodorua (1, 9, 4), was also led into Phocis, under 
Deion, the fifth son of jEolus, and where Phocos, a 
later descendant of Sisyphus, gave his name to the race. 
(Pautan , 2, 28 ) The sixth son of .Eolus, called by 
Hesiod the " lawless Salmoneus," remained for a long 
time ia Thessaly (Apollod., 1, 9, 7, and 8\ where hie 
daughter Tyro married Cretheus. His departure from 
this country coincides, very probably, with the expul- 
sion of Cretheus from the primitive settlements of the 
Hellenes. He migrated to the Peloponnesus, and set- 
tled in the district of Elis, which had not, ss yet, been 
occupied by Phrygian colonists. He built Salmonea, 
and is called by Hesiod the " lawless," from hia at- 
tempt to imitate Jovei while hurling the thunderbolt 
(Sere., ad Yirg., 6. 685. ) Among hia posterity we may 
name Neleua, who founded Pyloa in the adjacent re- 
gion of Meaaenia (Apollod,, 1, 9, 9. — /'oas«».,4, 36), 
and ie said to have renewed, in conjunction with hia 
brother Pelias, the Olympic games. (Pautan., 6, 1,8.) 
So also Perierea, king of Metsenia, is made a son of 
.Eolus (He*iod,fragm., »• 75 — Apollod., 1,9, 3), al- 
though the Spartans claimed him as a descendant of 
the royal line of Iiaconia, and a sen of Cy nortas. (Apol- 
lod., 1, 9, 3.) Besides these sons of .Eolus, respect- 
ing whose origin the ancient mythographers in gener- 
al agree, and who spread the /Eolic race over middle 
Greece, there are also mentioned, as sons of /Eo- 
lus, Cercapnus (Demttriut Seeps., ap. Slrab., 9, 
p. 438), whose eon founded Ormeniurn, ou the Si- 
nus Pagawus ( Steph. Byt., t. n. 'lu/.jtof ). and Maced- 
nus or Maccdo (/rW/an>c»«, ap. Const. Porpa. Them., 
8, 2. — Eutlalk., ad D>ony». Perieg., v. 427). whose 
descent from Thyie, a daughter of Deucalion, is alluded 
to by Hesiod (He:, ap. Com/. Porph. 7/um., 8, 8). 
The posterity of .Eolua spread the dominion snd name 
of the .Eolio race still farther. <Elolus, who was 
compelled tody from the court of hia father Endvmion 
(a eon-hvlaw of JSolos) at Eli«, retired to the land of 
the Curates, and gave name to Jiiolia. (Vid. Acar- 
nania.) His sons Pleuron and Cslydon founded there 
two cities, called after them, and established two petty 
principalities. (Apollod., 1, 7, 7.) Epeus, another son 
or Endymion. gave to the Elesns the name of Epei 
(Pautan., 5, 1, 1). while Peon, the third son, settled, 
with his -Eolian followers, on the bsnks of the Alius, 
snd gave to the united race of jEolian* and Pelasgiin 
this quarter, the name of Psoniana. In the Trojan war, 
these Paroniane fought on the side of the Trojans (Hem. 
II., 8, 848) ; whence we may infer, that, although the 
tribes around the Axiua were Hollenized. yet the Pe- 
lasgic population still retained the numerical superior- 
ity. During this time Pelops had taken possession of 
Pisa, and had driven the Epei from Olympia. (Pea- 
se*., 6, 1, I.) Eleus, however, the son in law of En- 
dymion, had received the kingdom in place of the fugi- 
tive -Etolua, snd from him the Epei were now called 
Elei, or, according to the /Eolic mode of writing, Falei, 



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FAAEIOI (Compare Bickh, Corp. Irueript. Grae., 
fuc I, p. 28.) Among the son* of iEtelss wu ho- 
cm (Ettstmik., est Horn. II., 2, S3 1), bom whom the 
loen OsobB, on the borders of .ftoha, »re supposed to 
have derived their name The vEolic branch of Siey 
phus, n Corinth, spread itself through Ornythion 
ad ifsm. 77 , *, 617, U. VilloU\ and bia ton 
rtaas. arm Phoeis (Fwim., 3, 1), ■ none first sp- 
j&ed lo the country around Delphi ind Titborea, The 
beer of these places was the primitive settlement of 
rVeas (Pflurn., S, 4), while Hiampobs was the early 
roiom of Ornythion. ( Sdiol. , ed Emrtf., cited by AaA*, 
adPssMW., I. e.) The farther settling of Pbocis is 
•scribed by some to another Phoeus, who is said to have 
fed aa -Eolie colony to this quarter from the island of 
JEgrca. (Compare Pousau., 2, 23. — Id., 10, 1. — Eiu- 
mtk, U II , 2, 522.— Sekol., ad Afol. Rkod.', 1,607.) 
rUoul-Rochette, however, correctly remarks, that the 
Border of the young Piraeus by Telamon and Pes 
laua contradicts this tradition. (Col. Gr., sol. 2, p. 
MO The folic branch of Cretheus finally spread it- 
self through Amythson, the son of Cretheus, over Mes- 



ssaia (Affiled , 1, 9. 11). and throagh Mekuapus and 
Bias, sons of Amythson, over the territory of Argos, 
and aho over Aearnarria, thmogh Aearaaa, a deseend- 
set of Helsmpas. — From the enomeratien through 
which we esse gone, it would appear thst the Heilenic- 
JEobc aten. before the Trojan wsr, was spread, in 
northers Green, over ahnost all Tbesaaly, over Pisris, 
Pawns, and Athaanania : in Middle Greece, over the 
grazer pact of Bosotia, Phocis, Locrie, jEtoka, and 
Acaruanu : in sosihern Greace, or the Pefeporuiesue, 
svar Argos, Elw, and •feassnia.lt woeM appear, also, 
that, rharrag this period, Letegss, Cuietea, Polssgi, Hy- 
satee,aad Loprthsr became uasramgled with the Hsi- 
hnac-foik tribes, and that a dsse union was formed 
ikeariee between the latter asd the Phxaician Cad- 
■nans in Bosotia. The statf of things which has hare 
been described, conuooed until the Trojan war and 
the auheequent invasion of the Pekmonneaea, by the 
Dorians, produced an entire change of a/hers, and seat 
forth numerous colonies both to the eastern and west- 
ern quarters of the world. For some account of these 
awvesnents. consult the following articles: Admo, 
Mob*. Don*, Greet*, Hellenes, and fonts. 

.d5at.li, or jEouo. a region of Asia Minor, deriving 
aa same from the iEeliaos who settled there. The 
gobacB were the first great body of Grecian esto- 
saats that established themselves in Asia Minor, and, 
set keg after the Trojan war, founded several towns 
aa Merest points of the Asiatic coast, bom Cyiieas 
ts the nvsr Hemtoa. But it waa more especially ia 
Leans, which has a right to be considered as the aest 
of tries power, and along the neighbouring shores of 
the Gatf of Sea, that they finally concentrated their 
ptmeaa] ewes, sod farmed s federal union, called lbs 
^ofsuleagaevcoiisistingof twelve states, wnh sever- 
al inferior towns to the number of thirty. The JEo- 
Vm cossaws.srgoidhur to Straeo. were anterior to the 
ksnairssajnusos by four geaetaaioos. He states, that 
Ores tsa had himself designed -to lead the feist ; bat his 
death presenti ng the execution of the maaaure, it was 
prosecuted by his son Pentiums, who advanced with 
baa Miowera aa far aa Thrace. Tom movement waa 
eoatsaassrary with the return of the HeraclisW into the 
PasaprsMarsaa, and most probably waa occasioned by 
B. Attar the decease of Peothilas, Archeians, or Eche- 
hsma, has sen, creased over with the colonies into the 
lauiUHj of Cyiicos, and settled in (he vicinity of 
The j Inn Grae, bia youngest son, sahseeoeatly 
advanced with a detachment aa for aa the Granicua, 
sad not long after crossed over to the island of Lesbos 
x and took possession of it. Some years after these 
sveata, another body of adventurers crossed over from 
Lama, and (bonded Cyme, and other towns on tbe-Gulf 
of Us. They also took possession of Smyrna, which 



became one of the twelve states of the league. But 
this chy having been wrested from them by the load 
ana, the number was reduced to eleven in the tune of 
Herodotas. Theee, according to that historian (1, 149), 
were Cyme, Leriaea, Neon tic boa, Temnus, Cilia, No- 
nam, ^Egiroeasa , Pitane, ./Egest, Myrina, and Gry- 
nea. jEolis extended in the interior front me Hermus 
on the sooth, to the Canoe, or perhaps, to speak more 
correctly, aa far as the country around Meant lua. Oa 
the coast it reached from Cyme to Pitane. AH the 
.dSolian cities were independent of each other, and had 
their own constitutions, which underwent many chan- 
ges. An attempt was frequently made to restore quiet, 
by electing arbitrary lifers, with the title of .dSsymae- 
ta>, for a certain tune, esea for life, of whom Phtacoa, 
in My atone, the contemporary of Sappho and Alcaus, is 
best known. Tbe .dSoiisns, in comrooa with tba oth- 
er Greek colonies of Asia, excepting those Tttihlisnsd 
in the islands, had become subject.to Cresses ; bat, on 
the overthrow of the Lydian monarch by Cyrus, they 
subletted, sfoag with many of use islanders, to the arsis 
of the conqueror, aad were thenceforth annexed to the 
PersiaB empire. They contributed sixty ships to the 
Seat of Xerxes. Herodotus obaerves of JBeue, that 
its soil was more fertile than that of Ionia, but the eu- 
raats inferior (1, 149). la the time of Xenopooa, 
.£oha formed pan of the Heliespeacme aatrapy held by 
Pharuafassus, and it appeass to have compriaed a con- 
siderable portion of the country, that waa known at aa 
earlier period by the mane of Troas (HelL, X, 18.) 
Wrested by the Romans from Aruiochus, it waa an- 
nexed to the doornssna of Eumenes. (Lis., 83,18, dec) 
For sn account of the .dSolic nwverneam in Lesbos, 
consult the description of that island, «. e, Lesbos. 

&oUm, seven iahmda, situate off the aorthern coast 
of Sicily, and to the west of Italy. According to Mela 
(2, 7), their names were liptro, OsUodts/Htroelta, 
Dtdyme. Pkmmauo, Hurra, and Binmnl*. Pliny (3, 
9) and Diodoros (6, 7), however, give them as follows: 
Ltpora, Dtdyme, Hkaraaut, Htero, Stromrylt, Eri- 
aua, and Emm/mm. They are the seme with Ho- 
mer's rUay«re», or " srsjideriog islands." (Od., IS, 68, 
dee.) Other names for the group were tkpkxulimia 
aad Ksfosatst Inrul*, from their volcanic character ; 
and Ufavom, treat Iipara, the largest. Tbe appella- 
tion of JEotia was given them from their having form- 
ed the fobled domain of yEoIus, god or ruler of the 
wind. The island in which be resided is said by aoma 
to have been Lipara, but the greater part of tbe ancient 
authorities are in favour of Stmngyle, the modern 
Stromboti. {Htyne, E*c*r*. od £n., 1,M.) A pas- 
sage in Pliny (8, ». 14) coulaimvthe germeof the whole 
fable reapsctiog JEoUt, wherein it is stated that the 
inhabitants of the adjacent ialaede could teU from the 
aasoke of Stmngyle what winds were going to blew for 
three days to comet ( Vid. Lipara, Strongyle, and Aa* 
lua.) 

JSolIdss, s patronymic applied to various asdivsi* 
Is. I. Alhsmae,sen of dSeias. («V. Afsr.,4,611.) 
—II. Cephalna, aaaadsan of /Coles, (id. afoaUaV 
1.)— III. Sisyphus, son of iBolaa. (*. skuL, 18,96.) 
— IV. Ulysses, to whom this palreoymic appetiation 
wss given, from the circumstance of hie mother, Anti- 
clea. having been pregnant by Sisyphus, son of ^Eohia, 
when she saaitasd Laertes. ( Virg. JSn.,6, 626, aad 
rVeyss, in Vow. Ltct.,od{oc.}—Y. Miaenoa, the aranv 
eeter of ^Eneae, called JBelidee, figuratively, fsom hi» 
skill in Mewing on that inalrtunem. Consah, however, 
Ueyne, Swam., od Jin., 8, 198. 

JBolvo, I. tbe god or ruler of tbe winds, eoa of Hip- 
potaa and Mehuappe daughter of Chiron. He mga- 
ed over the ^ohan ial ass ia , and made his residence at 
Strongyle, the modem Slrombolt. ( Vid. JBolus.) Ho- 
mer cans him "./Eolqa Hippotadea (i. e., son of Hip- 
potaa), dear to the immortal gods," from which pmage 
ws might perhaps justly infer, that JSolas waa not, 

U 



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iEPT 



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properly speaking, himself » god. (Od., 10, 3.) Hia 
island was entirely surrounded by a wall of brass, and 
by smooth precipitous rocks ; and here he dwelt in 
continual joy and festivity, with his wife and his six 
sons and as many daughters. The island bad no oth- 
er tenants. The sons and daughters were married to 
each other, after the fashion set by Jupiter («otf' & sal 
6 Zruf owyaet ro "Hop, Euttath ,adloe), and are no- 
thing more than a poetic typo of the twelve months of 
the year. (Compare.jEwta*., ad loc.) The office of 
directing and ruling the winds bad been conferred on 
jEolus by Jupiter (Od., 10, 21, segq. — Virg. JEn., 1, 
65); but his great protectress waa iuoo (Virg. Mn., 
1, 78, ttqq.), which accords very well with the idess 
of the earlier poets, who made Juno merely a type of 
the atmosphere, the movements of which produce the 
winds. — Ulysses came in the course of his wanderings 
to the island of ^Eolus', and was hospitably entertained 
there for an entire month. On his departure, be receiv- 
ed from iEolus all the winda but Zephyrus, tied op in a 
bag of ox-hide. Zephyrus was favourable for his passage 
homeward. During nine days and nights the ships ran 
merrily before the wind : on the tenth they were with- 
in sight of Ithaca ; when Ulysses, who had hitherto 
held the helm himself, fell asleep : his comrades, who 
fancied that Mo\a* had given him treasure in the bag, 
opened it : the winda rushed out, and hurried them 
back to JSolia. Judging, from what had befallen them, 
that they were hated by the gods, the ruler of the winds 
drove them with reproaches from his isle. (Keightley't 
Mythology, p. 240.) — The name folus has been de- 
rived from aioXof, "varying," " unsteady," as a de- 
scriptive epithet of the winds. — II. A eon of Heilen, 
lather of Sisyphus, Cretheus, and Ataamas, and the 
mythic progenitor of the great ^Eolic race.— HI. A 
eon of Neptune and the nymph Aim. (Euttath., ad 
Od., 10, 3.) 

Mdvtt (aluvtc), or jCons, a term occurring fre- 
quently in the philosophical speculations of the Gnos- 
tics. The Gnostics conceived the emanations from 
Deity to be divided into two clssses ; the one com- 
prehended all those substantial powers which are con- 
tained within the Divine Essence, and which complete 
the infinite plenitude of the Divine Nature : the other, 
existing externally with respect to the Divine Essence, 
and including all finite and imperfect natures.' With- 
in the Divine Essence, they, with wonderful ingenuity, 
imagined a long series of emanative principles, to 
which they ascribed a real and substantial existence, 
connected with the first substance aa a branch with 
its root, or a solar ray with the sun. When they be- 
gan to unfold the mysteries of this system in the 
Greek language, these Substantial Powers, which they 
conceived to be comprehended within the wTLqpa/ia, 
or Divine Plenitude, they called ciuytc, ./Eons. (Eh- 
field's History of Philosophy, vol. 2, p. 142.) 

JErii, or jEpeia, a town in the island of Cyprus. 
Vid. Soloe. 

jEpolianus, an engraver on precious stones, who 
flourished in the second century of our era. One of hia 
gems, with the head of Marcus Aureliua Antoninus, is 
■till extant. (Bracd, P. 1, tab. Z.—SWig, Diet. Art., 
#.».) 

Mr* tws, I. king of Messenia, and son of Cres- 
phontes. His father and hia two brothers were put 
to death by Polyphontes, who usurped, upon this, the 
throne of the country. iEpytus, however, was saved 
by his mother, Merope, who had been compelled to 
marry the -murderer of her husband, and was sent by 
her to the court of her father Cypselus, king of Arca- 
dia, to be there broughtup. On attaining to manhood, 
he slew Polyphontes. and recovered the throne. His 
descendants were called jEpytide. (Apollod.. 2, 8, 6. 
—Heynt, ad Apollod., I. e.)— II. A king of Arcadia, 
and son of Elstus. He was killed, in hunting, by a 
small species of serpent, called aitf. (Patuan.,8,4,4.) 
62 



— III. A king of Arcadia, son of Hippotbous, and 
contemporary with Orestes, son of Agamemnon, who, 
in obedience to the Delphic oracle, migrated into Ar 
cadia bom Mycenae during this monarch's reign. jEp 
ytua having, on one occasion, boldly entered the tern 
pie of Neptune, near Mantinea, which no mortal was 
allowed to do, is said to have been deprived of 
sight by a sudden eruption of salt water from the sanc- 
tuary, and to have died soon sfter. (Pautan., 8, 10.) 
This story, if true, points of course to some artifice on 
the part of the priests of the temple. The " salt ink- 
ier" was probably some strong acid. (Compare Sal- 
verte, Sciences OceuUes, vol. 1, ch. 15.)— IV. A mon- 
arch who ruled in the Southern part of Arcadia, and 
who brought up Evadne, daughter of Neptune and the 
Laconian Pilane. (Find. 01., 6, 64.— Compare Bockk, 
ad foe.) 

jEqci or ^Eqdicpli, a people of Italy, distinguished 
in history for their early and incessant hostility against 
Rome, more than for the extent of their territory or 
their numbers. Livy himself (7, 12) expresses hia 
surprise, tbst a nation, apparently so small and insig- 
nificant, should have had a population adequate to the 
calls of a constant and harassing warfare, which it car- 
ried on against the city of Rome for so many years. 
But it is plain, from the narrow limits which must be 
assigned this people, that their contests with Rome 
cannot be viewed in the light of a regular war, but aa 
a succession of msrsuding expeditions, made by then 
hardy but lawless mountaineers on the territory of that 
city, and which could only be effectually checked by 
the moat entire and rigid subjection, (lav., 10, 1.) 
The uEqui sre to be placed next to the Sabinea, and 
between them and the Marei, chiefly in the upper val- 
ley of the Anio, which separated tiiem from the Latins. 
They sre said at one time to have been possessed of 
forty towns ; but many of these must certainly have 
been little more than villages, and some also wen 
subsequently included within the boundaries of La- 
tium. The only cities of note, which all geographers 
agree in assigning to the jEqui, are Vana and Carse- 
oli, on the Via Valeria. (Cromer'* Ane. Italy, vol. 1, 
p. 322.) " Almost inseparable from the Volacians in 
Roman story," observes Niebuhr {Rom. Hist., vol. 1, 
p. 58, Cambridge trantl.), "we find the jKqui or 
^ouiculi, who are described as an ancient people, 
and threatening Rome. They an so often confound- 
ed with the Volscians, that the fortress on the Lake 
Fucinua, which the Romans took in the year of the 
city 347, may with probability be called yEquisn ; and 
when Livy says that the Volscian wars had lasted from 
the time of Tarquimus Superlma for more than two 
hundred years, he considers the Volscians and ./Equi aa 
one people." This remark of Niebuhr'a, however, 
sdmits of some modification, as will appear from what 
precedes. The J3qui and Volsci should undoubtedly 
be kept distinct, though originating evidently from the 
same parent-race. 

JDqoiMKLivM, a place at Rome, in the Vic us Juga- 
rius, at the bsse of the Capitoline Hill, where once 
had stood the mansion of Spuriua Melius. This indi- 
vidual, having aspired to supreme power, was slain by 
Ahala, muter of the horse to the dictator Cincinna- 
ti, and his dwelling waa razed to the ground. Hence, 
according to Varro (L. h , 4, 82), the etymology of the 
term iEquimelium, "quod solo aqtuita sit Melii 
domus." (Compare lav., 4, 16.) Cicero and Vale- 
rias Maxirmi8, however, assign another, but less cor- 
rect, derivation, from the just nature of the punish- 
ment inflicted upon Melius ("ex aequo seu justo sup- 
plied Meltt."— Consult Cte. pro Don., e. 38, and 
Vol. Max., 6, 8). 

JEuUo, an ancient king of Cyprae, who built the 
temple of Venus at Psphos. A later tradition made 
thia temple to have been founded by Cinyras. (Tacit. 
Hist., 2, 8.) 



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AxeSre, T. daughter of Catreus, king of Crete, rod 
paaddaugbter, on the father's side, of Minos. She 
tai fact setter Cryrnene, having been guilty of incon- 
unerce, were delivered over, by their father, into the 
hinds of Naaplius of Eutxes, to be conveyed by him 
to Ismgn lanide, and there sold into slavery. Nau- 
{In. however, married Clymene, and sold merely 
ieane. She was purchased by Plisthenes, son of 
Amos, and became by him the mother of Agamem- 
ansad Menelaua. Plisthenes, however, dying young, 
Jtitus, his father, took Aerope to wife, and brought up 
Afamemnon and Menelaos ss his own sons. Aerope 
subsequently was seduced by Thyestes, brother of 
Atreus, an act which was punished so horridly by the 
injured bosbaad. ( Vid. Atreos and Thyestes.) Ac- 
[ to some authorities, Aerope was cast into the 



sn by Atreos. {Apoliod., 3, S, 3 — Heme, ad Apollod., 
i c-Scioi. in Etcrtp. Oreat.. 812. — Brunei, ad Soph 
Aj , 1256.) — II. Daughter of Cepheus, became the 
mother of Aeropoa by the god Mars. She died in 
giving bank to her offspring. (Poms., 8, 44.) 

Aisdros, I. sod of Mars and Aerope. (Kid Aerope, 
IL) — IL Son of Temenos, who, with his two brothers, 
left Argos, and settled in Macedonia. Perdiccas, the 
youngest of the three, was the founder of the Mace- 
donian royal line. {Herod., 8. 137. Compare Tkueyd., 
5,99, and consult the article Macedonia.) — III. A 
king of Macedonia, who succeeded, while yet an in- 
fest, his father Philip the First The Illyrians having 
node aa inroad into Macedonia, and having proved 
saeeesafel at first, vrere afterward defeated by the 
afaceoonauts, the infant king being placed in hia cre- 
ak m the rear of their line. (Juttin, 7, 2. )— IV. 
A regent of Macedonia during the minority of Orestes, 
•on of Archeiaoa. He usurped the supreme power, 
sad held it six years, from 400 B.C. to 394 B.C.— 
V. A mountain of Epirus, now Mount Trcbeetkna, 
■ear the defile anciently called Siena Aoi, or " Gorge 
eftheAoua." On one of the precipices of this mount- 
ain stands the fortress of Clissure. (Consult Hit gkti' 
TrneU, voL 2, p. 272.) 

jEsicos, according to Ovid (Met., 11, 782, teqq.), 
a son of Priam and Alezirrhoe, who at an early age 
quitted his faiker'a court and retired to rural scenes. 
He became enamoured of the nymph Hesperis ; but 
she treated his suit with disdain, and, in endeavouring 
so one occasion to escape from him, lost her life by 
the bite of a serpent. iEsacus, in despair, threw 
snaself headlong from a rock into the aea ; but Tetbye, 
piling bis fate, suspended his fall, and changed him 
aw a cormorant. — A different account is given by 
Asal o do rcs According to this writer, iEsacus waa 
ue am of Priam, by his first wife Arums, and mar- 
ned Asterope, who did not long survive her union with 
kisL His grief for her loss induced him to put an end 
to ah existence. /Esscus was endued by his grand- 
Merope with the gift of prophecy ; and he 
1 this art to his brother sod sister, Helenus 
and Casssnda Priam, having divorced Arisba that 
he aught espouse Hecuba, and the bitter having 
dreamed that she bad brought forth a blazing torch, 
which wrapped in Barnes the whole city, iEsacus pre- 
dicted that the offspring of this marriage would oc- 
casion the destruction of his family and country. On 
this account, the infant Paris, immediately after his 
loth, was exposed on Mount Ida. (Apollod., 9, 12, 5, 
aeaq ., and Heyne. ad lac.) 

jEatB. an Etrurian word, equivalent to. the Latin 
Deaa. (Sutton. Vit. Aug., 67.) The lightning, having 
sarack a statue of Augustus at Rome, effaced the let- 
ter C from the name C.ESAR on the pedestal. The 
sagos declared that, aa C waa the mark of a hundred, 
sal jESAR the same aa Deut, the emperor bad only 
a honored days to spend on earth, after which he 
weald be taken to the gods. The desth of Augustus, 
saos after, waa thought to have verified this prediction. 



(Sue/on., t. e — Die Cast., 68, 29.) Caaaubon da. 
rives the Etrurian term just referred to from the 
Greek Moo, "fate;" and Dickinson (Delph. Phoenicia., 
e. 11) from the Hebrew, comparing it also with the 
Arabic surra, " to create." Lanzi (Saggio di Ling. 
Etnue., vol. 8, p. 708), after quoting Casaubon's 
etymology, suggests the Greek form am, the same 
with #eoi, as the root. The Art (or, more correctly, 
Mtir) of Scandinavian mythology will furnish, how- 
ever, a more obvioua and satisfactory ground of com- 
parison. The term At is equivalent to " Deut" or 
" God," and the plural form is i£nr, " Code." Hence 
Atgard, or Ata-gard, the old northern term for " heaa. 
en." It is curions to observe, that Of in Coptic like- 
wise signifies '• God" or '* Lord," with which we may 
compare the Greek &r-<or. " holy." So, also, the ear- 
lier term for "altar" in the Latin language waa in. 
(Tertnt. Scaur., p. 3262, 22S8.) In Berosus, more- 
over, the gods are termed Jin; and good deities or 
geniuses were called by the ancient Persians Ixed. 
(Miller, Btnuker, vol. 2, p. 81 — Kanne, Sutton der 
Inditchen Mythen, p. 228. 

jEsI«». Vid. Supplement. 

jE»Ito», a river of Bruttrom, on which Crotona was 
situate. It formed a haven, which, however incom- 
modious compared with those of Tsrentum end Brun- 
ihsium, was King a source of great wealth to this city, 
ss we are assured by Porybius (Frag., 10, 1). The 
modern name is the Euro. (Compare Tasecnfaa, 
Id., 4, 17.) 

jEacHiNea. I. so Athenian philosopher, of mean birth 
and indigent circumstances, styled the Socratic (d Xux- 
oamof) for distinction' sske from the orator of the 
same name mentioned below. He flourished during 
the fourth century B.C., end obtained instruction from 
Socrates, who honoured his ardent zeal for knowledge, 
and held him in high estimation. (Diog. Laeri., 2, 
60.— Seaee. de Bene/., 1, 8.) When iEscbines ad- 
dressed himself to the ssge for the purpose of becoming 
his disciple, it wss in the following words : " I am poor, 
but I give myself up entirely to you, which is all I have 
to give." The reply of Socrates waa characteristic : 
" You know not the value of your present." After the 
death of bia master, he endssvoured to better his world- 
ly condition, and, having borrowed a sum of money, 
became a perfumer. It appeals, however, that he did 
not succeed in this new. vocation ; and, not psying the 
interest of the sum he had borrowed, be was sued for 
the debt. Athensras (13, p. 611. d) has preserved for 
us part of a speech delivered by I.ysiss on this occa- 
sion, in which be bandies iEscbines with considerable 
severity, and charges him with never psying his debts, 
with defrauding a certain individual of hia property, 
corrupting his wife, dec. Not being able to live any 
longer at Athena, he betook himself to Sicily, sad 
sought to win the favour of the tyrant Dionysius. Ac- 
cording to Lucian (de Paratit. — ad. Bip., sol. 7, p. 
127), he accomplished his object by reading one of-his 
dialogues, entitled Miltiades, to the tyrant, who liberal- 
ly rewarded him. Plutarch (de Diatr. antic, at adulat. 
— ed. Retake, vol. 6, p. 248) informs us, that he had 
been strongly recommended to Dionysius by Plato, in 
a conversation which they bad together subsequent to 
the arrival of iEscbines, in which Plsto complained to 
the tyrant of his neglecting a man who had come to 
turn with the most friendly intention, that of improving 
him by philosophy. The statement of Diogenes Leer, 
this, however, is directly opposite to this, for he in- 
forms us that iEscbines was slighted by Plato, and in- 
troduced to the prince by Ariatippus. He remained m 
Sicily till the expulsion. of Dionysius, snd then return- 
ed to Athens. Here, not daring to become a public 
rival of Plato or Ariatippus, he taught philosophy in 
private, and received payment for his instructions. Ha 
also composed orations and pleadings for others. Be- 
sides orations and epistles, iEscbines wrote seven So. 

63 



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^SCHINES. 



jESCHINES. 



antic dialogues in the true 101111 of hie muter, en 
temperance, moderation, humanity, integrity, and other 
virtues. Their title* were, MtXrtoAjf, KaMiac, 'A#o- 
*0f, 'iairaoia, 'AhuStuivt, TifAavyfr, and 'Pivuv. 
Of these none remain. We baTe, indeed, three dia- 
logues extant, which go under the name of Machines, 
but the first and second are not his, and very probably 
the third also was never composed by him. (Meineri, 
Judicium it quibutdam Socratiecnim retiqvii*. — Com- 
ment, Sac. Goelt., vol. 6, p. 46, 1782.— Fitcker, ad 
JBseh. Dial., p. S3, 49, 107, ed. 1786.) Their titles 
•re: 1. Utpl 'Apenfc, tl iiiaKTov. " Concerning vir- 
tue, and whether it can he communicated by instruc- 
tion." 8. 'Epwft'af, fl nepl nXovrov. "Eryxias, or 
, concerning riches." 8. 'Afto^of, fj veal oWdnw. 
" Axiechns, or concerning death." This last is attrib- 
uted by some to Xenocratea of Chalcedon, and, what 
makes it extremely probable that Xenocratea was the 
author of the piece, is the circumstance of its contatn- 
'ng the word MenrpvovoTooipoc, for which Pollux cites 
the Axiochus of this very philosopher. Diogenes Laer- 
tius, moreover, informs us, that Xenocratea wrote a 
work on death, but the manner in which he speaks of 
this production does not seem to indicate that it had 
the form of a dialogue. A letter, ascribed to JSschi- 
nes, is, in like manner, supposed to be the production 
of another writer- yEechines protended to have re- 
ceived bis dialogues from Xanthippe, the wife of Soc- 
rates; and Diogenes Laertius states that Arietippus, 
when reading them, called out, irocVv anl, i-yari, raOra ; 
"where did you get these from, you thief 1" Little 
reliance, however, can be placed on either of these ac- 
counts. The three dialogues ascribed to Machines 
are found in the old editions of Plato, sinoe that of Al- 
dus, 1618. The Axiochus is given by Wolf, in the 
collection entitled Doelrina recti Vivendi at manendi, 
Basil., 1677 and 1686, 8vo. Le Clerc first published 
these dialogues separately, at Amsterdam, 171 1, in 8vo. 
Horrssus gave s new edition and a new Latin version 
at Leuwarde, 1718, in 8vo. Fischer published four 
editions successively at Leipsic, in 1768, 176C, 1786, 
and 1788, 8vo. The last contains merely tbe text 
with an Index, so that the third is the most useful to 
the student. Fischer's editions are decidedly tbe beat. 
Tbe letter mentioned above waa published by Sammet, 
in his edition of the letters of iEschines the orator. —II. 
An Athenian orator, born 897 B.C., sixteen years be- 
fore Demosthenes. According to the account which 
JDscbines gives of his own parentage, hia father was 
of a family that had a community of altars with the race 
of the Eteobutads). Having lost bis property by tbe 
calamities of war, he turned hia attention, aa the son 
tells us, to gymnastic exercises ; but, being subsequent- 
ly driven out by tbe thirty tyrants, he retired to Asia, 
where be served in a military capacity, and greatly dis- 
tinguished himself. He contributed afterward to the 
restoration of the popular power in Athens. One of 
the orator's brothers served under Iphicratea, and held 
a command for three years, while another, tbe youngest, 
waa aent aa ambassador from the repnblio to tbe King 
of Persia. Such is the account of /Escbinea himself 
(it male erst* leg., p. 47 and 48, ed. Stepk.). That 
given by Demosthenes, however, in hia oration for the 
crown, is widely different. According to the latter, 
the father of Machines was originally a slave to a 
schoolmaster, and hia first name was Tromes, which, 
upon gaining hia freedom, he changed to Atrometos, in 
accordance with Athenian usage. His mother was af 
first named Empusa, an appellation which Demosthenes 
informs us was given to her oa account of her habits 
of Hfr, she being a common courtesan. This name 
was afterward changed to Glauoothea. (Demoetk. de 
corona, p. 270, ei. Reieke.) The statement of De- 
mosthenes, coming as it does from the lips of a rival, 
might well be suspected of exaggeration ; and aa Ma- 
chines did not refly to the speech of bis opponent, we 
64 



'know not bow be might have met these disgraceful 
charges. If, however, any inference ie to be drawr 
from the feeble manner in which be replies to similar 
charges, made by the same orator on a different occa- 
sion, we should be led to suspect that they were, in 
some degree, baaed upon the truth. Nor, indeed, is 
it probable, that, with all the licenae allowed the ancient 
orators, Demosthenes would have ventured to make 
such assertions in the presence of the Athenian peo- 
ple if unsupported by facta. Suidaa calls the mother 
of JSectunea TtAtorgta, a retainer to tbe female priest- 
hood in initiations. Pboiioa (Bitkoih., vol. 1, p. 80, 
ei. Bekker) aaya, that she wsa ItpeLa, '• a prietttet ,-" 
while another authority (Luaan, m Som*. — vol. \,ci. 
ftp., p.- 18) makes her to have been Tviacavtarpla, a 
kind of minstrel, who beat the tabour in the feasts of 
Cybele; From all that we can learn of tbe early life 
of /Escbinea, it would appear, that, after having aided 
his father in tbe management of a school, he became 
clerk to one of the lower class of magistrates. Tired 
of this station, he attached himself to a company of tra- 
gedians, but was intrusted merely with third-rate char- 
acters. It is said that, on one occasion,, when person- 
ating CEnomsus, he chanced to fall upon the stage, a 
circumstance which occasioned his disgraceful dismis- 
sion from tbe troop. Hence the name of CEuomaua, 
which Demosthenes, in ridicule, applies to him. (Dt- 
north, it corona, 807, ed. Reuke.) On the other 
hand, /Eschinos himself stales, that from early life ha 
followed the profession of arm a, aerved on many occa- 
sion! with distinction, and had a crown decreed him by 
the people for his meritorious exertions. It ia mora 
than probable that iEschines here selects the fairest 
parte of hia career, and Demosthenes, on tbe contrary, 
whatever was calculated to bring him into contempt. 
Some ancient writers make him to have been a disciple 
of Isocrates and PIsto, bjit others, with far more proba- 
bility, assign him Nature alone for an instructress, and 
affirm that the public tribunals and the theatre were hia 
only places of initiation into the precepts of the oratori- 
cal art. ^Eschinea must have possessed strong natu- 
ral talents to become as eminent aa he did, ana to be 
able to contest the prize of eloquence with so powerful 
a competitor as Demosthenes. It wss a long time, 
however, before he became much known aa a public 
speaker, and he was already advanced in life when be 
commenced taking part in tbe politics of tbe day. 
(Rcckereket tur la vie et tvr lee outrage* d'Eichme, 
par CAM Vatry. — Mem. Acad, dee Inter., &c , vol 
14, p. 87.) When jEschinea began hia public career, 
the Athenians were engaged in a war with Philip ol 
Macedon. The orator showed himself, at first, one of 
the moat violent opposers of this monarch, and pro- 
posed sending ambassadors throughout Groece, in or- 
der to raise up enemies against him. He himself went 
in this eapaeity to Metropolis, to confer with tbe 
general council of Arcadia. When the Athenians sent 
ten ambassadors to negotiate a peace with Philip, whs 
had been at war with them on account of Amphipolis, 
.-Eschinos, who was thought to be devoted to the pub- 
lic good, was one of tbe number. Demosthenes waa 
a colleague of hia on this occasion, and we have the ex- 
press testimony of tbe latter, in favour of the correct- 
ness and integrity which on this occasion marked the 
conduct of his rival. A change, however, soon took 
place. iEscbinea, on bis return, after having- at first 
strenuously opposed the projected peace, on the tnor 
row as earnestly advised it. Tbe gold of Macedon bad, 
beyond a doubt, been instrumental in producing this rev- 
olution in hia aenthnenta, and we find him ever after 
ward a warm partisan of Philip's, and blindly second 
ing all his ambitious designs. From thia period JSs 
chines snd Demosthenes became open antagonists. 
Trie latter, in concert with Timarcbue, having medi- 
tated an impeachment of his rival for his conduct on 
another embassy, when he and four colleagues purpose- 



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JESCHZNES. 



JJ3CHYLUS. 



jy wasted time in Macedonia, while Philip was p re ss 
cottar bis conquests in Thnce, .oEsohiaes anticipated 
tan stuck by ao accusation of Timarchua himself, and 
spake with » much energy, that the latter either hong 
kuaseif m despair, or, according to another authority, 
nMOademned, and deprived of hia rights aa a citizen. 
Dessnhenes, howeTer, not intimidated by the blow, 
peered hia original charge against iEacbines, and, 
•eroding to Phecius (BibluXk., vol 1, p. SO, ad. Bek- 
lalam so near accotnphshing the object he bad in 
new, that his rival waa only saved by the active inter- 
fere** of a wealth; citizen named Eobolua, an open 
eaeaj of Demosthenes, and by the judges rising from 
the* h« before the accusation ni brought to a close. 
After away subsequent coUisiena, JSschines waa com- 
pelled to yield to the patriotism and eloquence of hia 
edremrr. Their most famous controversy waa that 
wnich reined to tac crows. A little after the battle 
of Chenoanv. Demosthenes was commissioned to re- 
pur the fortifications of Athena. He expended, in the 
nerfonnaee* of ibis task, thirteen talents, ten of which 
he received from the public treasary, while the remain- 
isr thne wen generously given from his own private 
puss. As a auric of public gratitude for this act of 
bbtrslhy, Ctesiphon proposed to the people to decree 
* crown of void to the orator. .Essoinee immediately 
preferred u impeachment against Ctesiphon, alleging 
tstt sock > decree waa an infringement of the eetab- 
htbed hn of the republic, since Demosthenes still held 
sane pease offices, and hia accounts had not therefore 
keen sealed, and besides, since he was not snch a friend 
al the state u Ctesiphon had represented him to be, 
■bo had, therefore, pat upon record documents of a 
fibs tod erroneous character. Demosthenes, on whom 
die stack was virtually made, appeared in defence of 
the accused. This celebrated cause, after having been 
delayed for tome time in consequence of the troubles 
attendant on the death of Philip, waa at laat brought 
to t bearing. Ability and eloquence waa displayed on 
both sides, but the palm was won by Demosthenes ; 
and ha rival, being found guilty of having brought an 
onjmt accusation, was obliged to undergo the punish- 
ment be bad intended for Ctesiphon, and waa banished 
from his country. It is stated by Photios (Bibholk., 
*oLip 493, U. Better), that ^Eschines, when he 
left Aliens, was followed and assisted by Demos the- 
ae«,ind that, upon the letter's offering him consolation, 
he replied, " How shall I be able to bear my exile 
Ben a city, m which I leave behind ma enemies more 
enema than it is possible to find friends in any other. " 
rWch, h owever, ascribes this very answer to De- 
asauenes. when his opponents made a similar offer to 
has wee was departing from Athens into exile. jEs- 
efcsei mired to Asia with the intention of presenting 
bass* before Alexander ; but the death of that mon- 
arch essaelled him to change hia views, and take up 
hh isskkaee at Rhodes. Here he opened a school of 
eioqiasee,snd commenced his lectures by reading the 
two arsons which had been the occasion of bis banish- 
ment. His hearers loudly applauded his own speech ; 
hot when he came to that of Demosthenes, they were 
throws into transports of admiration. " What would 
yes save said," exclaimed JSecbines, according to the 
enaaaon account, " had you beard Demost h en e s him- 
self pronounce this oration " The statement of Pho- 
tius. however, is different from this, snd certainly more 
probable. The auditors of jEeebinee at Rhodes ex- 
pressed, as he informs us, their surprise that a man of 
so much ability should have been overcome by De- 
mosthenes : '• Had you heard thai mid tatst (tov *»- 
«o» iittvoe)," exclaimed .£sehines, " you would have 
rnsed to be at a loss on this bead." (ei j/Kowmri tov 
««mv buivov oaw av vplv tosto rVroporo. Pkot. 
AWseL, vol. 1, p. SO, ed. Better.) He subsequently 
trawterred bis school from Rhodes to Samoa, where 
W sad at the age of 76 jean. We have only three 



orations of oEschinea, and it would seem that these 
were bis sole remaining productions, even at aa early 
period, since Photius slates, that it waa customary to 
designate these speeches by the name of " the Grace* 
of JEae bines." The most celebrated of these ha- 
rangues ia the one ostensibly directed against Ctesi- 
phon, but in reality against Demosthenes. It is re- 
mark a his for order, clearness, and precision, and was 
selected by Cicero to be translated into Latin. — The 
Abbe Barthelemy makos the eloquence of Machines to 
be distinguiahed by a happy flow of words, by an abun- 
dance arid clearness of ideas, and by an air of great 
ease, which arose leas from art than nature. The an- 
cient writers appear to agree in this, that the manner 
of Machines ia softer, more insinuating, and mere del- 
icate than that of Demosthenes, but that the latter ia 
more grave, forcible, and convincing. The one has 
more of address, and the other more of strength and 
energy. The one endeavours to steal, the other to 
force, the assent of his auditors. In the harmony and 
elegance, the strength snd beauty of their language, 
both are deserving of high commendatioa, but the fig- 
ures of the one are finer, of the other bolder. In Do- 
aaoatbenes we aee a mere sustained effort, iu J£scb» 
nee vivid, though rnomentary, flashes of oratory.— Bo 
aides the speeches above mentioned, twelve epistle, 
are attributed to JGschines, which be is supposed to 
have written from Rhodes. Photius makes the num- 
ber only nine, end states that they were called, from 
thie circumstance, the Muses of &schines. One of 
the best editions of ^Eacbiosa is that of Wolf, oon- 
tainins also the orations of Demosthenes. It was first 
printed at Baale by Oporinua, afterward at the same 
place in 1548 and 1573, at Venice in 1650, and at 
Frankfort in 1604. The orations of iEachinea are also 
contained in Reiake's excellent edition of the Greek 
Orators, lift., 177V, dec, 13 Vols. 8vo, and in the val- 
uable London edition, recently published, of the works 
of Demosthenes and JGscbines, 10 vole. 8vo, 1837. Tc 
these may be added the edition of Foulkes and Friend, 
Oxon., 1696, 8vo, and that of Slock, Dublin, 1769, 3 
vols. 8vo. These laat two editions, however, contain 
merely the orations of /Eechines and Demosthenes re- 
specting the crown. The epistles were published sep- 
arately by Semrnet, Lift., 1771, 8vo.— HI. The au- 
thor of a harangue entitled Defuses, which some have 
attributed to the orator ^Eschinee. (Diog. Lacrt.y— 
IV. An Arcadian, a disciple of Lsocrates. (Id.) — V. A 
Mytileneao, surnamed the scourge of orators, ^sro/as- 
axMmf (id.) — VI. A native of Neapolia, and member 
of the Academic sect, about B.C. 109.— VII. A na- 
tive of Miletus, and orator, whose style of speaking ia - 
represented by Cicero as of the florid and Asiatic kind. 
(Cie. Brut., c. 96.) — VIII. An Athenian physician who 
cured the quinsy, affections of the palate, cancers, dee., 
by employing the cinders of excrements. (PUn^ 38, 4.) 
— IX. A distinguished individual among the Eretriana, 
who disclosed to the Athenians the treacherous designs 
of some of his countrymen, when the former had march- 
ed to their aid against the Pensions. (Htrod., 6, 100.) 

JSschbIok, I. a Mytileoeen poet, intimate with 
Aristotle. He accompanied Alexander in his Asiatic 
expedition. Consult Votmu We Poet. Gr&c. — II. Aa 
Iambic poet of Santos. He is mentioned bv Athena us 
(7, 396, «, and 8, 386, c), and also by Tzetxes, in hit 
scholia on Lycophron (e. 688-9). Some of hie verses 
are preserved by Athens) us and in the Anthology. 
(Compare Jaeobt, as] AntkoL, vol. 1, part 1, p. 386.) 
—IH. A phyaician, preceptor to Galen. (Kid. Sup 
element.)— IV. A Greek, writer, who composed a work 
on husbandry, dec., which ia cited by Pliny, and also 
by Varro, R. R., 1, 1. 

JSscky lds, I. a celebrated tragic writer, son of Ea- 
phorion, bom of a noble family at Eleusis in Attioa, 
to the fourth year of the sixty-third Olympiad, B.C. 
536. (Compare Vit. Anonym, given in Stanley' t sal, 

66 



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-ESCHYLTO. 



.E8CHYLUS. 



and the Ai undel Marbles. ) Pausanias (1, 14) records 
a story of hi* boyhood, professedly on the authority of 
the poet himself, that, having fallen asleep while watch- 
ing the clusters of grapes in a vineyard, Bacchus ap- 
peared to him, and bade him turn hia attention to tragic 
composition. This account, if true, shows that hia 
mind was, at a very early period, enthusiastically 
struck with the exhibitions of the infant drama. An 
impression like this, acting upon his fervid imagination, 
would naturally produce such a dream as is described. 
To this same origin must, no doubt, be traced the 
common account relative to JEschylos, that he was 
accustomed to write under the influence of wine ; and 
in confirmation of which Lucian (Demottk. Encom. — 
. ed. Bip. — vol. 9, p. 144) cites the authority of Callis- 
thenes, and Atbeneus (10, 88) 'that of Chameleon. 
The inspiration of Bacchus, in such a case, can mean 
nothing more than the true inspiration of poetry. 
(Mohmke, LUt. ier Gr. und Rem., vol. 1, p. 359.) 
At the age of twenty-five, JSschylas made his first 
public attempt as a tragic author, in the 70th Olympiad, 
B.C. 490. (Quid, in Alox—Clinton't Fasti Hellen- 
iei, p. 21, 2d ed.) The next notice which we have of 
him is in the third year of the 72d Olympiad, B.C. 490, 
when, along with hia two celebrated brothers Oynsgi- 
rus and Aminias, be was graced at Marathon with the 
praises due to pre-eminent bravery, being then in his 
35th year. (If arm. Arund., No. 49. — Vit. Anonym.) 
Six yean after that memorable battle, he gained bis 
first- tragic victory. Four yeare after thia was fought 
the battle of Salamia, in Which .ASschylus took part 
s with his brother Aminias, to whose extraordinary valour 
the apurrela were decreed. (Herod., 8, 93. — JElian, 
Var. Hit!., 6, 19 ) In the following year he served in 
the Athenian troops at Plates. Eight years afterward 
(Argument, ad Pert.) he gained the prize with a te- 
tralogy, composed of the Pert*, the Phincut, the 
Glaucut Potnientit, and the Prometheus Jgnifer, a 
satyric drama (or, to give their Greek titles, the Hep- 
oat, itvevc, TXavnoc Tlorvtevc, and Rpofnfievc 
poc). The latter part of the poet's life is involved in 
much obscurity. (Compare Blomfield, ad Pert, praf., 
p. xxii. — Id. ad Arg. in Agamem., p. xix . et xx. — Bockh , 
it Grate. Drag. Principi, c. 4, seqq.) That he quilted 
Athena and died in Sicily, ia agreed on all hands, but 
the time and cause of his departure are points of 
doubt and conjecture. It seems thst jGschylus had 
laid himself open to a charge of profanation, by too 
boldly introducing on the stage something connected 
with the mysteries. According to Clemens Alexan- 
drinus, he was tried and acquitted of the charge (tv 
'kpt'up iruyy npiOtlc, otruc &fetodn, eirteVtfaf airrdv 
foi fitfxvnfiivov. — Clem. Alex. Strom., 3). The more 
romantic narrative of jElian ( Var. Hut., 5, 19) informs 
ua, that the Atheniana stood ready to stone him to 
death, when his brother Aminias, who interceded for 
him, dexterously dropped his robe snd showed the stump 
of his own arm lost at the battle of Salami's. This act of 
fraternal affection and presence of mind hsd the desired 
effect on the quick and impulsive temper of the Athe- 
niana, and jEschylus waa pardoned. Bat the peril 
which he had encountered, the dread of a multitude 
ever merciless in their superstitions, indignation at the 
treatment which he bad received, joined, in all likeli- 
hood, to feelings of vexation and jealousy at witnessing 
the preference occasionally given to young and aspi- 
ring rivals, were motives sufficiently powerful to induce 
the proud-spirited poet to abandon his nstive city, and 
aeek a retreat in the court of the munificent and lite- 
rary Hiero, prince of Syracuse. (Vit. Anonym. — 
Pautan., 1, 2. — Plut. de Exil., Op.,vol. 8, p. 385, ed. 
Reitke.) This must hsve been before the second year 
of the 78th Olympiad, B.C. 467, for in that year Hiero 
died. The author of the anonymous life of vEschylus, 
which has come down to us, mentions, among other 
reasons for his voluntary banishment, a victory obtained 
56 



over him by Shnonides, in an elegiac contest; and, 
what is more probable, the success of Sophocles, who 
carried off from him the tragic prize, according to the 
common account, in the 78th Olympiad, B.C. 468. 
Plutarch, in bis life of Cimon, confirms the latter 
statement. If so, ^Gschylus could not have been more 
than a year in Sicily before Hiero'a death. The com- 
mon account, relative to the cause which drove the post 
from his country, is grounded upon an obscure allusion 
in Aristotle's Ethics, explained by Clemens Alexandri- 
nus and /Elian. In Sicily, iEschylua composed a 
drama, entitled JEtna, to gratify hia royal host, who 
had recently founded a city of that name. During the 
remainder of hia life, it is doubtful whether he ever re- 
turned to Athens. If he did not, those pieces of his, 
which were composed in the interval, might be exhibit- 
ed on the Athenian stage under the care of some friend 
or relation, aa waa not unfrequently the case. Among 
these dramas waa the Oreatean tetralogy (Argument, 
ad Agamem. — Schol. ad Ariitoph. Ran., 1 165). whieh 
won the prixe in the second year of the 80th Olympiad, 
B.C. 4fi8, two years before hia death. At any rata, 
his residence in Sicily must have been of considerable 
length, aa it waa sufficient to affect the purity of his 
language. We are told by Athenaiua, that many Si- 
cilian words are to be found in hi* later plays. JE%- 
chylus certainly has some Sicilian forms in hia extant 
dramas : thus neiupoioc, nedatxfuot, ireduopot, pda- 
oov, pa, dec., for ptTapaioc, uercuxiuot, fureupot, 
pe%av, /a/rep, Ac. (Comp. BlomJUia, Prom. Vinci., 
277, Glott., and Bockh, de Trag. Grate., c. 5.) The 
poet died at Gels, in the 69th year of his sge, in the 
81st Olympiad, B.C. 456. Hi* death, if the common 
accounts be true, was of a most singular nature. Sit- 
ting motionless, in silence and meditation, in the fields, 
his head, now bald, was mistsken for a atone by an 
eagle, which happened to be flying over bim with a 
tortoise in her claws. The bird dropped the tortoise to 
break the shell ; and the poet waa killed by the blow. 
It is more than probable, however, that this statement 
ia purely fabulous, and that it was invented in order to 
meet a supposed prophecy, that he would receive hia 
death from on high. The Geloans, to show their re- 
spect for tso illustrious a sojourner, intened him with 
much pomp in the public cemetery. — .£schylus is said 
to have composed seventy dramas, of which five were 
satyric, and to have been thirteen times victor. The 
account of Pausanias, however, would almost imply a 
larger proportion of satyric dramas. In fact, consid- 
erable discrepance exists respecting the' number of 
plays ascribed to .JSschylus. Only seven of his trage- 
dies remain, together with fragments of others pre- 
served in the citations of the grammarians, and two 
epigrams in the Anthology. The titles of the drama* 
which have reached us are as follows : 1. Upo/iijOetif 
ieapuTtK (Prometheui Vinctut). 2. 'Euro im 6j6at 
(Septem contra Tkebat). 3. liipocu (Per**). 4. 
' kyapipvuv (Agamemnon). 5. Xonfopoi (Choipke- 
ra). 6. TUfUvvAcc (Eumenides). 7. 'hcirtiti (Sup- 
pUcet). A short sccount of each of these will be 
given towards the close of the present article. This 
great dramatist was the author of the fifth form of 
tragedy. ( Vid. Theatrum.) He added a second actor 
to the locutor of Thespis and Phryniehua, and thus in- 
troduced the dialogue. He abridged .the immoderate 
length of the choral odes, making them more subservient 
to the main interest of the plot, and expanded the short 
episode* into scenes of competent extent To these 
improvements in the economy of the drama, he added 
the decoration* of art in its exhibition. A regular 
stage (Vitruv. Praf., lib. 7), with appropriate scenery, 
was erected : the actors were furnished with becoming 
dresses, snd raised to the stature of the heroes repre- 
sented by the thick-soled cothurnus (Horat., Ep. ad 
Pit., 280) ; while the face was brought to the heroic 
cast by a mask of proportionate size and strongly - 



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carked character, which waa also ac contrived aa to 
pre power and distinctness to the voice. He paid 
gnat attention to the choral dances, and invented sev- 
eral agoe-dances himself. Among his other improve- 
■rats, » mentioned the introduction of a practice, 
whs* •assequently became established aa a fixed and 
eaaatnl role, the removal of all deeds of bloodshed 
ml murder from the pnblic view (Philoetr., VU. 
iytSm., S, 11), a rale only violated on one occasion, 
Btneir, by Sophocles in his play of the Ajax. In 
lint, so many and so important were the alterations 
tad additions of iEschylus, that be was considered by 
the Athenians as the Father of Tragedy (PhtloMtr., I. 
(.}, sad, as a mark of distinguished honour paid to 
his merits, they passed a decree, after his death, that 
s chorus should be allowed to any poet who chose to 
re-exhibit the dramas of jEsehyros. (Philottr., I. e.) 
Aristophanes all odes to this custom of re-exhibiting 
the plays of JSschylos in the opening of the Achami- 
ans (s. 9, teqq .). Quintilian, however (10, 1), assigns 
a very different reason for this practice, and makes it 
to have been adopted for the purpose of presenting 
these dramas in a more correct form than that in which 
they were left by the author himself. What authority 
he had far such an assertion, does not now appear. 
In philosophical sentiments, ./Esehylus is said to have 
been a Pythagorean. ( Cic. Tu*e. Dirp., 2, 9.) In his 
extant dramas the tenets of this sect may occasionally 
be traced ; as, deep veneration in what concerns the 
gods (Agomem., 371), high regard for the sanctity of 
an oath and the nuptial bond (Eumen, 317), the im- 
mortality of the soul (CAoepA., 321), the origin of 
names from imposition and not from nature (Agamem., 
68! — Proas. Vtnct., 84, 743), the importance of num- 
bers (.Pros*. V\ntct., 468), the science of physiognomy 
(.4;«ateav, 797), the sacred character of suppliants 
{SttypL, 3S1. — Eumen., 233), dec. /Esehylus, ob- 
serves Schlegel (Dram Lit., p. 135, teqq. ), must be con- 
sidered as the creator of tragedy ; it sprang forth from his 
head in complete armour, like Minerva from the brain 
of Jove. He clothed it aa became its dignity, and riot 
only instructed the chorus in the song and the dance, 
but came forward himself as an actor. (Athenavt, 1, 
22.) He sketches characters with a few bold and 
powerful strokes. His plots are extremely simple. 
He had aot yet arrived at tbe art of splitting an action 
■u parts numerous and rich, and distributing their 
amplication and denouement into well-proportioned 
stem. Hence in his writings there often arises a ces- 
sation of action, which be makes us feel still more by 
hi* BBRsaonably long choruses. But, on the other 
band, aU his poetry displays a lofty and grave disposi- 
tion. No soft emotions, but terror alone remains in 
him ; roe head of Medusa is held up before the petrified 
spectator*. His method of considering destiny is ex- 
tremely harsh ; it hovers over mortals in all its gloomy 
magnificence. The buskin of .iEschylus has, as it 
were, the weight of brass; on it none but gigantic 
forms stalk before us. It almost seems to cost him 
an effort to pais mere men ; he frequently brings gods 
on the stage, particularly tbe Titans, those ancient 
deities who shadow forth the dark primeval powers of 
nature, and who had long been driven into Tartarus, 
beneath a world governed in tranquillity. In con- 
formity with the standard of his dramatis persons;, he 
seeks to swell out the language which they employ to 
• colossal size ; hence there arise rugged compound 
sords. an over-multitude of epithets, and often an ex- 
treme intricacy of syntax in the choruses, which is the 
nose of great obscurity. He is similar to Dante and 
Stakspeare in tbe peculiar strangeness of his imagina- 
tions and expressions, yet these images are not deficient 
in that terrible grace which the ancients particularly 
praise a -Esehylus. Tbe poet flourished exactly when 
the freedom of Greece, rescued from its enemies, was 
in as first strength, with a consciousness of which he 



seems to be proudly penetrated. He had lived to be 
an eyewitness of the greatest and most glorious event 
of which Greece could boast, the defeat and destruction 
of the enormous hosts of the Persians under Darius and 
Xerxes, and had fought with distinguished valour in 
tbe combats of Marathon and Salamra. In the Per**, 
and the Seven against Thibet, he pours forth a warlike 
strain ; the personal inclination of the poet for the life) 
of a hero beams forth in a manner which cannot be 
mistaken. The tragedies of iEschylus are, on the 
whole, one proof among many, that m art, as in nature, 
gigantic proportions precede those of the ordinary 
standard, which then grow less and less, till they reach 
meanness and insignificance ; and also that poetry, on 
its first appearance, is always next to religion in esti- 
mation, whatever form tbe latter may take among the 
nee of men then existing. The tragic style of jEs- 
chylus is far from perfect (compare Pornx, PraUet. 
m Bwrip., p. «), and frequently deviates into the Epic 
and the Lyric, elements not qualified to harmonise 
with the drama. He is often abrupt, disproportioned, 
and harsh. It was very possible that more skilful 
tragic writers might compose after htm, but ha most 
always remain unsurpassed in his almost superhuman 
valines*, since even Sophocles, his more fortunate 
and more youthful rival, could not equal him in this. 
The latter uttered a sentiment concerning him by 
which he showed himself to have reflected on the art 
in which he excelled. " iEschylus does what is right, 
but without knowing it." Simple words, which, how- 
ever, exhaust all that we understand by a genius which 
produces its effects unconsciously. (Theatre of the 
Greek*, p.- 114, teqq., 2d ed.) — It only remains to 
give a brief account of the tragedies of iEschylus 
which have reached us entire. 1. Uaofai6ei{ iicfto- 
rr/f (" Prometheus in chains"). All the personage* 
of this tragedy are divinities, and yet the piece, not- 
withstanding, carries with it an air of general interest, 
for it involves the well-being of the human race. Tha 
subject is Prometheus, punished for having been the 
benefactor of men in stealing for them the fire from 
the skies; or, to express the same idea in a moral 
point of view, it is strength and decision of character 
struggling against injustice and adversity. In this 
drama, which stands alone of its kind, we recognise, 
amid strength and sublimity of conception, awtld and 
untutored daring, which betrays the rudeness of early 
tragedy, and the infancy of toe art The scenery is 
awfully terrific : the lonely rock frowning over the 
wavea, the stern and imperious sons of Pallas snd 
Styx holding up Prometheus to its rifted side while 
Vulcan fixes his chains, Oceanus on his hippogriff tbe 
fury of the whirlwind, the pealing thunder, and Prome- 
theus himself undismayed amid the warfare of the ele- 
ments, and bidding defiance even to the monarch of 
the skies, present a picture pregnant with fearful in- 
terest, and worthy tbe genius of -Esehylus. Una 
drama was translated into Latin by the poet Attraa, 
some fragments of whose version are preserved for us 
by Cicero {Tun. Qnatt., 2, 10). Tbe question rela- 
tive to the remaining pieces of the Tetralogy, of which 
this plsy formed a jMrt, may be seen discussed in 
Schiilz's edition of IEschylus (vol. 5, p. 120, teqq.). — 
2. 'Errro M Brfiae ("The Seven Chiefs against 
Thebes"). The subject of the piece is the Biege of 
Thebes, by the seven confederate chieftains, who bad 
espoused the cause of Polyniees against his brother 
Eteocles. It is said that iEschylus particularly valued 
himself on this tragedy, and certainly not without rea- 
son, both as regards the animation of the scenes that 
are portrayed, the sublimity of the dialogue, and tbe 
strong delineations of character which it containa. 
This drama ha* the additional merit of having given 
birth to the Antigone of Sophocles, the Phcenissas of 
Euripides, and the Thebaid of Statins. Besides tbe 
Siege of Thebes, iEschylus wrote three tragedies also 

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on die event* which preceded it, viz., the "Laras," the 
"QSdipue," and the u Sphinx." Some critic*, bow- 
aver, make the last to have been a satyric drama. — 
< — 3. Uipaeu ("The Persians"). This piece i* so 
called because the chorus is composed of aged Per- 
uana. The subject ia purely an historical one : it is 
the defeat of the naval armament of Xerxes. This 
play was performed eight years after the battle of Sal- 
amis, and it has been considered by some a defect 
that so recent an event should have been represented 
on the stage. But, as Racine has remarked in the 
preface to Bajazet, distance of place supplies the want 
ef distance of time. The scene is lata at Suss, be- 
fore the ancient structure appropriated to the great 
council of state, sod near the tomb of Darius. The 
shsde of this monarch comes forth from the sepulchre, 
for the purpose of counselling Xerxes to cease from 
the war against a people whom the gods protect. The 
piece contains great beauties ; every instant the trouble 
of the Persians increases, snd the interest augments. 
By some it has been supposed to have been, written 
with a political intent, toe poet endeavouring, by an 
animated description of the pernicious effects of an 
obstinate pride, and by filling- the spectators with a 
malignant compassion for the vanquished Xerxes, in- 
directly disposing them to break off the war which 
Themistocles wished to prolong. — 4. 'Ayajiiftvuv 
(" Agsmerantm"). This prince, returning from the 
siege of Troy with his female captive Cassandra, is as- 
sassinated by Clytemnestra and ^Egisthus. The part 
of Cssssndrs, who predicts the woes that are about to 
tall upon the house of Agamemnon, forms the chief 
interest of the piece, and is one of the finest that has 
ever been conceived. The commencement of this 
tragedy is somewhat languid, but as the plsy proceeds 
all is movement and feeling. — -6. Xontvpoi ("The Cboe- 
phore"). This drama is so entitled, because the cho- 
rus, composed of female Trojan csptives, slaves of 
Clytemnestra, are charged with the office of bringing 
the liquor for making libations at the tomb of Agamem- 
non 0c<>9) o libation, and fcpu, to bring). The subject of 
the piece is Orestes avenging the death of Agamemnon 
on Clytemnestra and her paramour. When this horri- 
ble deed ha* been accomplished, the parricide la deliv- 
ered over to the Furies, who disturb his reason. 
" The spirit of ^Escbylus," observes Potter, " shines 
through this tragedy ; but a certain softening of grief 
hangs over it, and gives it an air of solemn magnifi- 
cence." The characters of Orestes and Electra are 
finely supported. — 6. Ev/tcvtder (" The Eumenides," 
or " Furies"). This play derives its name from the 
circumstance of the chorus being composed of Furies 
who pursue Orestes. The latter pleads bis cause be- 
fore the Areopagus, and is acquitted by the vote of 
Minerva. This drama is remarkable for its violation 
of the unity of place, the scene being first laid at Del- 
phi and afterward at Athena. MuTler haa written a 
very able work on the scope and character of this pro- 
duction, in which he discusses incidentally some of 
the most important points connected with the Greek 
drama. As regards the object which the poet had in 
view when composing the piece, he considers it to be 
a political one. ^Gschylus was a zealous partisan of 
Aristidcs, and opponent of Themistocles, and evident 
symptoms of this partiality are to be found in some of 
his plsys. Aa an Athenian citizen snd patriot, the 
poet on every occasion recommends to his countrymen 
temperance and moderation in their enjoyment of dem- 
ocratic liberty, and in their ambitious schemes against 
the rest of Greece. The party of Themistocles had 
made themselves obnoxious, in these respects, to the 
patriotic feelinga of jEschylus ; snd a demagogue 
named Ephialtes, having attacked the authority of the 
venerable court of the Areopagus, the poet in this play 
of the Eumenides appeared in its defence, and strove 
to save this excellent institution, though ineffectually, 
68 



from the levelling doctrines of the day. Pollux informs 
us, that tbe tragic chorus, up to the time when this 
play was first represented, consisted of fifty persons, 
but that the terror occasioned by a chorus of fifty furies 
caused a lew to be passed, fixing the tragic chorus, for 
the time to come, at fifteen, and the comic chorus at 
twenty-four. {Jul. Pol., 4, 110.) Pollux evidently is 
in error here. The number of choreutc for the whole 
tetralogy consisted of fifty (originally, as Miiller thinks, 
of forty-eight), and these cboreuus it was the poet's 
business to distribute into choruses for the individual 
tragedies and satyric drama composing the tetralogy. 
Pollux, therefore, in all probability, misconceived 
something which he had learned relative to the number 
of choreutas for the whole tetralogy, of which number 
at least three fourths were on the stage st the end oi 
the Eumenides But this was done m order to afford 
the people a splendid and expressive spectacle ; neither 
were the choreotaj thus combined all habited as furies. 
(Midler, Evmmdtt, p. 63, With regard ts 

the number of the tragic chorus in each particular 
play, it may be remarked, that Sophocles first brought 
in fifteen, the previous number having been twelve, 
and that 4£schylus employed only twelve in more than 
one of bis dramas, although in others very possiblv he 
adopted tbe number so extended by Sophocles. (Con- 
sult the remark* of Midler, Eumcn., p. 68.)— This play ' 
did not prove, at first, very successful. It was altered 
by the poet, and reproduced some years after, during 
his residence in Sicily, when it carried off the prize. 
— 7. 'Ixxrtdrr (" The Female Suppliant*''). Danaus 
and .his daughters solicit and obtain the protection of 
the Argives against /Egyptus and his sons. This play 
forms one of the feebleat productions of ^Bschylu*. 
It possesses one remarkable feature, that the chorus 
sets the principal part. The scene is near the shore, 
in an open grove, close to the altar and the images of 
the gads presiding over the sacred games, with a view 
of the aea and the ships of /Egyptus on one aide, and 
of the towers of Argos on the other ; with hills, and 
woods, snd vales, s river flowing between them. — We 
have no good edition, aa yet, of all the plays of iEschy- 
lus. That of Schiitz, HaUe, 1808-21, 6 vols. 8vo, 
although useful in some respects, is not held in very 
high estimation ; neither is that of Butler, Cantab., 
1809, 8 vole. 8vo, regarded with a very favourable eye 
by European scholars. Wellauer's edition, also. Laps., 
1823-1831, 8 vols. &vo, though highly lauded by some, 
ia far from being satisfactory to all. The edition by 
Scboleneld, Cantab., 1828, 8vo, is a useful one. The 
beat text is that given by W. Dindorf, Lips., 1827. 
The best editions of tbe separate play* are those of 
Blomfisld, as far aa they extend, comprising, namely, 
the Prometheus, Septan contra Thebas, Agamemnon, 
Perta, and Choipiortt. His edition of the Perta, 
however, was very severely handled by Seidler, in one 
of the German reviews, though the edge of the critique 
was in a great measure blunted by the personal feeling 
visible throughout. The editions of Dr. Blomfield ap- 
peared originally from the Cambridge press. There 
are good cditiona of the Agamemnon and Choephora 
by Klausen and Peile. Mutter's edition of the Eumen- 
idet, sppended to the dissertations above alluded to, is 
an excellent and scholar-like .performance, though it 
provoked the ire of Hermann and his school, having 
been severely criticised by him and one of his disciples. 
A translation of it appeared from the Cambridge press 
in 1835.— IL, III. (Kid. Supplement.) ' 

-lEscuLArfus, son of Apollo end the nymph Coronis, 
and god of the healing art. Pausaniaa <2, 26) gives 
three different accounts of his origin, on which our lim- 
its forbid us to dwell. Tbe one of these thai has been 
followed by Ovid, makes Coronis to have been unfaith- 
ful to Apollo, and to have been, in consequence, put to 
death by him, the offspring of her womb having bees 
first taken from her and spared. ApoUo received lb* 



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aetormataan respecting the unfaithfulness of Coronn, 
from a raven, and the angry deity ia (aid by Apollodo- 
in 10 have changed the colour of the raven from white 
to black, aa a punishment far his unwelcome atficiooa- 
ness. is Carom*, in Greek, signifies a crow, hence 
another fable arose that jEseolapius had sprung from 
an egg of that bird, odder the figure of • serpent The 
frat af the accounts given by Paoaaniaa makes the 
lucapiace of ^Eacnlapiua to base been on the borders 
af lim Epidaarian territory ; the second lays the scene 
■ Thessaly ; the third in Messenia. JSscnlapius waa 
pAired, at an early age, under the care of the centsar 
ChuoB. Being of • quick and lively genius, he made 
each progress aa soon to become not only a great phy- 
sician, bat at length to be reckoned the god and invent- 
or of roerlicme, though the Greeks, not very careful of 
consistency in the history of those early ages, gave to 
Apia, son of Pboromena, the glory of having invented 
tac heating art. JBsculapios accompanied Jason in 
ma cmedttioa to Cofehia, and in his medical capacity 
waa of great service to the Argons ots. He married 
Epiene, when soma call Lampetis, by whom be had 
rwo sens, Machaoa and Podshrios, and roar daughters, 
Hygiea, Panacea, and Isao, of whom Hygiea, 

goddess of health, was the most celebrated. In the fab- 
aa waUaih aons of antiquity, JJsculaprasisaaid to have 
tv stored many to rife. According to Apollodorua (3, 
10, 3), he received from Minerva the blood that flow- 
ed from the veins of Medusa, and with that which pro- 
ceeded 6am the veins on the left, he operated to the 
desnaction of men, while he used that which was ob- 
tained from the veins on the right for the benefit of 
aa feUow-creatnrea. (Compare Heyne, td Apeilod., 
L t.) With this last he brought back to the light of 
day Capanaas and Lycurgus, according to some, or 
Eriphyle and Hippolytus according to others, or, as 
steer ancient authorities stale, Hymensua, and Glau- 
ens the sob of Minos. Jupiter, alarmed at this, and 
fearing, says Apollodorus, lest men, being put in pos- 
session of the means of triumphing over death, might 
cease to render honour to the gods, struck vEsculapius 
with thunder. The common account makes this to 
have bees done on toe complaint of Pluto. Apollo, 
enraged at the loss of his son, destroyed the Cyclopes 
who had forged the thunderbolts of Jove, for winch 
afteace the monarch of the skies was about to hurl 
has into Tartarus, but, on the supplication of La tons, 
riH him for a season from Olympus, and compel- 
led him to serve with a mortal (euf. Admetua and 
anuhiaui). — Thas far we have traced the Greek se- 
i respecting JSacukpius. If, however, a careful 
v be msthotcsl, the result will be a decided coa- 
s that the legend of ^Escnlapins is one of Orient- 
al arerui According to Sencbonistho, j£scniaphis 
was the esse with the Phmnickn Eamun, the son of 
Sywyfc, eased*' the jnst," and the brother of the seven 
Cafetri. (Saateea , frag.. op. Eiucb.,Pr<tp. Evang , 
p. 39. — Care's Ancient Fragment*, p. 13.) Hence 
toe roetmng of Esmnn, which signifies '-the eighth." 
(Compare the 8dtmmm, or Mendee, of Egypt.) The 
seven Cabin are the seven planets ; and, m the Egyp- 
tian mvtaohvr, Phtha is added to them aa the eighth. 
Pacha and JSscutspius, then, are identical, and the lat- 
ter, like the farmer, though sdded to the number of the 
Cabin, becomes in a mysterious sense their parent and 
raide. (Creaxer'* Symiott*, vol. 3, p. 885 and 836 ) 
In KemoD-yEsculspius, then, we have a solar deity, 
pexaonroed in his beauty and his weakness, far he is 
the same with the youth of Beryrua, who mutilated 
henasetf end was placed m the number of the gods, and 
in tats quality he receives the name of Pnan or Pteon, 
•* (he physician." He becomes identified also with the 
hcauu e a o Apollo, for whose son he pasaea among the 
Greeks; while, as a mutilated deity, he ia the aame 
with tae Phrygian Atys, the fair Adonis, and the chain- 
ed Hi ii aha of the Tynans, all Taxied forms of the 



os. He ia the ran, without strength at the 
close of autumn. In ail these different points of view, 
we find ^Eseulspios corresponding to the Egyptian di- 
vinities ; to Honrs, to Harpocrates, to Seta, and to the 
god of the earth, Scrapie. Egypt wss always famed 
tor the knowledge possessed by its priests of the heal- 
ing art ; and it alwaya represented its great deities, the 
symbols of the power of nature, as endued with a heel- 
ing influence. (Oreuzer'e Symiolxk, per GuigniutU, 
vol. 3, p. 887 and 178, teqq.) Isis receives, in in- 
scriptions, the epithet of " salutary." (Gnter, p. 88. 
—Fabrttt., p. 470. — Rente, cel. 1, a. 133.) Scripts, 
whose name frequently occurs by the side of that of bis 
spouse, had, at Csnopus, a city already famous by its 
temple of Hercules, a sanctuary no less renowned far 
the wonderful cares performed within it, and of which 
a register was carefully preserved. (Strait; 801.— 
Compare Crenaer, Dionye. , l,p. 133, and Outgnuoife 
dissertation on the god Scrapie, " Sur le Diem Sermpi* 
et ton engine," p. 30 and S3.) Both of these divin- 
ities, in the scenes figured en the monuments, beer ser- 
pents, or agsthodemons, aa the rmtilosns of sea 1th : 
they carry also the chalice, or salutary cup of nature, 
Nirounded by serpents, and which funned, perhaps, the 
most ancient idol connected with their warship. (Crea- 
mer's SywetehJt, psr Gutgniemi, vol. 1, p. 818, eeqq .) 
One thing at least is certain, that these sacred ser- 
pents were nourished in their temples as living images 
of these deities of health. (Gmgnuutfe Scrapie, p. 
19, lege.) The nurture of these national fetiche con- 
sisted in enkes of honey, and such was also the food 
of the serpents consecrated to the powers beneath the 
earth, the divinities of the dead. In fact, the god of 
medicine is, at the seme time, a telluric power ; end 
it is he that causes the mineral waters, the sources of 
health, to spring from the bosom of the esrth. Jvsco- 
lepius, then, is identical, ia his essence, with the Ca- 
nopic Scrapie : like him, be haa for a symbol a vase 
surrounded by serpents, and he waa originally this 
same vase, the sacred Csnopus. (Compare Creuxer, 
Dionye., p. 330. — Symbohh, fir GuxgnuuU, vol. 1, p. 
416 and 818, eeqq ) It ia curious to observe the 
strong analogy that exists between the Oriental wor- 
ship of Sera pis, and the Grecian ideas, rites, and usa- 
ges u the ease of iEscvlapius. At zEgium, in Achaia, 
near the ancient temple of llitbyia, were to be seen the 
statues of the god and goddess of health, Aeclepiua 
(vEaeulapiua) and Hygiea. (Ptrnton., 7, 39.) At Ti- 
tans, a city of Sicyonia, the fust settler of which wss, 
according to tradition. Titan, brother of the Sun, Alex- 
aaor, the son of Machaon and grandson of jEsculapius, 
bad erected a temple to this deity. His statue, at this 
place, waa almost entirely enveloped m ■ tunk of white 
woo), with s mantle thrown over it, so that the face, 
and the extremities of the hands and feet, alone appear- 
ed to view. .lEseuhpios wss carried, it is said, from 
Epidaurus to Pergaruoe ; and we are also told that, ia 
this Asiatic city, the Acesios of Epidaurus took the 
name of Telesphorus. (Pmean., 8, 11.) New Te- 
lesphorus indicates the autumnal season, the son that 
has come to hia maturity together with the productions 
of the earth, and, consequently, verging to bis decline. 
Hence the Arcadians gave to jSsculapius a nunc na- 
med Trygon, an appellation derived probably from the 
Greek rpvye or rpvyau, and referring tothe labours of 
harvest. iEsculapius, moreover, according to a tradi- 
tion preserved in Attica, offered himself on the eighth 
day for admission into the Eleusiniaa mysteries, sad 
waa accordingly initiated. (PkUoelrtU., Vit. Apeilou., 
4, 18.) He is, in this point of view, the tardy one, the 
last comer assisting at the festival of antuaan and the 
harvest. The subterranean powers and the deities of 
death, an also the divinities of sleep. Such, too, is the 
case with jEacuIapius. He gives slumber and repose, 
and by their means bestows health. (!*/«. it Mem., 
p. 78, ed. Scheie.) Hence the custom of going to bis 

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temple at Epidaurus for the purpose of sleeping there- 
in, and recovering health by the means which the god 
of health would indicate in a dream to the invalids. 
(Compare Sprengel, Getck. der Median., vol 1, p. 107, 
teqq.) The ancient JSacolapius, introduced at an 
early period into the religion of Samothrace, appeared 
at first in Greece under a form closely assimilated to 
that of the vase- gods, dwarfs, or pigmies, that were 
accustomed to be enveloped in garments, and to which 
was attributed a magic influence. ( Creuztr't Sym- 
bolic, par Guigniaut, vol. 2, p. 810, teqq.) In these 
mysterious idols, the richness of hidden meaning was 
as great as the mode of decking the exterior was whim- 
sical. The spirit of the old Pelasgic belief would 
seem, however, to have been continually employed in 
decomposing, as it were, this body of ideas united in 
one particular Bymbol, and in individualizing each for 
itself. It was thus that, by degrees, there arose round 
the god of medicine a cortege of genii, of both sexes, 
regarded either as bis wives, or as his sons and daugh- 
ters, or even as his grandchildren. In the sculptured 
representations of ^Esculapius, to which the develop- 
ment of Grecian art had subsequently given birth, we 
find the figure of Jove, a little modified, becoming the 
model of this deity. And yet, though the Grecian 
perception of the beautiful led them to deviate, in gen- 
eral, from the grosser representations of the Pelasgic 
worship, we find them, in the present case, still re- 
taining an attachment for the ancient, and, at the same 
time, more significant and mysterious images. Hence, 
by the side of the new deity is placed one of his per- 
sonified attributes, under the figure of an enveloped 
dwarf. In every quarter, where the Asclepiades {nid. 
that article) taught the principles of the healing art, or 
Mired diseases in the temples of their master and re- 
fitted father, JSsculapiua and his good genii were cel- 
ebrated as saving divinities, on votive tablets, inscrip- 
tions, medals, and gems. The Romans, too, in the 
year of their city 461, in order to be delivered from a 
pestilence, sent a solemn embassy to Epidaurus to ob- 
tain the sacred serpent nourished at that place in the 
temple of .Eeculapius. A temple was likewise erect- 
ed to this deity on an island in the Tiber, where the 
•acred reptile had disappeared among the reeds. ( Vol. 
Max., 1, 8, 2.) Not content with this, however, they 
resolved to have also a family of Asclepiades, and they 
pretended to have found it in the house of Acilius. — 
The principal and most ancient temples of JJsculapi- 
us ('AmAiprtera), were those at Titane in- Sicyonia 
(Potuon.,.2,11); atTricca in Thessaly ( Strabo, 438) ; 
at Tithorea in Phocis, where he was revered under the 
name of Archegetes {Ponton., 10, 32) ; at Epidaurus 
(Pautan., 2, 26) ; in the island of Cos {Strabo, 657) ; 
at Megalopolis (Pautan., 8, 82) ; at Cyllene in Elis 
{Pautan., 6, 28); and at Pergamus in Asia Minor 
(Pautan., 2, 26). Among all these temples, that of 
Epidaurus was at first the most celebrated, for it was 
from this city that toe worship of ./Esculapius was car- 
ried into Sicyonia, and also to Pergamus and Cyllene. 
{Pautan., 2, 10.) It appears, however, that the tem- 
ple of Cos became in time the most famous of all, since 
the Epidaurians, on one occasion, sent deputies thither. 
{Pautan., 8, 23.) At a more recent period, JSgea, in 
Cilicia, could boast of a temple of yEsculspius which 
was held in high repute. It was here that Apollonius 
OfTyana practised many of his impostures. (Philottr., 
Vit. ApoUon., 1, 7.) Constantino destroyed this tenv 
pie in his zeal for Christianity. (Euteb., Vit. Con- 
ttanL,ed. Reading, 3, 66.) Almost all these edifices 
were regarded as sanctuaries, which none of the pro- 
fane could approach except after repeated purifications. 
Epidaurus was called the sacred country {Pautan., 2, 
26), a name which also appears on its medals. (Eck- 
Jul, Doclr. Num. Vet., vol. 2, p. 290.— Viltoiton, 
ProUgom., p. mi.) The temple at Asopus took the 
appellation of Hyperteleaton, as if it concealed within 



Hs walls' the most sacred mysteries. {Pautan., 3, 22.; 
The statue of Hygiea, at .iEgiom in Achaia, could only 
be viewed by the priests. {Pautan., 7, ,24.) No fe- 
male was allowed to be delivered, end no sick persons 
were permitted to die, within the environs of the tem- 
ple at Epidaurus. {Pautan., 2, 27.) The temple st 
Tithorea was surrounded by a hedge, in the vicinity of 
which no edifice could be erected. The hedge wu 
forty stadia from the building itself. {Pautan., 10,32.) 
Most of these temples stood in healthy situations. That 
of Cyllene, for example, waa situate on Cape Hyrmine, 
in one of the most fertile end smiling countries of the ' 
Peloponnesus ; while that of Epidaurus, erected, lik« 
the former, in the immediate neighbourhood of the sea, 
was surrounded by hills covered with the thick foliage 
of groves. {Pautan., 2, 27. — Compare VMoiiox, 
ProUgom.,}), mil, and Chandler' i Travelt, cL 63, p, 
223.) Others again were built near rivers, or in the 
vicinity of mineral springs ; and it would appear from 
Xenophon {Mem., 3, 13), that the temple of .aSscul«pi- 
us at Athens contained within it a source of warm wa- 
ter. The worship rendered to -rEsculapius had for its 
object the occupying the imaginations of the sick by 
the ceremonies of which they were witnesses, and toe 
exciting them to a sufficient degree in order to produce 
the desired result. For an account of these ceremo- 
nies, and the mode of curing that was generally adopt- 
ed, consult Sprengel, Hilt, de U Medicine, vol. 1, p. 
164, teqq. — /Bsculaprus waa sometimes represented 
either standing, or sitting on a throne, holding in one 
hand a stsff, and grasping with the other the head of a 
serpent : at his feet a dog lay extended. {Pautan., 2, 
27. — Compare Mont/aucon, Antiquiti expliq., vol. 1, 

?t. 2, pi. "187, 188.) At Corinth, Megalopolis, and 
<sdon, the god was represented under the form of an 
infant, or rather, perhaps, s dwarf, holding in one hand 
a sceptre, and in the other a pine-cone. {Pautan., 2, 
10.) Most generally, however, ho appeared as an old 
man with a flowing beard. {Pautan., 10, 32.) On 
some ancient monuments we see him with one hand 
applied to his beard, and having in the other a knotted 
staff encircled by a serpent. {Minudut Felix, ed. EL 
menkortt., p. 14.) He oftentimes bears a crown of lau- 
rel (Antickita d'EreaL, vol. 6, p. 264, 271.— Majfci, 
Gemm. ant., 2, n. 56), while at his feet are placed, oa 
one aide, a cock, and, on the other, the head of a ram ; 
on other occasions, a vulture or an owl. Frequently 
a vase of circular form is seen below his statues {Era- 
zo, Ditcorto, dec., p. 620), or, according to others, a 
serpent coiled up. {Buonarotti, Otteroazioni, dec, p. 
201.) At other times he has his body encircled by an 
enormous serpent. (Theodoret. affect, curat, diip. — 
Op. ed. Skulte, vol 4 and 8, p. 906.) Among all 
the symbols with which ^Eeculapius is adorned, the 
serpent plays the principal part. The gems, medals, 
and other monuments of antiquity, connected with the 
worship of this deity, most commonly bear such so 
emblem upon them. (Spanhdm, Epitt. 4, ad Marell., 
p. 217, 218, ed- IApi., 1695. — Compare Knight't In- 
quiry into the Symbolical language of Ancient Art 
and Mythology, $ 26. — Clatt. Journ., vol. 23, p. 13.) 

jEsepcs, a river of Mysia, in Asia Minor, rising in 
Mount Cotylus, and falling, after a course of 500 sta- 
dia, into the Propontia, to the east of the Granicus. 
Strabo (682) conceives, that Homer extended the 
boundaries of Priam's kingdom to this river. ChishuD 
(Travelt m Turkey, p. 69) makes the modern naroi 
to be the Boklu, but Gossellingives it as the Sataldert 
{French Strabo, vol. 4, p. 187, not.) 

vEsebnIi, a city of Ssmnium, in the northern pal* 
of the country, and not far from the western confines. 
It was situate about twelve miles northwest of Bovi- 
anum, and is mentioned by Livy (Epit., 16) as having 
been colonized about the beginning of the first Punis 
war. The same writer (27, 10) speaks of it as on* 
! of those colonies which distinguished themselves by 



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xsows. 



jESOPTJS. 



i to the Roman power daring the 
war with Hannibal. It was subsequently recolonized 
by Aafastaa and Nero (From, it Cel.), bat Sin bo 
(X38 and 849) makes it a very inconsiderable place, 
having offered materially in the Manic war. The 
modem /scran* is supposed to represent j£acniia. 
£siox. Fid. Supplement. 
£un, son of Cretheus and Tyro. He succeed- 
ed is father in the kingdom of lolchoa, bnt was de- 
tarooed by his half-brother Peliaa. iEaon became the 
hats, by Alcimede, of the celebrated Jason, the lead- 
a of the Argonauts. Through fear of the usurper, 
Jam was intrusted to the care of lbs centaur Chiron, 
and brought op at a distance from the court of Peliaa. 
On his am -ring at manhood, however, he came to Iol- 
chos, according to one account, to claim bis inherit- 
ance ; hot, according to another, he waa invited by Ps- 
oas to attend a sacrifice to Neptune on the seashore. 
The result of the interview, whatever may have been 
the cause of it, was an order from Peliaa to go in quest 
of Iks golden fleece. (Kid. Jason.) During the ab- 
sence of Jason on this well-known expedition, the tyr- 
anny of Pebas, according to one version of the story, 
drove £m and Alcimede to aelf-deatruction ; an act 
of cracky, to which he waa prompted by intelligence 
kavmg been received, that all the Argonauts bad perish- 
ed, and by a cosaeqnent wish on his part to make him- 
self doubly sec arc by destroying the parents of Jason. 
He pat to death also their remaining child. (Apollod, 
1,9, 16, sepf. —DM Stc., *, 30.— Hygw., 24.) Ovid, 
however, fives a quite different account of the latter 
days of iEaon. According to the poet ( Met., 7, 897, 
jwjf.J, Jason, on his return with Medea, found his 
father j£aoa stfil alive, but enfeebled by age ; and the 
Coickian enchantress, by drawing the blood from bis 
veins and then filling them with the juices of certain 
herbs which one had gathered for the purpose, restored 
aim to a manhood of forty years. The daughters of 
Peliaa having entreated Medea to perform the same 
operation on their aged father, she embraced this op- 
portunity of avenging the wrongs inflicted on Jason 
and his parents by the death of the usurper. (Vid. 
Peliaa.) 

.EsoalDBS, a patronymic of Jason, aa being de- 
scended from /Emm. 

JEsdrus, i. a celebrated fabulist, who is supposed 
ts save flourished about 620 B.C. (Lartker, Hilt. 
tOmd, TmUe Ckrmui , voL 7, p. 639.) Much un- 
certaaKy, however, prevails both on this point, aa well 
aa m adaiion to the country that gave him birth. 
Soma ancient writers make him to have been a Thnv- 
ciaa. (Compare Mohake, Getth Lilt Gr. ants! R., 
toI I, a. 291.) Suidas states that he was either of 
Samoa or Sardis ; but most authorities are in favour 
of his bmog been a Phrygian, and born at Cotyssum. 
AH appear u agree, however, in representing him as 
of servile origin, and owned in succession by several 
masters. The first of these waa Df marchus, or, ac- 
cording' to the reading of the Florence MS., Timar- 
chos. who resided at Athens, wherr iEsop, conse- 
quent//, most have had many means of improvement 
within his reach. From Demarchus he came into the 
posaieaanoo of Xanthns, a Samian, who sold him to 
Ldmon, a philosopher of the same island, under whose 
roof be had for a fellow-slave the famous courtesan 
Rhodope. {Herod., 8, 184.) ladmon subsequently 
gave turn his freedom, on account of the talents which 
fee displayed, and jEsop now turned his attention to 
foreign travel, partly to extend the sphere of his own 
knowledge, and partly to communicate instruction to 



The vehicles in which this instruction was 
I were fables, the peculiar excellence of which 
ed his name to be associated with this pleas- 
r ■ranch of composition through every succeeding 
period. jEmto is said to have visited Persia, Egypt, 
i Mm, and Greece, in the last of which countries 



his name was rendered peculiarly famous. The res 
utation for wisdom which be enjoyed, induced Cna 
ens, king of Lydia, to invite him to his court. Thi 
fabulist obeyed the call, but, after residing some time 
at Sardis, again journeyed into Greece. At the period 
of his second visit, the Athenians are said to have been 
oppressed by the usurpation of Piaistrstus, and to con- 
sole them under this stale of things, iEsop is related 
to have invented for them the fable of the frogs peti- 
tioning Jupiter for a king. The residence of if sop 
in Greece st this time would seem to have been a (>ng 
one, if any argument for such an opinion may be 
drawn from a Tine of Ptuedrus (3, 14), m which the 
epithet of senez ia applied to the fabulist during the 
period of this bis stay at Athena. He returned, how- 
ever, eventually to the court of the Lydian monarch. 
Whether the wall- known conversation between jEsop 
and Solon occurred after the return of the former from 
his second journey into Greece, or during his previous 
residence with Croesus, cannot be satisfactorily ascer- 
tained : the latter opinion ia most probably the mors 
correct one, if we can believe that the interview be- 
tween Solon and Croesus, aa mentioned by Herodotus 
(1, 30, sees.), ever took place. It seems that Solon 
bad offended Croraua by the low estimation in which 
he held riches as an ingredient of happiness, and waa, 
in consequence, treated with cold indifference. (/7a- 
rod, I, 33.) .E*op, concerned st the unkind treat- 
ment which Solon had encountered, gave him the fol- 
lowing advice : " A wise man should resolve either 
not to converse with kings at all, or to converse with 
them agreeably." To which Solon replied, " Nay, be 
ahould either not convene with them at all, or con- 
vene with them usefully." (Plut., Vit. Sol., 88.) The 
particulars of yEsop's death are stated as follows by 
Plutarch (aV sera numtnit vindtela, p. 666. — On. ed. 
Reiekc, vol. 8, p. 303.)' Croesus sent him to Delphi 
with a targe amount of gold, in order to offer a mag- 
nificent sacrifice to Apollo, and also to present four 
minis to each inhabitant of the sacred city. Having 
had some difference, however, with the people of Del- 
phi, he offered the sacrifice, but sent back the money to 
Sardis, regarding the intended objects of the king's 
bounty as totally unworthy of it. The irritated Del- 
phians, with one accord, accused him of sacrilege, and 
he was thrown down the rock Hyampea. Suidas 
makes him to have been hurled from the rocks called 
Phsrdriades, but the remark ia an erroneous one, since 
these rocks were too far from Delphi, and the one from 
which he was thrown was, according to Lucian, in the 
neighbourhood of that city. (PkaUrit prior. — Op. 
ed. Bip., vol. 6, p. 46. — Compare hunker, Hitt. d He- 
rod., vol. 7, p. 639.) Apollo, offended at this deed, 
sent all kinds of maladiea upon the Delphians, who, in 
order to free themselves, caused proclamation to be 
made at all the great celebrations of Greece, that if 
there was any one entitled so to do, who would de- 
mand satisfaction from them for the death of iEsop, 
they would render it unto him. In the third genera- 
tion came a Samian, named ladmon, a descendant of 
one of the former masters of the fabulist, and the Del- 
phians, having made atonement, were delivered from 
the evils under which tbey had been suffering. Such 
is the narrative of Plutarch. And we are also in- 
formed, that, to evince the sincerity of their repent- 
ance, they transferred the punishment of sacrilege, for 
the time to come, from the rock Hyampea to that 
named Pfaoplia. Other accounts, however, inform us, 
that jEsop offended the people of Delphi by compa- 
ring them to floating aticka, which appear at a dis- 
tance to be something great, but, on a near approach, 
dwindle away into insignificance, and that he was ac- 
cused, in consequent^, of havingcarried off one of the 
vases consecrated to Apollo. The scholiast on Aris- 
tophanes (Veep., 1486) informs us, that 2Bsop had ir- 
ritated the Delphians by remarking of them, that they 



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J3SOFD8. 



JF8T 



had do Wnd, like jthor people, on the produce of which 
to support themselves, but were coropoUed to depend 
for subsistence on the remans of the sacrifice*. De- 
termined to be revenged on him, they concealed s 
consecrated cup amid liis baggage, and, when he was 
some distance from their city, pursued and arrested 
him. The production of the cap sealed his fate, and 
he waa thrown from the nek Hyampee, a* already 
mentioned. As they were leading him away to exe- 
cution, be is said to have recited to them the fable of 
the eagle and beetle, but without producing any effect. 
The memory of -Esop was highly honoured through- 
out Greece, and the Athenians erected a statue b> him 
(Phadruj, 2, Epil., t, tqq.), the work of the cele- 
brated Lysippos, which waa placed opposite those of 
the seven sages. It moat be candidly confessed, 
however, that little, if anything, is known with cer- 
tainty, respecting the life of the mboust, and what wo 
have thus detailed of him appears to rest on little more 
than mere tradition, and the life which Flanodee, a 
monk of the fourteenth century, is supposed to have 
given to the world ; a piece of biography possessing 
few intrinsic claims to our belief. Hence some wri- 
ters have doubted whether such an individual as JEsap 
aver existed. (Compare VuctnU, Uonognrfi* Gram, 
vol. 1, p. 164, where the common opinion is advoca- 
ted.) But, whatever we may think on this head, one 
point at least is certain, that none of the fables which 
at present go under the name of j£sor> were ever 
written by htm. They appear to have been preserved 
For a long time in oral tradition, and only collected and 
raduced to writing at a comparatively late period. 
Plato (Pkmimu—Op., pt. 8, vol. 3. p. 0, <«*. Btkker) 
informs us, that Socrates amused himself in prison, to- 
wards the close of hie life, with versifying some of 
these fables. (Compare Pfaf. de And. Port., p. ld,«., 
and WfttenhuK, td lot.) His example found numer- 
ous imitators. A collection of toe fables of JSsop, 
as they were called, was also made by Demetrius 
Phalereus (Diog. Laert., 6, 80), and another, between 
150 and 60 B.C., bv a certain Babrius. (Compare 
TynshUi, Distett. de'Babrio, Lond., 1776, 8vo ) The 
former of these was probably in prase ; the latter was 
in choliambic verse (rid. Babrius). But the bad taste 
of the grammarians, in a subsequent age, destroyed the 
metrical form of the fables of Babrius, and reduced 
them to prose. To them we owe the loss of a large 
portion of ibis collection. Various collections of JEao- 
pian "fables have reached our times, among which six 
have, attained to a certain degree of celebrity. Of 
these the most ancient is not older than toe thirteenth 
century; the author is unknown. It is called the 
collection of Florence, and contains one hundred and 
ninety-nine fables, together with a puerile life of the 
fabulist by Planudes, a Greek monk of the fourteenth 
century. The second collection was made by an un- 
known hand in the thirteenth or fourteenth century. 
The monk Planudes formed me thud collection. The 
fourth, called the Heidelberg collection, together with 
the fifth and sixth, styled, the former the Augsburg 
collection, the latter that, of the Vatican, are the work 
of anonymous compilers. These last three contain 
many of the tables of Babrius reduced to bad prose. 
Besides the collections which have just been enumer- 
ated, we possess one of a character totally distinct 
from the rest It is a Greek translation, executed in 
the fifteenth century by Michael Andreopulus, from a 
Syriac original, which would appear itself to have been 
nothing more than a translation from the Greek, by a 
Persian named Syatifiv (Sckbll, Hut. Liu Or., vol. 
1, p. 353.) — Aa regards the question, whether the fa- 
bles of the Arabian Lokman have served aa a proto- 
type for those of ^Esop. or otherwise, it may be re- 
marked, that, in the opinion of De Sacy (Biographic 
Vrmcrtdle, vol. 34, p. 631, «. >. Lokman), the apo- 
logues of the Arabian fabulist are nothing more than 



an imitation of some of those ascribed to iEsop, and 
that they in no respect bear the marks of an Arabiaa 
invention. (Compare the observations of Erpenitn, 
in the preface to his edition of Lokman, 1616.)— With 
respect to the person of JEwa, it has been generally 
supposed that the statement of Planudes, which makes 
him to have been exceedingly deformed, his bead of a 
conical shape, his belly protuberant, hie limbs distort- 
ed, dec., was unworthy of credit- Visconti, however, 
supports the assertions of Planudes in this particular, 
from the remains of ancient sculpture, (Icmogrtfia 
Greco, vol. 1, p. 165.)— The beat editions of i£saa 
are the following: that of Heu singer, Ltnr., 1741, 
8vo; that of Eraesti, Lift., 1781, 8vo; that of Co- 
ray, Pant, 1810, 8vo ; and that of De Furia, Zips., 
1614, 8vo. — II. An eminent Roman tragedian, and 
the most formidable rival of the celebrated Rosckn, 
though in a different line. Hence Quintilian (11, 8) 
remarks, " Roseinu dlatiar, Mxopux gromior fiat, 
quod iUe eommdiot, hie trtgatduu tgit." Hia surname 
was Clodius, probably from bis being a freedmau el 
the Clodian or Claudian family. He ia supposed to 
hsve been bom in the first half of the seventh century 
of Rome, since Cicero, in a letter written A.U.C. 6M 
(Bp. *& Fan., 7, 1), speaks of him as advanced in 
years. Some idea of the energy with which he acted 
his parts on the stage may be formed from the anec- 
dote related by Plutarch ( Vit. Cic., 5), who informs us, 
that on one occasion, as iEaopos was performing the 
part of Atreus, at the moment when be is meditating 
vengeance, he gave so violent a blow with hia eeeptr* 
to a slave who approached, as to strike him lifeless te 
the earth. A circumstance mentioned by Valeria* 
Msximos (8, 10, 3), shows with what care iEsopsj 
and Roaciua studied the characters which they rente 
seated on the stage. Whenever a cause of any im 
portanee waa to be tried, and an orator of any end 
nence was to plead therein, these two actors wen 
accustomed to mix with the spectators, and carefull) 
observe the movements of the speakers as well as lbs 
expression of thoir countenances. iEsopua, like Ros 
cius, lived in great intimacy with Cicero, as may be 
seen in vsrious passages in the correspondence of the 
latter. He appeared for the last time in public on 
the day when the theatre of Pompey was dedicated, 
A.U.C 699, but bis physical powers were unequal to 
the effort, and bis voice failed bim at the very begin- 
ning of an adjuration, •* Si sciena /alio." (Cic., Ep. 
ad Fam., 7, 1.) He amassed a very large fortune, 
which his eon squandered in s career of the most ridic- 
ulous extravagance. It is this son -of whom Horace 
(Sat., 2, 3, 339) relates, that he dissolved a costly pearl 
in vinegar, and drank it off. Compare the statement 
of Pliny (9, 69).— III. An engraver, most prob- 
ably of Sigwum. The time when he lived is uncer- 
tain. In connexion with some brother-artist, be made 
a large eup, with a stand and strainer, dedicated by 
Phanodieos, son of Hermoeates, in the Prytaneumet 
Sigauun. (Consult the remark* of Hermann, uier 
BockX* Btkmdlung dtr Gritch. hwhrifl., p. 216 
819.)— IV. Vid. Supplement. 

jEstIi, a nation of Germany, dwelling, along the 
southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea. Hence the 
origm of their name, from the Teutonic Est, " east," 
aa indicating a community dwelling in the eastern part 
of Germany. (Compare the English Etxex, i. e., 
JEtUtxui.) They carried on a traffic in amber, which 
was found in great abundance, along their shores. 
This circumstance alone would lead us to place them 
in a part of modem Prussia, in the country probably 
beyond Dantsric. Tacitus calls their position " the 
right side of, the Suevic" or Baltic "Sea." It ia incor- 
rect to assign them to modem Ktthonia. Either this 
last is a general name for any country lying to the 
east, or else the Esthians of Esthonia came originally 
from what is now Fnuna. The ^Eatii worshipped, 



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.ETHIOPIA. 



■rwifcig to Tacitus, the mother of the gods, Bertha, 
sad tin symbol of her worship wu a wild boar. Now, 
as thia animal was sacred to Frsya, the Scandinavian 
Vrwa aad a* Fraya is often eonfoooded with Friggs, 
the mataar of the gods m the Scandinavian mythology, 
Tacitaa evidently fell into a similar error, and misun- 
dcnsaad be informers (TaciL, M G., ib —Fini- 
sram, Dum. on ScytAuuu, dee., p. 168.) 

Jku, a town of Lathim, the eke of which remain* 
nsnersvared. Horace (Gs\, 8, 29, 6) speaks of it in 
as auae bne with Tibor, whence it ia naturally aup- 
assed to have atood in the vicinity of that place. Pliny 
(3, 5) enameratee JEmtlrn among the Latin towns, which 
□a laager existed in bia time. Velleioa Paterculua 
(1, 14) cans the place .£*olum, and reckon* it among 
the colonies of Rome. {Cramer'* Ane. Ittly, vol. 3, 
P.M.) 

•EsTarrcs, a Trojan prince, auppoaed by aome to 
ban beea the parent of Antenor and Ucalegoo, while 
othara make hint to have been descended from a more 
Bobcat lii ilag.ii. who had married lhos, the daughter 
of Laoewdon. Homer {JL, 18, 427) mentions Alcath- 
enasathssoa of JEayeiea, and the aon-ia-law of An- 
chart, who had given him ba eldeat daughter Hippo- 
aawa in raemaew- ( JJawec, ad B., 8, 798.) The 
ten* of fsyetes ia awaded to by Homer («., 8, 788), 
and ia and by Strabo (5a)9) to have beea five stadia dis- 
tent bom Tray, aad on the read leading to Alezandiea 
Trass. It aflovdad a very convenient post of observa- 
tion a 4he Trojan war. Or. Clarke gives the follow- 
ing Seconal of it (TraoWi, die., vol. 8, p. 98, **m., 
Bmf.ti): "Casarng op p osite to the bay, which baa 
keaaesosidered as the naval station need by the Greeks 
dsnsg the Trojan war, and which ia situate on the 
eastern side of the embouchure of the Mender, the eye 
of the spectator is attracted by an object predomina- 
ting sver every other, and admirably adapted, by the 
aagalahty of its form, as well aa by the peculiarity 
of Ra situation, to overlook that station, together 
win the whole of the low coast near the month of the 
river. Taia object ia a conical monad, riamg from a 
Enesf derated t e r r i to r y behind the bay and the mouth 
sf the river. It has, therefore, been pointed out aa the 
load) of JEsyetea, and is now called Udjek Tipt. If 
ae had never heard or read a single syllable concern- 
ing the war of Troy, or the works of Homer, it would 
possible not to notice the remarkable ap- 
by this tumuhu, so peculiarly 



pined aa a post of observation commanding all ap- 
proach to the barbaor and over." In another part (p. 
198V un same intelligent traveller observes: "The 
manna of jEeyetes ia, of all others, the spot moat re- 
Buriufah adapted for viewing the Plain of Troy, and 
it is naW to aknost all parts of Troaa. From its top 
may be tasted the eoorsr of the Scamaoder ; the whole 
chain of He, stretching towards Lactam ; the snowy 
heights of Gsrgsraa, and all the shorea of the Helles- 
pont, near the math of the river, with Sigssum, and 
(be orber tsnnv span the coast." Bryant eadaavsam 
09 abow, that what the Greeks regarded as the tombs of 
'aces and warriors, went not so in reality, bat were, 
the most part, connected with old religions rites 
soast c Baton i. sod used for religions pur p o ses . {My- 
Oodogy, vol. S, p. 1*7, seen.) Lecheraier, however, 
stmt' t sefiilty refusea this. 

.Esrnirnt. Via. Ssppkawat, 
JEmtAVlA. sad. IWa. 

JEt* aUbsbs, a son of Mercury, sad herald of the Ar- 
ssnaaota, who obtained fee re his father the privilege of 
being among the dead and the bring at stated limes. 
Hence he was eaHed trepfrrpot /r^pif. from his apeod- 
: day in Hades, aad lbs next upon earth, alter- 
It is seed also that hissoal underwear various 
j and that he appeared soceessrvely aa 
.j, son of Pantbae, PyVos the Cretan, aa Elean 
! name is not known, and Pythagoras. {Sthoi. 



JBraut (Atfyo), a personified idea of the mythical 
cosmogonies. {Vid. Supplement.) 

.Ethic aa, a Theasalian tribe of uncertain but ancient 
origin, since they are mentioned by Homer (H ., 8, 744), 
who sUtes that the Centaurs, expelled by Pirithous from 
Mount Pelion, withdrew to the -Ethices. Strabo (337 
and 434) says, that they inhabited the Theasalian side 
of Pindus, near the sources of the Peneua, but that their 
possession of the latter waa disputed by the Tymphsri, 
who were contiguous to them on the fcpirotic side of 
the mountain. Marsyaa, a writer cited by Stephanos 
Bynatinus (». *. Ai&Wa), described the .Ethices as a 
most daring race of barbarians, whose sole object was 
robbery and plunder. Lycopbron (v. 802) calls Poly- 
sperehon AioUuv *pdnof. Scarcely any trace of this 
people remained in the time of Strabo. 

.Etsicus. Vid. Supplement. 

.Ethiopu, an extensive country of Africa, to the 
south of Egypt, lying along the Sinus Arabicua and 
Mare Erythrsum, and extending slso far inland. An 
idea of its actual limits will beat be formed from a view 
of the gradual progress of Grecian discovery in relation 
to this region. .Ethiopa (Aift'osV) waa the expression 
used by the Greeks for everything which had contract- 
ed a dark or swarthy colour from exposure to the heat 
of the sun (oifa, "to burn." end Cnji, " tki wegt"\ 
The terra waa applied also to men of a dark complexion, 
and the early Greeks named all of such a colour iEthi- 
opes, sod their country ^Ethiopia, wherever situated. 
It is more than probable that the Greeks obtained their 
knowledge of the existence of such a race of men from 
the Phoenicians and Egyptians, and that this knowledge, 
founded originally on mere report, waa subsequently 
confirmed by actual inspection, when the Greek colo- 
nists along the shorea of Asia Minor, in their commer- 
cial intercourse with Sidon and Egypt, beheld then 
the caravans which bad come in from Son them Africa. 
Homer makes express mention of the .Ethiopians in 
many parts of his poems, and speaks of two divisions 
of them, the Eastern and Western. The explanation 
given by Eustaihiue and ether Greek writers respect- 
ing these two clsssas of men, aa described by the poet, 
cannot be the true one. They make the Nile to nave 
been the dividing line {EtuteA., p. 1386, ad Host, (M., 
1, 28) ; but this is too refined for Homer's geographi- 
cal acquaintance with the interior of Africa. By tha 
Eaatem .Ethiopians he means merely the imbrowned 
natives of Southern Arabia, who brought their wares 
to Sidon, and who were believed to dwell in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the rising sun. The Egyptians were ac- 
quainted with another dark coloured nation, the Libyans. 
These, although the poet carefully distinguishes their 
country from that of the .Etbiopisns (Gd., 4, 84), still 
become, in opposition to the Eastern, the poet's West- 
ern ^Ethiopians, the more especially aa it remained un- 
known how far the latter extended to the west and 
south. This idea, originating thus in early antiquity, 
respecting the existence of two distinct classes of dark- 
ooloored men, gained new strength st a later period. 
In the immense army of Xerxes were to be seen men 
of a swarthy complexion from the Persian provinces in 
the vicinity of India, and others again, of similar visage, 
boot Urn countries lying to the south of Egypt. With 
the exception of colour, they bad nothing ia common 
with each other. Their language, manners, physical 
make, armour, dec, were entirely different. Notwith- 
standing this, however, they were both regarded as 
.Ethiopians. (Compare Hrrodobu, 7, 89, *eqq., and 8, 
94, seyo ) The ^Ethiopians of the briber east disap- 
peared gradually from remembrance, while a more in- 
timate intercouae with Egypt brought the ^Ethiopians 
of Africa more frequently into view, and it ia to these, 
therefore, that we now turn eur attention. — .Ethiopia, 
according to Herodotus, inclsdes the countries above 
Egypt, the present Nubia aad Abyssinia. Immediate- 
ly above Syene and Elephantine, remarks this writer 

63 

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/ETHIOPIA. 



/ETHIOPIA. 



(3, 29), the /Ethiopian races begin. Aa far as the town 
and island of Tachompso, seventy or eighty miles above 
Syene, these are mixed with Egyptians, and higher up 
dwell /Ethiopians alone. The Ethiopians be distin- 
guishes into the inhabitants of Meroe and the Macrobii. 
In Strabo (800 ) and Pliny (6, 29) we find other tribes and 
towns referred to, but the most careful division is that 
by Agatharchides, whose work on the Red Sea is unfor- 
tunately lost, with the exception of some fragments. 
Agatharchides divides them according to their way of 
life. Some carried on agriculture, cultivating the mil- 
let ; others were herdsmen ; while some lived by the 
chase and on vegetables, and others, again, along the 
sea-shore, on fish and marine animals. The rude tribes 
who lived on the coast and fed on fish are failed by 
Agatharchides the Ichthyophagi. Along both banks of 
the Astaboras dwelt another nation, who lived on the 
roots of reeds growing in the neighbouring swamps 
these roots they cut to pieces with stones, formed them 
into a tenacious mass, snd dried them in the sun. Close 
to these dwelt the Hyloph&gi, who lived on the fruits 
of trees, vegetables growing in the valleys, dec. To 
the west of these were the hunting nations, who fed 
on wild beasts, which they killed with the arrow. There 
were also other tribes, who lived on the flesh of the ele- 
phant and the ostrich, the Elephant opk&gi and Strvth 
ophagi. Besides these, he mentions another and less 
populous tribe, who fed on locusts, which csme in 
swarms from the southern and unknown districts. 
(Agatkarck ,de Ruhr. Mar.-^Geograph. Gr. Min.,ed. 
Hudson, vol. 1, p. 37, teqa.) The accuracy with which 
Agatharchides has pointed out the situation of these 
tribes, docs not occasion much difficulty hi assimilating 
Uleih to the modem inhabitants of /Ethiopia. Accord- 
ing to him, they dwelt along the banks of the Astabo- 
ras, which separated ihcm from Meroe ; this river is 
the Albar, or, as it is also called, the Tacame; they 
must, consequently, have dwelt in the present Shan- 
galla. The mode of life with these people has not in 
the least varied for 2000 years; although cultivated 
nations are situate around them, they have made no 
progress in improvement themselves. Their land be- 
ing unfavourable both to agriculture and the rearing of 
cattle, they are compelled to remain mere hunters. 
Most of the different tribes mentioned by Agatharchi- 
des subsist in a similar manner. Hie Dobenahs, the 
most powerful tribe among the Shangallai, still live 
on the elephant and the rhinoceros. The Baasa, in' 
the plains of Sire, yet eat the flesh of the lion, the 
wild hog, and even serpents :' and farther to the west 
dwells a tribe, who subsist in the summer on the locust, 
and at other seasons on the crocodile, hippopotamus, and 
fish. Diodorus Siculus (3. 28) remaiks, that almost all 
these people die of verminous diseases produced by this 
food ; and Bruce (Travel*, 3d ed., vol 6, p. 83) makes 
the same observation with respect to the Waito, on the 
Lake Dambca, who live on crocodiles and other Nile 
animals. Beside* these inhabitants of the plains, ^Ethi- 
opia was peopled by a more powerful, and somewhat 
more civilized, shepherd- nation, who dwelt in the caves 
of the neighbouring mountains, namely, the Troglo- 
dyte. A chain of high mountains runs along the Afri- 
can shore of the Arabian Gulf, which ip Egypt are com- 
posed of granite, marble, arid alabaster, but farther sooth 
of a softer kind of stone. At the foot of the gulf these 
mountains turn inward, and bound the southern portion 
df Abyssinia. This chain was, in the most ancient 
times, inhabited by these Troglodyta, in the boles and 
grottoes formed by nature but enlarged by human la- 
bour. These people were not hunters ; they were 
herdsmen, and had their chiefs or princes of the race. 
Remains of the Troglodyta still exist in the Skipo, 
Hazorla, &c, mentioned by Bruce (vol. 4, p. 266). 
A still more celebrated -Ethiopian nation, and one 
which has been particularly described to u* by Herod- 
otus (3, 17, seqo.), was the Macrobii, for an account of 
64 



whom, , and of the state and city of Meroe, the student 
is referred to these articles .respectively. Under the 
latter of these beads some remarks will also be offered 
respecting the trade of /Ethiopia. — The early and cu- 
rious belief respecting the Ethiopian race, that they 
stood highest in the favour of the gods, and that the 
deities of Olympus, at stated seasons, enjoyed among 
them the festive hospitality of the banquet, would aeera 
to have arisen from the peculiar relation in which Me- 
roe stood to the adjacent countries aa the .parent city ' 
of civilization and religion. Piety and rectitude were 
the first virtues with a nation whose dominion was 
founded on religion and commerce, not on oppression. 
The active imagination, however, of the early Greeks, 
gave a different turn to this feature in the /Ethiopian 
character, and, losing sight of the true cause, or, per- 
haps, never having been acquainted with it, the; sup- 
posed that a lice of men, who could endure such in- 
tense heat as they were thought to encounter, must be a 
nobler order of beings than the human family in gen- 
eral ; and that the; who dwelt so near the rising and 
setting of the orb of day, could not but be in closer 
union than ihe rest of their species with the inhabitants 
of the skies. (Compare Manntrt, 10, 103.)— The ^Ethi- 
opians were intimately connected with the Egyptians 
in the early ages of their monarchy, and /Ethiopian 
princes, and whole dynasties, occupied the throne of 
the Pharaohs at various times, even to a late period 
before the Persian conquest. The /Ethiopians had 
the same religion, the same sacerdotal order, the 
same hieroglyphic writing, the same rites of sepul- 
ture and ceremonies aa the Egyptians. Religious 
pomps and processions were celebrated in common 
between the two nations. The images of the gods 
were at certain times conveyed up the Nile, from their 
Egyptian temples to others in /Ethiopia ; and, after the 
conclusion of a festival, were brought back again into 
Egypt (Died. Bie., 1, 33.— Eutttuh.,ad B., 1, 423.) 
The ruins of temples found of late in the countries 
above Egypt (vid. Meroe), snd which are quite in the 
Egyptian stylo, confirm these account* ; they were, 
doubtless, the- temples of the ancient /Ethiopians. It 
is nowhere asserted that the /Ethiopians and Egyptians 
used the same language, but this seems to be implied, 
snd -is extremely probsble. We learn from Diodorus, 
that the /Ethiopians elaimed the first invention of the 
an* and philosophy of Egypt, and even pretended to 
have planted the first colonies in Egypt, soon after that 
country had emerged from the waters of the Nile, or 
rather of the Mediterranean, by which it was tradition- 
ally reported to have been covered. The /Ethiopians, 
in later times, had political relations with the Ptole- 
mies, and Diodorus saw ambassador* of this nation 
in Egypt in the time of Cesar, or Augustus. An 
/Ethiopian queen, named Candace. made a treaty with 
Augustus, and a princess of the same name is men- 
tioned by St. Luke in the Acts of the Apostles. How 
far the dominion of the /Ethiopian prince* extended 
is unknown, but they probably had at one period pos- 
sessions on the coast of the Red Sea, and relations 
with Arabia. After this we find no farther mention of 
the ancient /Ethiopian empire. Other names occur in 
the countries intervening between Egypt and Abys- 
sinia ; and when the term /Ethiopian is again met with 
in a later age, it is found to hava been transferred lo 
the princes and people of Habesh. Such is the his- 
tory of /Ethiopia among the profane writers. By the 
Hebrews the same people are mentioned frequently 
under the .name of Cush, which by the Septuagint 
translators is always rendered AWioir'ec, or /Ethiopians. 
The Hebrew term is, however, applied sometimes lo 
nations dwelling on the eastern shore of the Red Sea, 
and hence a degree of ambiguity respecting its mean- 
ing in some instances. This subject baa been amply 
discussed by Borhart and Michaelis. Among the He- 
brews of later times, the term Cush clear.y belor > to 



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ETHIOPIA. 



ETH 



■be XOaoptam. The Ethiopians, who were con- 
aeeted with the Egyptians by affinity and intimate po- 
litical relations, axe by the later Hebrew historians 
termed Cosh. Thus Trahakah, the Cushite invader of 
Jadah, is evidently Tearebon the Ethiopian leader 
mrttaeed by Strabo, and the same who is termed 
Tanaes, ana to set down by Manetho, in the well- 
kanm tables of dynasties, as an Ethiopian king of 
Egrpc. In the earlier ages the term Cush belonged 
tsetrendy to the same nation or race ; though it would 
esetr that the Cnsh or Ethiopians of those times oc- 
esjsed both sides of the Red Sea. The Cosh men- 
tioned by Moses are pointed oat by him to be a nation 
af kindred origin with the Egyptians. In the Toldoth 
Beei Noach, or Archives of the sons of Noah, which 
Mkhaens (SpieUeg. Geogr. Hebr. Ext.) has proved to 
contain a digest of the historical and geographical 
knowledge of die ancient world, it is said, that the Cush 
and the Misraim were brothers, which means, as it is 
leaeralh; allowed, nations nearly allied by kindred. 
It it very probable, that the first people who settled in 
Arabia were Cnshite nations, who were afterward ex- 
pelled or aoeceeded by the Beni Yoktan or true Arabs. 
In the enumeration of the descendants of Cnsh in the 
ToUom Beni Noach, several tribes or settlements are 
mectwned in Arabia, a* Saba and Havila. When the 
author afterward proceeds to the descendants of Yok- 
tan, the very same places are enumerated among their 
settlements. That the Cnsh had in remote times 
poe a cjaiuus in Asia, is evident from the history of Nim- 
rod, a Csshrte chieftain, who is said to have possessed 
several cities of the Assyrians, among which was Ba- 
bel or Babylon, in Shinar. Long after their departure 
Ike name of the Cush remained behind them on the 
coast of the Red Sea. It is probable that the nsme 
of Cosh controlled to be given to tribes which bad suc- 
ceeded the genuine Coahites in the possession of their 
skdent territories in Arabia, after the whole of that 
people had psssed into Africa, just as the English are 
tamed Britons, and the Dutch race of modern times 
Belgians. In this way it happened, that people, re- 
ante in race from the family of Ham, are yet named 
Cosh, as the Midianites, who were descended from 
Abraham. The daughter of Jethro, the Midianite, is 
sensed a Cnshite woman. Even in this instance, the 
of Cosh and Ethiopia haa been pre- 



We find die word rendered JStkioputa by 
the Ser/roagmt translators, and in the verses of Eze- 
k>l_ 4e Jewish Hellenistic poet, Jethro is placed in 
Africa, and his people are termed Ethiopians. On the 
whole, a nay be considered as clearly established, 
that the Cosh are the genuine Ethiopian race, and 
hat the esoBtry of the Cush is generally in Scripture 
lost part of Africa which lies above Egypt. In support 
of these positions may be cited, not only the authority 
of the SeptDagmt, sod the writers already mentioned, 
bat the concurring testimony of the Vulgate, and all 
other ancient versions, with that of Pbilo, Josephns, 
Eupotecrras, and all the Jewish commentators and 
Christian fasten. There is only one writer of anti- 
quity on the other side, and he was probably misled 
by the facta which we have already considered. This 
moete dissentient is the writer of Jonathan's Targum, 
and on this authority the learned Bochsrt, supported by 
scene doubtful passages, maintains that the land of Cush 
■as situated on the eastern aide of the Arabian Gulf. 
It haa been satisfactorily shown, however, by the au- 
thors of the Universal History, and by Michaelis, that 
naiTT of these parages require a different version, and 
are-re that the land of Cnsh was Ethiopia. (Prich- 
mf* Pkysual History of Men, 2d ed., vol. 1, p. 289, 
ttoa ) — As regards the physical character of the ancient 
ixbi-opisns, it may be remarked, that the Greeks com- 
nooty ased the term Ethiopian nearly as we use that of 
segro : rhey constantly spoke of the Ethiopians, as 
"c of the negroes, as if they were the blackest 
1 



people known i n the world. " To wash the Ethiopian, 
white," waa a proverbial expression applied to a hope- 
less attempt It may be thought that the term Ethiopi- 
an was perhaps used vaguely, to signify all or many Af- 
rican nations of dark colour, and that the genuine Ethi- 
opians may not have been quite so black as others. 
But it must be observed, tbst though other black na- 
tions may be called by that name when taken in a 
wider sense, this can only have happened in conse- 
quence of their resemblance to those from whom the 
term originated. It is improbable that the Ethiopians 
were destitute of a particular character, the possession 
of which wss the very reason why other nations parti- 
cipated in their name, and came to be confounded with 
them. And the most accurate writers, as Strabo, for 
example, apply the term Ethiopian in the same way. 
Strabo, in the 15th book (686), cites the opinion of 
Theodectes, who attributed to the vicinity of the son 
the black colour snd woolly hair of the Ethiopians. 
Herodotus expressly affirms (7, 70), that the Ethiopi- 
ans of the west, that is, of Africa, have the moat woolly 
hair of all nations : in this respect, be says, they dif- 
fered from the Indians and Eastern Ethiopians, who 
were likewise black, but bad straight hair. Moreover, 
the Hebrews, who, in consequence of their intercourse 
with Egypt under the Pharaohs, could not fail to know 
the proper application of the national term Cush, seem 
to hsve had a proverbial expression similar to that of 
the Greeks, " Can the Cnsh change his colour, or the 
leopard his spots?" (Jeremiah, IS, 83.) This is 
sufficient to prove, that the Ethiopian waa the darkest 
race of people known to the Greeks, and, in earlier 
times, to the Hebrews. The only way of avoiding 
the inference, that the Ethiopians were genuine ne- 
groes, must be by the supposition, that the ancients, 
among whom the foregoing expressions were current, 
were not acquainted with any people exactly resem- 
bling the people of Guinea, and therefore applied the 
terms woolly -haired, flat-nosed, etc., to nations who 
bad these characters in a much leas decree than those 
people whom we now term negroes, ft seems possi- 
ble, that the people termed Ethiopians by the Greeks, 
and Cush by the Hebrew writers, may either of them 
have been of the race of the Shangalla, Shillnk, or 
other negro tribes, who now inhabit the countries 
bordering on the Nile, to the southward of Sennaar ; or 
they may have been the ancestors of the present Nouba 
or Barabra, or of people resembling them in descrip- 
tion. The chief obstacle to our adopting the supposi- 
tion that these Ethiopians were of the Shangalla raoe, 
or of any stock resembling them, is the circumstance, 
that so near a connexion appears to have subsisted be- 
tween the former and the Egyptians ; and we know 
that the Egyptians were not genuine negroes. Per- 
haps, after all, however, we would be more correct in 
considering the Bedjas, and their descendants the 
Abadbe and Bisharein, aa the posterity of the ancient 
Ethiopians. Both the Ababde and Bisharein belong 
to the clasa of red, or copper-coloured people. The 
former are described by Belzoni (Travel*, p. 310), 
and the latter by Burckhardt (TrtneU in NubU.) 

Ethxius. Vid, Supplement. 

Ethba, daughter of Pittheus, king of Trcezene, and' 
mother of Theseus by Egeus. (Vtd. Egeus) She 
wss betrothed, in the first instance, to Belterophon ; 
but this individual being compelled to fly, in conse- 
quence of having accidentally lulled bis brother, Ethra 
remained under her father'a roof. When Egeus came 
to consult Pittheus respecting an obscure oracle which 
the former had received from the Delphic shrine, Pit- 
theus managed to intoxicate him, and give him the 
company of his daughter. From this intercourse sprang 
Theseus. (FW. Egeus.) Ethra was afterward taken 
captive by Castor and Pollux, when these two came in 
quest of Helen, whom Theseus had carried off, and 
made themselves masters of Athens. She aecompa- 



6ff 



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AETIDS. 



AETIUS. 



aied Helen to Troj when the latter was abducted by 
Paris, and, on the fall of Troy, she was restored to 
her home by Aeamas and Demophoon, her grandsons, 
and the sons of Theseus. (Apollod., 3, 15, 4. — Id., 
3, 10, l.—Heyne, ad Apollod., I. e.) 

AetIon, I. a famous painter, who lived in the time 
of Alexander the Great. He executed a painting of 
the nuptials of Alexander and Roxana ; and the piece 
was so much admired at the Olympic Games, whither 
the artist had carried it for exhibition, that the presi- 
dent of the games gave him his daughter in marriage. 
Such is Lucian's account (Her., 6), who saw this 
painting in Italy. In another passage, likewise, he 
refers to this production of Action's, and bestows the 
highest praises on the lips of Roxana. (Imag., 7.) 
Raphael is said to hare traced, from Lucian's descrip- 
tion of this work of art, one of his most brilliant com- 
positions. — II. A sculptor, who flourished about the 
middle of the third century before the Christian era, 
and who is known from Theocritus (Epigr., 7.) At 
the request of Nicias, then a celebrated physician at 
Miletus, be made a statue of jEsculspius out of 
cedar. (As regards the reading 'ktriuvi, for the com- 
mon Heriuvi, consult KiessUng, ad loc.) — III. An 
engraver on precious stones, whose age is uncertain. 
(Bracci, IS.—Sillig, Diet. Art., s. v.) 

Arrfas, I. an heresiarch of toe fourth century, sur- 
named by his adversaries the Atheist. He was the 
son of s common soldier, and born at Antiocb. His 
poverty compelling him to live by the labour of his 
hands, he commenced by being a vine-dresser, and 
was afterward, in succession, a coppersmith and jew- 
eller. Being forced to abandon this latter calling, for 
having substituted a bracelet of gilt-copper for one of 
gold, he followed the trade of an empiric, or charlatan, 
with some success, but was at last driven from Anti- 
ocb, and went to study logic at Alexin drea. As he 
never attained any great skill in this latter science, and 
was, at the same time, but little versed in the sacred 
writings, he easily fell into the new religious errors of 
the day, to which he added many others of his own. 
Epiphanius has preserved forty-seven erroneous prop- 
ositions, selected from his works, which contained 
more than three hundred. The principal ones con- 
sisted in teaching, that the Son of God was not like 
the Father ; in pretending to know God by himself ; 
in regarding the most culpable actions as the wants of 
nature ; in rejecting the authority of the prophets and 
apostles ; in rebaplizing in the name of the uncreated 
God, and of the Holy Spirit procreated by the created 
Son ; in asserting that faith is sufficient without works, 
dee. His other errors were nothing more than mere 
sophisms founded on verbal equivocations. He was 
ordained deacon by Leontius, an Arian bishop, who 
was soon compelled to forbid him the exercise of his 
ministerial functions. After a succession of stormy 
.conflicts, he was exiled by Conatantius to Cilicia. 
Julian recalled him, and assigned him lands near My t- 
tilem, in the island of Lesbos. He was even ordained 
bishop ; and, having escaped punishment, which he 
was afterward on the point of undergoing for his at- 
tachment to the cause of the Emperor Valens, he died 
at Constantinople A.D. 366, and was honoured with a 
splendid funeral. (8. Athanas., de Synod. — Socrat., 
Hist. Ecclet., 1, 38. — August. Hot. — Barm., Amud. 
Ann., 356.)— II. A celebrated Roman general, born 
at Dorostolus, in Mossia. His father Gaudentius, a 
Scythian, attained to the highest military employments, 
and waa killed in Gaul during a mutiny of the soldiers. 
Aetius, brought up among the imperial body-guards, 
and given at an early period as a hostage to the formida- 
ble Alaric, learned the art of war under this conqueror, 
and profited by his stay among the barbarians to secure 
the attachment of a people whom be was destined to 
have alternately as enemies and allies. In A.D. 424, the 
usurper John wishing to seize the sceptre of the west, 
66 



Aetius undertook to procure for him the assistance of 
the Huns. John, however, was conquered, and Aetius 
immediately submitted to Valentinian, who reigned in 
the west under the guardianship of his mother Placid- 
la. Eagerly desirous of the imperial favours, and jeal- 
ous of the credit of Count Boniface, Aetius formed a 
treacherous scheme against him, the result of which 
was the revolt of Boniface, who invited Genseric and 
the Vandals into Africa. A subsequent explanation 
between Boniface and Placidia came too late to save 
Africa, but it served to expose the intrigues of Aetius, 
who at thia time was crushing the Franks and Bur- 
gundiang in Gaul. Placidia did not dare to punish 
him, but she bestowed new honours upon Boniface. 
Rendered furious by this, Aetius flew back to Italy 
with a few troops, encountered and gave battle to his 
rival, waa conquered, but with his own hand wounded 
Boniface, who died shortly after, A.D. 432. Placidia 
was desirous of avenging his death, but Aetius retired 
among the Huns, and reappeared subsequently at the 
head of sixty thousand barbarians to demand his par- 
don. Placidia restored to him his charges and hon- 
ours, and Aetius returned to Gaul to serve the empire, 
which he defended with great valour as long aa his 
own ambitious views permitted this to be done. His 
most brilliant feat in thia quarter was the overthrow 
of Attila, who had crossed the Rhine and Seine with 
his Huns, and laid siege to Orleana. Aetius marched 
against him with a powerful army, and met his adver- 
sary, who had raised the siege of Orleans and rec row- 
ed the Seine, in the Catalaunian plains, near the mod- 
em Chalons. The contest was bloody but decisive, 
and three hundred thousand men fell on both sides. 
Notwithstanding, however, this brilliant achievement, 
Aetius, in his turn, became the victim of court in- 
trigue, and being sent for by Valentinian, and having 
approached him without distrust, was on a sudden 
stabbed to the heart by that suspicious and cowardly 
emperor. His death happened A.D. 454." (Procop., 
de Reb. Goth., 5. — Jornandcs, de Regn. Success., c. 
19.— Paul Diaam., Hist. Miscett., 19, 16.— Biogra- 
phie JJmtersdle, vol. 1, p. 267.)— III. A physician 
of Amida, in Mesopotamia, who flourished at the close 
of the fifth century and the beginning of the sixth. 
The works of Aetius are a valuable collection of med- 
ical facts and opinions, being deficient only in arrange- 
ment ; since on several subjects their merit is trans- 
cendent. For example, the principles of the Materia. 
Mcdica are delivered with admirable precision in the 
beginning of the first book. Of all the ancient trea- 
tises on fever, that contained in the fifth book of Ae- 
tius may be instanced as being the most complete ; 
and it would not be easy perhaps, at the present day, 
to point out a work so full on all points, and so correct 
in practice. Of contagion, as an exciting cause of 
fever, he makes no mention ; and as his silence, and 
that of the other medical authors of antiquity, has often 
been thought unaccountable, it may be proper to say a 
few words in explanation. Palladius, who has given 
a most comprehensive abstract of the doctrines of Ga- 
len and his successors on the subject of fever, enu- 
merates the following exciting causes of fevers : 1st. 
The application of a suitable material ; aa when things 
of a caleficient nature, such as pepper, mustard, and 
the like, are taken immoderately by a person of a hot 
temperament : 2d. Motion ; which may be either men- 
tal or corporeal : 3d. Constriction of the pores of the 
skin, occasioned either by the thickness of the hu- 
mours, or the coldness and dryness of the surround- 
ing atmosphere. (This, by-the-by, accords with Dr. 
Cullen's Theory of spasm of the extreme vessels): 
4th. Putrefaction of the fluids : 6th. The application 
of heat, such as by exposure of the head to the sun. — 
Epidemical fevers the ancients considered as being oc- 
casioned by a depraved state of the atmosphere, ari- 
sing from putrid miasmata, or similar causes. AVith- 



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AETIUS. 



JETHA.. 



cut doubt, in cases of malignant fevers, they wen 
twin that the effluvia from the bodies of those afflict- 
ed with them contaminated the surrounding atmo- 
sphere, and that the ferers were propagated in this 
manner Hence Galen, Carina Aurelianus, Rhaxes, 
and Antenna, rank the plague among those complaints 
wksci pass from one person to another : and Isidores 
teats (he plague thus : " PatUtntia at contagium, 
fid, imm atsrn apprchenderit, eeleriter ad phtra 
Janl " At the same time, as they did not ascribe 
tk origin and propagation of these disorders to a pe- 
csbar Tims, they did not think it necessary to treat of 
contagion aa a distinct cause of fever, because, in this 
view of the matter, it is clearly referable to some one 
of the general causes enumerated above. Thus, the 
atmosphere of the ill- ventilated apartment of a patient 
in ferer becoming vitiated, and being inhaled by a per- 
son is health, might occasion fever, either by produ- 
cing constriction of the pores of the skin, or putrefac- 
tion of the fluids, and accordingly would be referred 
either to the 3d or the 4th class of general causes. In 
a word, the opinions of the ancients upon this subject 
seem to have corresponded very much with those of 
the more reasonable Macleanites of the present day, 
who, although they deny that fever, strictly speaking, 
is contagions, admit that it is contaminative.— Aetius 
is the first medical author who has given a distinct ac- 
count of the DwmncuiMt, or Vcrmu Medinensit, now 
commonly known by the name of Guinea-worm. He 
treats of this disease so fully, that Rhaxes and Avtcen- 
na have supplied but little additional information, not 
have the moderns, in any considerable degree, im- 
ptored upon the knowledge of the ancients. The 
method of treating Aneurism at the elbow-joint is de- 
serving of attention, as being a near approximation to 
the improved method of operating introduced by John 
Hunter and Abernethy. He directs the operator to 
make a longitudinal incision along the inner side of the 
arm, three or four fingers' breadth below the armpit, 
and having bid bare the artery, and dissected it from 
the smroundmg parts, to raise it up with a blind hook, 
and, introducing two threads, to tie them separately 
and divide the artery in the middle. Had he stopped 
here, his method would have been a complete antici- 
pation of the plan of proceeding now practised ; but, 
■ntorturjatefy, not having sufficient confidence in the 
absorbing powers of the system, he gives directions to 
open the tumour and evacuate its contents. Msny 
at operations upon the eye and surrounding parte 
are accurately described by him. — On the obstetrical 
department of surgery he is fuller than any other an- 
cient writer. — He has also given an account of many 
phanaateatical preparations which are not noticed else- 
where. The work of Aetius, divided by the copyists 
into fas TctrabibH, and each TctrabMui into four 
discourses, consisted originally of sixteen books. The 
first eight only were printed in Greek at Venice, by 
the heirs of Aldus Manutius, fol., 1634. The others 
have remained in MS., in the libraries of Vienna and 
Paris. Various editions have been published of the 
Latin translation of the entire work by Janus Coma- 
nos, under the title of Contractu ex vetcribv* Medi- 
an* UttabtbHt, at Venice, 1643, in 8vo ; at Baale, 
IMS, 1549, in fol. ; another at Basle, 1536, fol., of 
which the first seven and the last three books were trans- 
lated by Montanus ; two at Lyons, 1649, fol., and 1660, 
4 vols. 12mo, with notes of but little value, by Hugo de 
Soleras ; and one at Paris, 1567, fol, among the Med- 
ial At tit Pr in e ipe s. — IV. Sicanns, or Siculus, a phy- 
sician, and native of Sicily, as ia commonly supposed, 
to whom is ascribed a treatise on Melancholy. The 
tnth is, however, that the treatise in question is no- 
4sne more than a selection from the second discourse 
of the second Tetrabiblus of Aetius of Amida ; so 
that Aetius the Sicilian becomes a mere nonentity. 
'ScW, But. JM. Gt., 7, p. S53.) 



JSrru, I. a celebrated volcano of Sicily, now Ursa, 
or Monte Giiello (shortened into Mongibello), the Ut- 
ter of these modern appellations being adopted from 
the Arabic Gibel, " a mountain," given to iEtna on 
account of its vaat size, and recalling the remembrance 
of the Arabian conquests in Sicily. (Compare the 
Map of Southern Italy and Sicily, accompanying the 
" Hittoirc ia Computes ia Normandt," by D'Are, 
where the Arabic names are given.) This volcano, a* 
immense in size, that Vesovius, in comparison, seems 
merely a hill, rises on the eastern side of Sicily. It 
is 180 miles in circumference at the base, and attains 
by a gradual ascent to the height of 10,964 feet above 
the level of the sea. From Catania (the ancient Ca- 
tena), which stands at the foot, to the summit, is 30 
miles, and the traveller paaaea through three distinct 
zones, called the cultivated, the woody, and the desert. 
The lowest, or cultivated zone, extends through an 
interval of ascent of 16 miles, and it contains numer- 
ous small mountains of a conical form, about 300 or 
400 feet high, each having a crater at the top, from 
which the lava flows over the surrounding country. 
The fertility of this region is wonderful, and its fruits 
are the finest in the island. The woody region forms 
a zone of the brightest green all around the mountain, 
and reaches up the aide about eight miles. In the 
iaert region vegetation entirely disappears, and the 
surface presents a dreary expanse of snow and ice. 
The summit of the mountain consists of a conical hiO, 
containing a crater above two miles in circumference. 
— The silence of Homer l*Mp6C ting the fires of dStna 
has given rise to the opinion, that Use mountain in his 
time was m the aame state of repose aa Vesuvius in 
the days of Strabo. The earliest writers who make 
mention of JEttu, and its eruptions, are the author of 
the Orphic poems (Argonaut., v. IS), and mora par. 
ticularty Pindar (Py'A., 1, SI, tern., est Botdtk. 
Compare Aulut Gelliut, 17, 10), whose description, 
in its fearful sublimity, bears with it all the marks 
of truth, and points evidently to some accurate ac- 
counts of the volcano, as received by the bard, per- 
haps from King Hiero. Thucydides (3, 116) is next 
in order. He speaks of the stream of lavs, which, in 
his time (Ol. 88, 3, B.C. 486), desolated the territory 
of Catena ; he asserts, that, fifty years before, a similar 
flow of lava had taken place, and, without any farther 
chronological reference, makes mention also of a third. 
These were the only three eruptions with which the 
Greeks had become acquainted since their settlement 
in Sicily. That -Etna, however, had, at a much ear- 
lier period, given proof of its volcanic character, ia 
evident from the narrative of Diodorus Siculus (5, 6), 
where we are informed, that the Sicani were compell- 
ed to retire to the western parts of the island, by rea- 
son of the devastation and terror which the fiery erup- 
tions from the mountain had occasioned. The ac- 
count which Strabo gives (374) of the state of things 
on the summit of ./Etna, accords pretty accurately with 
the narratives of modern travellers. The geographer 
informs us, that those who had lately ascended the 
mountain found on the top a crater, or, as he terms it, 
a level plain (irtSlov 6/uMhi), about twenty stadia in 
circumference, enclosed by a bank of cinders having 
the height of a wall. In the middle of the plain was 
a hill of an aahy colour, like the surface of the plain. 
Over the hill a column of smoke hung suspended, ex- 
tending about two hundred feet in height. Two of 
the party from whom Strabo received his information 
undertook to descend the banks and enter upon the 
plain, but the hot and deep sand soon compelled them 
to retrace their steps. The geographer, after this 
statement, then proceeds to contradict the common 
story respecting the fate of Empedocles, the party as- 
suring him that the crater, or opening into the bowels 
of the mountain, could neither be seen nor approached. 
— The whole number of eruptions on record, in the 

•7 



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jETOLIA. 



^ttoua. 



iu« of /Etna, is said to be eighty-one, of which the 
following may be regarded aa an accurate enumeration. 
Those mentioned by Thucydidea amount to thru. 
In 132 B.C. there was one. In 44 A.D. one. In 
252 A.D. one. During the 12th century, two hap- 
pened. During the 13th, one. During the 14th, two. 
During the 164, /our. During the 16th, four. Da- 
ring the 17th, taenly-two. During the 18th, thirty- 
two. Since the commencement of the 19th, nine. 
(MalU-Brun, Geogr., vol. 4, p. 293, Bruttelt erf.) 
That the Greeks did not suffer this mountain to re- 
main unemployed in their mythological legends may 
easily be imagined, and hence the fable that ./Etna 




1, 6, 3, and Heyne, ad lot., where the different tradi- 
tions respecting Typhon are collected.) According 
to Virgil (/En., 3, 678), Enceladus lay beneath this 
mountain. Another class of my thographera placed the 
Cyclopes of Homeric fable on /Etna, though the poet 
never dreamed of assigning the island Thrinakia as an 
abode for his giant creations. (Mannert, vol. 3, p. 9, 
teqq.) 'When the Cyclopes were regarded as the aids 
of Vulcan in the labours of the forge, they were trans- 
lated, by the wand of fable, from die surface to the 
bowels of the mountain, though the Lipari islands 
were more commonly regarded as the scene of Vul- 
can's art. (Mannert, 9, pt. 2, p. 297.) — II. A small 
city on the southern declivity of /Etna. The first 
name of the place was Inessa, or Inessos, and Thucyd- 
idea (6, 94) speaks of the inhabitants under the ap- 
pellation of Inessei (Ivnvoaioi). The form of the 
name, therefore, as given by Strabo (268), namely, In- 
neaa (1vhj«o), ss well as that found in Diodorua Sic- 
ulus (14, 14), Ennesia ('Ewvata), ore clearly errone- 
ous. The name of the place was changed to /Etna 
by the remains of the colony which Hiero had settled 
at Catena, and which the Siculi had driven out from 
that place. Hiero had called Catana by the name of 
/Etna, and the new-comers applied it to the city which 
now furnished them with an abode. This migration 
to Inessa happened 01. 79, 4. At a subsequent pe- 
riod (01. 94, 2) we find the elder Dionysius master of 
the place, a possession of much importance to him, 
since it commanded the road from Catana to the west- 
ern parte of the island. The ancient site is now 
marked by ruins, and the place bears the name of Cas- 
tro. (Mannert, 10, pt. 2, p. 291, teqq.) 

jEtolTa, a country of Greece, situate to the east of 
Acamania. The most ancient accounts which can be 
traced respecting this region, represent it as formerly 
possessed by the Cnretes, and from them it first re- 
ceived the name of Curetis. (Strab., 465.) A change 
was subsequently effected by /Etolus, the son of En- 
dymion, who arrived from Elis in the Peloponnesus, 
at the head of a band of followers, and, having defeat- 
ed the Cure tea in several actions, forced them to aban- 
don their country (eut. Acamania), and gave the ter- 
ritories which they had left the name of .Eton's. 
(Ephor., af. Strab., 463. — Pautan., 6, 1.) Homer 
represents the /Etolians as a hardy and warlike race, 
engaged in frequent conflicts with the Curetes. He 
informs us, also, that they took part in the siege of 
Troy, under the command of Thoas their chief, and 
often alludes to their prowess in the field. (R., 9, 
627. — 2, 638, dec.) Mythology has conferred a de- 
gree of celebrity and interest on this portion of Greece, 
from the stoi; of the Calydonian boar, and the exploits 
of Meleager and Tydeus, with those of other /Etolian 
warriors of the heroic age ; but, whatever may have 
contributed to give renown to this province, Thucydi- 
dea (1, 5) assures ns, that the /Etolians, in general, 
like most of the northwestern clans of the Grecian 
continent, long preserved the wild and uncivilized 
habits of a barbarous age. The more remote tribes 
68 



were especially distinguished for the uncouthness ol 
their language and the ferocity of their habits. (Tku- 
eyd., 3, 94.) In this historian's time they bad as yet 
made no figure among the leading republics of Greece, 
and are seldom mentioned in the course of the war 
which he undertook to narrate. Prom him we learn 
that the /Etoliana favoured the interests of the Lace- 
demonians, probably more from jealousy of the Athe- 
nians, whom they wished to dislodge from Naupacius, 
than from any friendship they bore to the former. The 
possession of that important place held out induce- 
ment* to the Athenians, in the sixth year of the war 
to attempt the occupation, if not the ultimate conquest, 
of all /Etoha : the expedition, however, though ably 
planned, and conducted by Demosthenes himself, pro- 
ved signally disastrous. We scarcely find any subse- 
quent mention of the /Etoliana during the more im- 
portant transactiona which, for upward of a century, 
occupied the different states of Greece. We may 
collect, however, that they were at that time engaged 
in perpetual hostilities with their neighbours the Acar- 
nanians. On the death of Philip and the accession of 
Alexander, the /Etolians exhibited symptoms of bos- 
tile feelings towards the young monarch (Died. Sic, 
17, 3), which, together with the assistance they afford- 
ed to the confederate Greeks in the Lamiac war, drew 
upon them the vengeance of Antipater and Cra tenia, 
who, with a powerful army, invaded their country, which 
they laid waste with fixe and sword. The /Etoliani, 
on this occasion, retired to their mountain-fastnesses, 
where they intrenched themselves until the ambitious 
designs of Perdiccaa forced the Macedonian generals 
to evacuate their territory. (Diod. Sic., 18, 25.) If 
the accounts Pausanias has followed are correct, 
Greece was afterward mainly indebted to the Chi- 
lians for her deliverance from a formidable irruption of 
the Gauls, who had penetrated into Phocis and /Ete- 
lia. On being at length compelled to retreat, these 
barbarians were so vigorously pursued by the JElo- 
liana, that scarcely any of them escaped. (Pautan., 
10, 23.— Polyb., 9, 30.) From this time we find 
/Etolia acquiring a degree of importance among the 
ether states of Greece, to which it had never aspired 
during the brilliant days of Sparta and Athens ; but 
these republics were now on the decline, while north- 
ern Greece, after the example of Macedonia, was train- 
ing up a numerous snd hardy population to the prac- 
tice of war. It is rarely, however, that history has to 
record achievements or acts of policy honourable to 
the /Etolians : unjust, rapacious, and without faith or 
religion, they attached themselves to whatever side the 
hope of gain and plunder allured, them, which they 
again forsook in favour of a richer prize whenever the 
temptation presented itself. (Polyb., 2, 45 and 46. — 
Id., 4, 67.) We thus find them leagued with Alex- 
ander of Epirus, the son of Pyrrhus, for the purpose 
of dismembering Acamania, and seizing upon its cities 
and territory. (Polyb., 2, 45.— Id., 9, 34.) Again 
with Cleomenes, in the hope of overthrowing the 
Achsan confederacy. (Poiyb., 2, 45.) Frustrated, 
however, in these designs by the able counsels of Ara- 
tus, and the judicious and liberal policy of Antigonus 
Doson, they renewed their attempts on the death ot 
that prince,' and carried their arms into the PelopoK' 
nesus ; which gave rise to the social war, so ably de- 
scribed by Polybins. This seems to have consisted 
rather in predatory incursions and sudden attacks on 
both aides, than in a regular and systematic plan ot 
operations. The /Etolians suffered severely ; fot 
Philip, the Macedonian king, whose youth they had de- 
spised, advanced into the heart of /Etolia at the head 
of a considerable force, and avenged, by sacking and 
plundering Thermue, their chief city, the sacrilegious 
attack made by them on Dodona, and also the capture 
of Drum in Macedonia. (Polyb., 6, 7, teqq.) Wber 
the Romans, already hard pressed by the second Pu- 



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me war, then raging in Italy, found themselves threat- 
ened on the aide of Greece by the secret treaty con- 
eluded by the King of Maeedon with Hannibal, they 
saw the advantage of an alliance with the .fEtolians in 
ovder to tract the storm ; and, though it might reflect 
but little credit on their policy, in a moral point of 
view, to form a league with a people of snch question- 
able character, the soundness of judgment which dic- 
tated the measure cannot be doubted ; since they were 
thus enabled, with a small fleet and an array under the 
command of M. Valerius Lavinus, to keep in check 
the whole of the Macedonian force, and effectually to 
preclude Philip from affording aid to the Carthagin- 
ians m Italy. (Lief, 26, 84.) The yEtoliaiw also 
proved very useful allies to the Romans in the Mace- 
donian war, during which they displayed much zeal 
and activity, particularly in the battle of Cvnoecepba- 
bs, where their cavalry greatly distinguished itself, and 
contributed es sent i a ll y to that decisive victory. (La., 
S3, 7.) On the conclusion ef peace, the iEtolians flat- 
tered themselves that their exertions in favour of the 
Romans would be rewarded with a share of the prov- 
ince* taken from the enemy. But the crafty Romans 
considered iElolm already sufficiently powerful to ren- 
der any considerable addition to its territory impolitic, 
and even dangerous. The .dStoliaoa wore, st this 
nme, no lancer confined within the narrow limits 
which the early history of Greece assigns to them, but 
had extended their dominions on the west and north- 
west ss for ss Epirua, where they were in possession 
of Aahracia, leaving to Acarnania a few towns only 
m tie coast : towards the north, they occupied the dis- 
tricts ef Amphilonhia and Aperantie, a great portion of 
IMopia, and, from their connexion with Atbamantia, 
their influence in that direction was felt even to the 
burden of Macedonia. On the aide of Tbeaaaly they 
had made themselves masters of the country of the 



a large portion of Phtbiotis, with the can- 
tons ef the Melians and Trachiniane. On the coast 
they had gained the whole of toe Locrian shore to the 
Crimean Gulf, including Nail pectus. In short, they 
wasted but little to give them the dominion over the 
whole of Northern Greece. The Romans, therefore, 
satisfied with having humbled and weakened the Ma- 
cedonian prince, still left him power enough to check 
and curb the arrogant and ambitious projects of this 
people. The JStoliana appear to have keenly felt the 
disappointment of their expectations. (Zee., 33, 13 
and 31.) They now aaw all the consequences of the 
bait they had committed, in opening for the Romans 
away to Greece ; but, too weak of themselves to eject 
these formidable intruders, they turned their thoughts 
tewarde Antiacne*, king of Syria, whom they induced 
to come over into that country, this monarch having 
been already urged to the same course by Hannibal 
(La., 86, 83.) With the assistance of this new ally, 
they made a bold attempt to seize at once the three 
important towns of Demetrias, Lacedamon, and C bal- 
ds, in which they partly succeeded ; and, had Antio- 
cbns prosecuted the war as vigorously aa it was com- 
menced, Greece, in all probability, would have been 
saved, and Italy might again have seen Hannibal in 
her territories at the head of a victorious army ; but a 
single defeat at Tberroopyba crushed the hopes of the 
coabtkm, and drove the feeble Antiocbaa back into 
Asm. (La., 36, 18.) The jEtoliane, deserted by 
their ally, remained alone exposed to the vengeance of 
the foe. Heracles, Naupactus, and Ambracia were 
m tarn besieged and taken ; and no other resource be- 
ing left, they were forced to sue for peace. This waa 
■ranted A.U.C. 663 ; but on conditions that for ever 
aeaabled their pride, crippled their strength, and left 
mam but the semblance of a republic. (Lh., 38, 11. 
— Pofc*4.,/r»g\, S3, ta)— The Italian polity appears 
te have consisted ef a federal government, somewhat 
to the Achaaa league. Deputies from the 



several states met b a common assembly, called Pan. 
attolium, and formed one republic under the adminis- 
tration of a prater. This officer waa chosen annually ; 
and upon him devolved more especially the direction 
of military affairs, subject, however, to the authority 
of the national assembly. Besides this, there waa 
alao a more select council called Apocleti. In addi- 
tion to the chief magistrate, we bear of other officers, 
such aa a general of cavalry and a public secretary. 
(La. t 31, 89.— Pory*., 4, «.—/*, frag., 88, 16.— 
Tutmann, Grieckueh. Suattvtrfat*., p. 386, tejq.) 
— The following are the bmite of .dStolia, according to 
Strabo (460). To the weat it waa separated from Acar- 
nania by the Acbetona ; to the north it bordered on the 
mountain districts occupied by the Atha manes, Doto- 
pes, and JDnianee ; to the east it was contiguous to 
the country of the Loeri Ozohe, and, more to the 
north, to that of the Deriana ; on the south it was 
washed by the Corinthian Gulf. The seme geogra- 
pher informa us, that it waa usual to divide the country 
within these boundaries into JEtolia Antique, and 
Epietctu*. The former extended along the coast from 
the Acheloua to Oalydon ; and included alao a con- 
siderable tract of rich champaign country alone the 
Acheloua as for aa Stratus. This appears to nave 
been the situation ebosen by JStolue for his first set- 
tlement. The latter, aa its name implies, waa a ter- 
ritory subsequently acquired, and comprehended dm 
most mountainous and least fertile parte of the prov- 
ince, stretching towards the Athamenes on the north 
side, and the Loeri Ozola on the eastern. (Cramer'e 
Ancient Greece, vol. 8, p. 60, *tqq.) .dEtoba waa, in 
general, a rough and mountainous country. (Compare 
Hebhoute, Journey, dee., Letter 16, vol. 1, p. 188, 
An. ed.—PmqumlU, Voyage, dte., vol. 3, p. 831. \ 
Some parte, however, were remarkable for their fertil 
ity; auchaa, 1. The large dStolian field. (MruXue 
ntSnvptyo. — Dioxye., Perieg., v. 43S.) 8. Parach- 
elo'itia, or the fruitful region at the mouth of the Ache- 
loua, formed from the mud brought down by the river, 
and drained, or, according to the legend, torn by Her- 
cules from tbe river-god. ( Vid. Acbefous). 8. TheLe- 
Iantian field, at the mouth of the Evenus. (Knm, 
Hello*, vol 8, pt. 8, p. 180, sees.) 

JBrritve, son of Endymion (the founder of Elk), 
and of Nets, or, according to others, Iphisnessa. Hav- 
ing accidentally killed Apia, son of Phoroneus, he fled 
with a band of followers into the country of the Cu- 
rates, which received from him the name of ^Etolia. 
(AfoUcd., 1, 7, 5.— Vid. iEtoka.) 

Mi, I. a rooky island between Tenos and Chios, 
deriving its name from ita resemblance to a goat 
(off). It is said by some to have given the appella- 
tion of "jEgean" (klyaioe) te the ssa in which it 
stood. (Pin., 4, 11.) — II. The goat that suckled 
Jupiter, changed into a constellation. 

Arte, Cn. Domains, an orator during the reigne 
ef Tiberius, Caligshv, Claudius, and Nero. He waa 
bom at Nemauans (Nitnue), B.C. 16 or 16, of ob- 
scure parents, and not, as seeoe maintain (Ftydit, Re- 
rwqutt rur Virgil*), of the Domitian line. After 
receiving a good education in his native city, he re- 
moved, at an early age, to Rome, where he subse- 
quently distinguished himself by hie talents at tbe bar, 
and rose to high honours under Tiberius. Hie ser- 
vices aa an informer, however, meet of all endeared 
him to the reigning prince, and in this infamous trade 
he numbered among his victims' Claudia Palchra, the 
cousin of Agrippioa, and Q. Varus, son of the former. 
A skilful flatterer, he managed to preserve all hia fa- 
vour under the three emperors who came after Tibe- 
rius, and finally died ef intemperance under the last of 
tbe three, Nero, A.D. 68. He was the preceptor of 
Quintilian, who has left a very favourable account of 
hia oratorical abilities. (Taeihu, Ann., 4, 68.— Id. 
ibid., 14, 19.— QumtiL, 6, 7.) 

60 



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AFRICA. 



AFRICA. 



Afbania. Vid. Supplement. 

Afbania Gens. Vid. Supplement. 

AfeanIcs, I. a Latin comic poet, who flourished 
about 100 B.C. Cicero {Brut. ,46) says, that he imita- 
ted C. Titius, and praises him for acuteneas of percep- 
tion, as well as for an easy style. (" Homo perargutut, 
in fabulit quidemetiam, at satis, ditertut.") Horace 
■peaks of him aa an imitator of Menandec (Epitt., 
8, 1, 67. — Compare Cic., it Fin., 1, 8.) Afranius 
himself admits; in his Compitalet, that he derived 
many even of hia plots from Menander and other 
Greek writer*. In other instances, however, he made 
the manners and customs of his own country the basis 
of his pieces. Quintilian (10, 1, 100) praises the tal- 
ents of Afranius, but censures him, at the same time, 
for his frequent and disgusting obscenities. Of all his 
works, only some titles, and 866 verses remain, which 
are to be round in the Corpus Poltarum of Maittaire, 
and have also been published by Bothe and Neukirch. 
(Bohr, Oetck. Rom. lit., vol. 1, p. 111.— 8ckm, Hut. 
Lit. Rom., vol. 1, p. 139.) — II. Nepos, a commander 
who had served under Pompey, and was named by him 
consul, A.U.C. 694, a period when Pompey was be- 
ginning to dread the power and ambition of Cesar. 
Afranius, however, performed nothing remarkable at 
this particular time, having a distaste for public affairs. 
Fourteen years later, when Pompey and Cesar had 
come to an open rupture, Afranius was in Spain, as the 
lieutenant of the former, along with Petreius, who held 
a similar appointment. Cesar entered the country at 
this period, and the two lieutenants, uniting their for- 
ces, awaited his approach in an advantageous position 
near Herds (the modern Lerida). Cesar was defeat- 
ed in the first action, and two days afterward aaw 
himself blockaded, as it were, in his very camp, by the 
sudden rise of the two rivers between which it' was 
situate. Hia genius, however, triumphed over every 
obstacle, and he eventually compelled the two lieu- 
tenants of Pompey to submit without a second encoun- 
ter. They disbanded their troops and returned to It- 
aly, after having promised never to bear arms against 
Cesar for the future. Afranius, however, either for- 
getful of his word, or having in some way released 
himself from the obligation he had assumed, took part 
with Pompey in the battle of Pharsalia, being intrust- 
ed with the command of the right wing, although hia 
capitulation in Spain had laid him ope* to the charge 
of having betrayed the interests of his chief. After the 
battle of Unpens, Afranius and Faustus Sylla moved 
along the coast of Africa, with a small body of troops, 
in the design of passing over to Spain, and joining -the 
remains of Pompey's party in that quarter. They were 
encountered, however, by Sittius, one of the partisans 
of Cesar, who defeated and made them prisoners. It 
was the intention of Sittius to have saved their lives, 
but they were both massacred by his soldiers. (Cat., 
Bell. Civ., 1, 88.— Cic., ep. ad Alt., 1, 18.— Plut., Vit. 
Pomp.— Sutton., Vit. C<z*., 84. — FLonu, 4, 3.)— ITI. 
Potitus, a plebeian, in the reign of Caligula, who, in a 
spirit of foolish flattery, bound himself by an oath, that 
he would depart from existence in case the emperor 
recovered from a dangerous malady under which he 
was labouring. Caligula was restored to health, and 
Potitus compelled to fulfil his oath. (Dio Catt., 69, 
8. — Compare the remarks of Reimar, ad loc., on the 
belief prevalent throughout the ancient world, that the 
life of an individual could be prolonged, if another 
would lay down his own in its stead.) 

AraicA, one of the main divisions of the ancient 
world, known to history for upward of three thousand 
years ; yet, notwithstanding its ancient celebrity, and 
notwithstanding its vicinity to Europe, still in a great 
measure eluding the examination of science. Modem 
observation and discoveries make it to be a vast penin- 
sula, 6000 miles in length, and almost 4600 in breadth, 
presenting in an area of nearly 18,430,000 square miles, 
70 



few long or easily-navigated rivers. — The Greek* 
would seem to have been acquainted, from a very ear- 
ly period, with the Mediterranean coast of this coun- 
try, since every brisk north wind would carry their 
vessels to he shores. Hence we find Homer already 
evincing a knowledge of this portion of the continent. 
(Oi., 4, 84.) A tawny-coloured population roamed 
along this extensive region, to whom the name of Lib- 
yans (Aiovec) was given by the Greeks, a corruption, 
probably, of some native term ; while the country oc- 
cupied by them was denominated Libya (ii Atovn;). 
To this same coast belonged, in strictness, the lower 
portion of Egypt ; but the name of this latter region 
had reached the Greeks as early as, if not earlier than, 
that of Libya, and the two therefore remained always 
disunited. Egypt, in consequence, was regarded as a 
separate country, until the now firmly-established idea; 
of three continents superinduced the necessity of at- 
taching it to one of the three. By some, therefore, it 
waa considered as a part of Asia, while others made 
the Nile the dividing limit, and assigned part of Libya 
to Egypt, while the portion east of the Nile waa made 
to belong to the Asiatic continent. As regarded the 
extent ofLibya inland, but little was at that time known. 
Popular belief made the African continent of small di- 
mensions, and supposed it to be washed on the south 
by the great river Oceanus, which encircled slso the 
whole of what was then supposed to be the flat and 
circular disk of the earth. In this state, or very nearly 
so, Herodotus found the geographical knowledge and 
opinions of his contemporaries. The historian oppo- 
ses many of the speculations of the day on this subject 
(4, 36, seqq. ) ; he rejects the earth-encompassing Oce- 
anus, as well as the idea that the earth was round a* 
if made by a machine. He condemns also the division 
into Europe, Asia, and Africa, on account of the great 
disproportion of these regions. Compelled, however, 
to acquiesce in the more prevalent opinions of the day, 
he recognises Libya as distinct from Egypt, or, mora 
properly speaking, makes the Nile the dividing line, 
though, from bis own private conviction, it is essy to 
perceive that he himself takes for the eastern limit of 
Africa, what is regarded as such at the present day. 
None of the later geographers, down to the time of 
Ptolemy, appear to have disturbed this arrangement. 
Eratosthenes, Timosthenes, and Artemidorus, all adopt 
it ; Strabo also does the same, though he consider* 
the Arabian Gulf, with the isthmus to the north, as af- 
fording the far more natural boundary on the east. As 
Alexandres, however, waa built to the west of the 
mouths of the Nile, the canal which led off to this city- 
was regarded as a part of the eastern boundary of the 
continent, and hence we find the city belonging on one 
side to Libya, and oh the other to Asia. (HierocUt, 
Bellum AUxandr., e. 14.) The Romans, aa in most 
of their other geographical views, followed hero also 
the usages of the Greeks, and hence Mela (1, 1) re- 
marks, *' Quod ttrranm jaeet a freto ad Iftlum, Af- 
rieam voeamut." As, however, in their subdivisions 
of territory, the district of Marmarica was added to Che 
government of Africa, they began gradually to contract 
the limits of Libya, and to consider the Catabathmoa 
Magnus as the dividing point. Hence we find the 
same Mela remarking (1, 8), " Catabaihmus, vailist 
devcxa in Mgyptvm, finit African." In consequence 
of this new arrangement, Egypt on both sides of the 
Nile began to be reckoned a part of the continent of 
Asia. (" Xgyptut Asia prima part, inter Catabatk- 
mum et Arabat." — Mela, 1, 9.) Ptolemy laid aside, 
in his day, all these arbitrary points of separation, and, 
assuming the Arabian Gulf as the true and natural di- 
viding line on the east, made Egypt a part of Africa, 
and added to the same continent the whole wester* 
coast of the same gulf, which had before been regard- 
ed as an appendage of Arabia. (Manner!, 10, pt. S 
p. 1, seqq.) — The name of Africa seems to have beat 



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originally applied by the Romans to the country around 
Carthage, the first part of the continent with which 
they became acquainted, and the appellation is said to 
have been denied from a small Carthaginian district 
on the northern coast, called Prigi. (Hitter, Erdkun- 
de, 1, p. 955, 2d ed.) Hence, even when the name 
bad become applied to the whole continent, there still 
remained, in Roman geography, the district of Africa 
Proper, on the Mediterranean coast, corresponding to 
the modem kingdom of Turn*, with part of that of Trip- 
oli. The term Libya, on the other hand, though used 
by the Greeks to designate the entire country, became 
limited with the Romans to a part merely ; and thus 
we have with the latter, the region of Libya, extending 
along the coast from the Greater Syrtis to Egypt, and 
stretching inland to the deserts. — The knowledge 
which Herodotus possessed of this continent was far 
from extensive. He considered Africa as terminating 
north of the equinoctial line ; and, even in these nar- 
row limits, Egypt alone, ranking it as a part of Africa in 
tact, is clearly described. If we exclude Egypt, the 
acquaintance possessed by the historian relative to the 
other parts of the continent, and which is founded on 
the mfoimation impasted by others, follows merely 
three lines of direction : one proceeds along the Nile, 
and Teaches probably the limit of modem discoveries 
in that quarter ; another, leaving the temple and Oasis 
of Amnion, loses itself in the great desert ; while a 
third advances along the Mediterranean coaat as far aa 
the environs of Carthage. (Haiti- Brun, 1, p. 86, 
Brussels ed) The natives of Africa are divided by 
Herodo tu s into two races, the Africans, or, to adopt 
lbs Greek phraseology, Libyans, and the ^Ethiopians ; 
one possessing the northern, the other the southern 
part (4, 197). By these appear to be meant the 
Hoars, and the Negroes, or the darker-coloured nations 
of the interior. The common boundary of the Afri- 
cans and -•Ethiopians in ancient limes may be placed 
at the southern border of the Great Desert. Hanno 
found the Ethiopians in possession of the western 
coast, about the parallel of 19° ; and Pliny (5, SI) 
places them at five journeys beyond Ceme. At pres- 
ent toe negroes are not found higher up than the Sen- 
egal river, or about 17°, and that only in the inland 
parts. (Rmull, Geography of Herodotus, p. 437, 
seqq.) Nothing, however, can be more indeterminate 
than the terms ./Ethiopia and ./Ethiopian ; and it is 
certain that many distinct races were included nnder 
the Utter denomination. (Fid. .Ethiopia.) The whole 
of Africa, except where it is joined to Asia, was known 
by the ancients in general to be surrounded by the sea ; 
bit of ita general figure and extension towards the south 
they had no accurate knowledge. There is strong rea- 
son, however, to believe, that, at an era anterior to the 
earliest records of history, the circumnavigation of Af- 
rica was accomplished by the Phoenicians in the ser- 
vice of Necho, king of Egypt. Herodotus, to whom 
we are indebted for the knowledge of this interesting 
fact, speaking of the peninsular figure of the continent 
of Africa, say* (4, 43): "This discovery was first 
made by Necho, king of Egypt, as fsr as we are able 
to judge. "When he had desisted from opening the 
canal that leads from the Nile to the Arabian Gulf, he 
sent certain Phoenicians in ships, with orders to pass 
by the Columns of Hercules into the sea that lies to 
the north of Africa, and then to return to Egypt. 
These Phoenicians thereupon set sail from the Red 
Sea, and entered into the Southern Ocean. On the 
approach of autumn, they landed in Africa, and planted 
some grain in the quarter to which they had come : 
when this was ripe and they bad cut it down, they put 
to sea again. Having spent two years in this way, 
they in the third passed the Columns of Hercules, and 
returned to Egypt. Their relation may obtain credit 
team others, but to me it seems impossible to be be- 
lieved; far they affirmed, that, aa they sailed around 



the coast of Africa, they had the sun on their right 
hand." The report which Herodotus thought so strange 
as to throw discredit on the whole narrative, namely, 
that in passing round Africs the navigators had the 
sun to the right, affords to us, ss has been well re- 
marked, the strongest presumption in favour of its truth, 
since this never could have been imagined in an age 
when astronomy wss yet in its infancy. The Phoeni- 
cians mustofcourse have had the sun on their right after 
having passed the line. (Larcher, ad Herod., I. e. — 
vol 3, p. 458. — Compare Renncll, Geography of He- 
rodotus, p. 718.) Many writers, however, have la- 
boured to prove that the voyage, in all probability, 
never took place ; that the time in which it is said to 
have been performed was too short for such an enter- 
prise at that early day ; in a word, that the underta- 
king was altogether beyond any means which nav- 
igation at that era could command. (GosseUin, Re- 
cherches, &c, vol. I, p. 199, seqq. — Matmert, 1, p. 
31, seqq— Malu- Brun, 1, p. 80.) But the learn 
ed arguments of Rennell impart to the tradition a 
strong aspect of probability. (RenueU, Geography 
of Herodotus, p. 673, seqq. — Compare Larder, ad 
Herod., I. c, vol. 8, p. 458, seqq . — Murray, Account 
of discoveries in Africa, 1, p. 10, seqq.) The date 
of this first circumnavigation of Africa is supposed to 
be about 600 B.C. In that rude stage of the art of 
navigation, however, the knowledge of a passage by 
the Southern Ocean waa aa unavailable for any mer- 
cantile or practical purposes, as the discovery of a north- 
west passage in modem daya. The precarious and 
tardy nature of the voyage, as well as the great expense 
attending it, would necessarily preclude ita being made 
the channel of a regular commerce ; nor waa there any 
sufficient inducement for repeating the attempt, aa the 
articles of merchandise most in request were to be bad 
much nearer home. Exaggerated representations, 
moreover, of the frightful coast, and of the stormy and 
boundless ocean into which it projected, would natu- 
rally concur in intimidating future adventurers. Ac- 
cordingly, we are informed by Hercdotoa (4, 43), that 
Sataspes, a Persian cctleman, who waa condemned by 
Xerxes to be impaled, had his sentence commuted for 
the task of sailing round the African continent. He 
made the attempt from the west, passing the Col- 
umns of Hercules, and sailing southward along the 
western coast for several months ; till baffled probably 
by the adverse winds and currents, or finding himself 
carried out into an immense and apparently boundless 
sea, he in despair abandoned the enterprise ss imprac- 
ticable, and returned by the way of the Straits to Egypt ; 
upon which the monarch ordered the original sentence 
to be executed upon him. These attempts to circum- 
navigate Africa were made nnder the direction of the 
most powerful monarcha of the age ; the next was un- 
dertaken by a private adventurer. We arc informed 
by Strata (98), who cites Posidonius ss his authority, 
that a certain Eudoxus, a native of Cyxicus, hiving 
been deputed by his fellow- citizens to convey their sol- 
emn offering to the Isthmian celebration at Corinth, 
went, after having executed this commission, to Egypt, 
and had several conferences with the reigning monarch, 
Euergetes II., and also with his ministers, respecting 
various topics, but particularly concerning the naviga- 
tion of the Nile in the upper part of ita course. This 
man was an enthusiast in topographical researches, and 
not wanting in erudition. It happened that, about this 
same time, the guard- vessels on the coast of the Ara- 
bian Gulf picked up an Indian, whom they found alone 
in a bark and half dead. He waa brought to the king ; 
but no one understanding his language, the monarch 
ordered him to be instructed in Greek ; and when ha 
could apeak that tongue, the Indian stated that, having 
set sail from the coaat of India, he had lost his way, 
and had seen all his companions perish through famine. 
He promised, if the king would send him back, to show 

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AFRICA. 



the way to India to those whom the monarch should 
charge with this commission. Euergetes assented, and 
Eudoxua was one of those directed to go on this er- 
rand. He sailed with a cargo of various articles calcu- 
lated for presents, and brought back in exchange aro- 
matic* and precious stones. He was disappointed, 
however, in the expectations of profit which he had en- 
tertained, since the king appropriated all the return- 
cargo to himself. After the death of Euergetes, Cleo- 
patra, his widow, assumed the reins of government, and 
sent Eudoxua on a second voyage to India with a rich- 
er supply of merchandise than before. On his return, 
he was carried by the winds to the coast of Ethiopia, 
where, landing at several points, he conciliated the na- 
tives by distributing among them corn, wine, and dried 
figs, things of which until wen they had been ignorant. 
He received in exchange water ana guides. He noted 
down also some words of their language ; and found, 
moreover, in this quarter, the extremity of a ship's prow, 
carved in the shape of a horse's head. This fragment, 
be was told, had belonged to a shipwrecked vessel that 
came from the west. Having reached Egypt, he found 
the son of Cleopatra on the throne, and he was again 
despoiled of the fruits of his voyage, being charged 
with having converted many things to his own use. 
As regards the fragment of the shipwrecked vessel 
Drought home with nim, he exposed it in the market- 
place for the examination of pilots and masters of ves- 
sels, who informed him that it must have belonged to 
a ship from Gades (Cadiz). The grounds of their be- 
lief were as follows : the traders of Gades, according 
to them, had large vessels ; ' but the less wealthy, small- 
er ones, which they called horses, from the ornament 
on their prows, and which thev used in fishing along 
the coasts of Mauritania as far as the river Lixus. 
Some shipmasters even recognised the fragment as hav- 
ing belonged to a certain vessel of this class, which, 
with many others, had attempted to advance beyond 
the Lixus, and had never after been heard of. From 
these statements Eudoxus conceived the possibility of 
circumnavigating Africa. He returned home, disposed 
of all his effects, and put to sea again with the money 
thus obtained, intending to attempt the enterprise in 
question. Haying visited Dvcearcnia, Massilia, and 
other commercial cities, he everywhere announced his 
project, and collected funds and adventurers. He was 
at length enabled to equip one large and two small ves- 
sels, well-stored with provisions and merchandise, man- 
ned chiefly by volunteers, and carrying, moreover, a 
pompous brain of artisans, physicians, and young slaves 
skilled is music. Having set sail, he was carried on hia 
way at first by favourable breezes from the west. The 
crews, however, became fatigued, and he waa compell- 
ed, though reluctantly, to keep nearer the shore, and 
soon experienced the disaster which he had dreaded, 
his ship grounding on a sandbank. As the vessel did 
not immediately go to pieces, he waa enabled to save 
the cargo and great part of her timbers. With the 
latter he constructed another vessel of the size of one 
of fifty oars. Resuming his route, he came to a part 
inhabited by nations who spoke the same language, as 
he thought, with those on the eastern coast whom he 
had visited in his second voyage from India, and of 
whose tongue he had noted down some words. Hence 
he inferred that these were a part of the great Etbio- 

Stan race. The smallness of his vessels, Tiowever, in- 
uced him at length to return, and he remarked on his 
way back a deserted island, well supplied with wood 
and water. Having reached Mauritania, be sold bis 
vessels and repaired to the court of Bocchus, and ad- 
vised that king to send out a fleet of discovery along 
the coast of Africa The monarch's friends, however, 
inspired him with the fear that his kingdom might, in 
this way, become gradually exposed to the visits and 
incursions of strangers. He made fair promises, there- 
fore, to Eudoxus, bat secretly intended to have him 
78 v 



left on some desert island ; and the latter, having dis- 
covered this, escaped into the Roman province, and 
thence passed over into Spain. Here he constructed 
two vessels, one intended to keep near the coast, the 
other to sail in deep water ; v and, having taken on board 
agricultural implements, various kinds of grain, and 
skilful artificers, he set sail on a second voyage, resolv- 
ing, if the navigation became too long, to winter in the 
island which he had previously discovered. At this 
point, unfortunately, the narrative of Posidonius, as 
detailed by Strabo, stops short, leaving us totally in the 
dark as to the result. Pompouius Mela (3, 9, 10) tells 
us, on the alleged authority of Cornelius Nepos, that 
Eudoxus actually made the circuit of Africa, adding 
some particulars of the most fabulous description 
respecting the nations whom he saw. But no de- 
pendence can be placed on this doubtful authority ; 
whereas the narrative of Posidonius bests every mark 
of authenticity. (Compare Murray, 1, p. 13, teqq., 
and MaUe-Brun, 1 , p. 68, where the voyage of Eudoxus 
is defended against the remarks of Goasellin in his Re- 
eherehet, dec., 1, p. 317, teqq.) These are the only 
instances on record in which die circumnavigation of 
Africa was either performed or attempted by the an- 
cients. Other voyages were, however, undertaken 
with a view to the exploration of certain nans of its 
unknown coasts. The most memorable is that per- 
formed along the western coast by Hanno, about 570 
years before the Christian era. The Carthaginians 
fitted out this expedition with a view partly to coloni- 
zation and partly to discovery. The armament con- 
sisted of sixty ships, of fifty oars each, on board of which 
were embarked persons of both sexes to the number oi 
30,000. After two days' sail from the Columns ot 
Hercules, they founded, in the midst of an extensive 
plain, the city of Tbymiaterium. In two days more 
they came to a wooded promontory, and, after sailing 
round a bay, founded successively four other cities 
They then passed the mouth of a great river, called the 
Lixus, flowing from lofty mountains inhabited by in- 
hospitable Ethiopians, who lived in caves, Thence 
they proceeded for three days along a desert coast to a 
small island, to which they gave the name of Cerne, 
and where they founded another colony ; and afterward 
sailed southward along the coast, till their farther prog- 
ress was arrested by the failure of provisions. (Harm. 
Peripl., in Geogr. Gh. Min., ei. Gail., 1, p. 113, 
teqq !) With regard to the extent of coast actually ex- 
plored by this expedition, the brief and indistinct nar- 
rative affords ample room for learned speculation and 
controversy. According to Rennell {Geogr. of Herod., 
p. 719, teqq.), the island of Cerne is the modern Ar- 
gain, the Lixus is the Senegal, and the voyage extend- 
ed a little beyond Sierra Leone. M. GosseUin, on the 
other hand ( Recherche*, ike., 1, p. 61, teqq.), contends 
that the whole course was along the coast of Maurita- 
nia ; that the Lixus was the modem Lucot, Cerne was 
Fedala, and the voyage extended little beyond Cape 
Nun. Malte-Brun (1, p. 33, Brussels eel.) carries 
Hanno as far as the bays called the Gulf dot Medaiot, 
and the Gulf of Gonzalo ie Cintra, on the shore of the 
desert : and he is induced to assume this distance, in 
some degree, from the fact of Himilco, another Car- 
thaginian, having advanced in the same direction as 
far to the north as the coasts of Britain, a voyage much 
longer and more perilous than that said to have been 
performed by Hanno along the African coast. {Plin., 
7, 67. — Feel. Avien. Ora Marii., ». 80, teqq.) A 
translation of the Periplus, however, wjll be found un- 
der the article Hanno, from which the student may 
draw his own conclusions. — At a much later period 
this part of the coast excited the curiosity of the Ro- 
man conquerors. Polybius, the celebrated historian, 
was sent out by Scipio on an exploratory voyage in 
the same direction ; but, from the meager account pre- 
served by Pliny, ML GoaaeUia infers thai he did not 



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ad quite) so fa as the Csrthig i ni sn navigator had done. 
—Let as now turn oar attention, for a moment, to the 
nterior of the country. We have already alluded in 
general terms to the knowledge possessed by Herodo- 
tus of A fines. To what we have stated on this sub- 
ject may be added the following curious narrative, 
which we receive from the historian himself (2, 32). 
"I wse also informed," says Herodotus, "by some 
Cyreneanf, that in a journey they took to the oracle of 
Amnion, they had conferred with Etearchus, king of 
the Ammonians ; and that, among other tilings, dis- 
coursing with him concerning the sources of the Nile, 
as of a thing altogether unknown, Etearchus acquaint- 
ed them, that certain Naaamones, a nation of Libya in- 
habiting the Synis, and a tract of land of no great ex- 
tent eastward of the Syrtis, came into his country, and, 
being asked by him if they had learned anything touch- 
ing the Libyan deserts, answered that some petulant 
young men, sons to direr* persons of great power 



ssisng them, bad, after many extravagant actions, re- 
mind to scad five of their number to the coast of 
Libya, to see if they could make any nether discov- 
eries than ethers had done. The young man choset 
by their companions to make this expedition, having 
" themselves with water and other necessary 
, first passed through the inhabited country ; 
and when they bad likewise traversed that region wueh 
abounds in wild beasts, they entered the deserts, ma- 
king their way towards the west After tbey bad trav- 
elled many days through the sands, tbey at length saw 
soro trees growing in a plain, and they approached, 
and beau to gather the fruit which was on them ; and 
while they were gathering, several little men, less than 
mm of saddle size, came up, and, baring seized them, 
carried them away. The Naaamones did not at all 
snderstsnd what they said, neither did they understand 
the speech of the Naaamones. However, tbey conduct- 
ed them over vast morasses to a city built on a great river 
nummg from the west to the east, and abounding in 
croeodUea ; where the Nassmones found all the inhab- 
itants black, and of no larger sine than their guides. 
To this relation Etearchus added, as the Cyreneano 
ass sred me, that the Naaamones returned safe to their 
own coon try, and that the men to whom tbey had thus 
came were all enchanters." (Compare the remarks 
enier the article Naaamones.) RenneU (Geogr. of 
Bend. , p. 432) observes, that it is extremely probable 
that the river seen by the Naaamones was that which, 
acCTiamg to the present state of our geography, is 
known to pass by Tmbuctoo, and thence eastward 
through the centre of Africa (in effect, the river com- 
monly known by the name of Niger). What is called 
the inhabited country in this narrative, ha makes the 
same with the modern Fezxaa, in which also be finds 
the sandy and desert region traversed by the Nasa- 
roones. It appears certain to him, aa well as to Larcher, 
that the city in question was the modem Ttmbuctto. 
M site- Bran, however (1, p. 28, Brunei* ed.% thinks it 
impossible that Tombuctoo can be the place alluded 
to, since it is separated from the country of the Naaa- 
mones by so many deserts, rivers, and mountains. — In 
the days of Strabo, the knowledge possessed by the 
sncients of Africa was little, if at all, improved. The 
Mediterranean coast and the banks of the Nile were 
■he only pans frequented by the Greeks. Their opin- 
ion respecting the continent itself was that it formed 
a trapezium, or else that the coast from the Columns 
of Hercules to Pelusium night be considered as the 
base of a right-angled triangle (Strabo, 17, p. 886, ed. 
Coomb \ of which the Nile formed the perpendicular 
side, extending to /Ethiopia and the ocean, while the 
BTtJOthenuse wsa the coast comprehended between the 
eitrearhyof this line and the straits. The apex of the 
triangle reached beyond the braka of the habitable 
world, asd wss consequently regarded as inaccessible : 
I Stabo declares his nacshty to assign any 



length to the continent in question. His knowledge 
of the western coast is far from extensive or accurate. 
In passing the straits, we find, according to him, a 
mountain called by the Greeks Atlas, and by the bar- 
barians Dyris : advancing thence towards the west, 
we see Cape Cotes, and afterward the city of Tings, 
situate opposite to Gadea in Spain. To the south of 
Tinea is the Sinus Emporicua, where the Phoenicians 
used to hare establishments. After this the coast 
bends in, sod proceeds to meet the extremity of the 
perpendicular line on the opposite aide. We may 
pardon Strabo for too lightly rejecting the discoveries 
of the Carthaginians along the western coast, since 
nothing proves Turn to have read the peri plus of Hanno. 
An error, however, which cannot be excused, is that 
of placing Mount Atlas directly on the straits, since be 
might have learned from the account of Polybius, that 
this mountain wss situate far beyond, on the western 
coast, and giving name to the adjacent ocean. With 
regard to the eastern shores of Africa, Strabo cites a 
periplus of Artetnidorus, from the Straits of Dire 
(Bab-d-Manieb) to the Southern Horn, which, from 
a comparison of distances ss given by Ptolemy and 
Mahnus of Tyre, answers to Cape BantUUatu, to the 
sooth of Cape Gariafui. (GotstWn, Recherche t, vol. 
1, p. 177, eeqq.) Here a desert coast for a long time 
arrested the progress of maritime discovery on the 
part of the Greeks. — The knowledge of the day then, 
respecting the eastern sod western coasts of Africa, 
appears to bsve extended no farther than 12° north 
latitude, or perhaps 12° 30/. The two sides were 
supposed to approximate, and between the Hetperu 
Mthupet to the west, sod the Ciraammifera regie, 
to the east, the distance was supposed to be compara- 
tively small. (Strabo, 119.) This intervening space 
was exposed to excessive beats, according to the com- 
mon belief, and which ferbade the traveller's penetra- 
ting within its precincts ; while, at a little distsute 
beyond, the Atlantic and Indian Oceans were thought 
to unite. The hypothesis which we have here stated 
made Africa terminate at about one half of its true 
length, and represented this continent as much •mallet 
than Europe. (Plin., 2, 108.— Id., «, 33.— Pomp. 
Mela, 1, 4.) Still it was the one generally adopt, 
ed bv the Alexandrean school. (Eratosthenes, ep. 
Siral., pttrun. — Crates, op. Genu*., EUm. Astro*., 
c It.—Aratus, Phamom., v. Q&T.—Cleanthcs, am. 
Gemm., I. c. — Cleomedee, Meteor., 1, 6, Ac.) On 
the other hand, the opinion of Hipparchua, which united 
eastern Africa to India {Hipp., ap Strut., 6), remained 
for a long period contemned, until Marisus of Tyre 
and Ptolemy bad adopted it. This adoption, however, 
did not prevent the previous hypothesis from keeping 
its ground, in some measure, in the west of Europe 
(Macreb., Somn. Scip., 2, 9.—Isidor., Orig., 14, 6), 
where it contributed to the discovery of the route by 
the Cape of Good Hops. (Malte-Bnm, 1, p. 87, 
seqq., Brussels ad.) — Africa, according to Pliny (6, 
33), is three thousand six hundred snd forty-eight Ro- 
man miles from east to west. This measure, estima- 
ted in stadia of seven hundred to a degree, would seem 
to represent the length of the coast from the valley of 
the Catabathmus to Caps Nun, which was also the 
limit of the voyage of Polybius, according to Gosselir. 
(Beeherches, 1, p. 117, seqq.) The length of the in- 
habited part of Africa was supposed nowhere to exceed 
two hundred and fifty Roman miles. In passing, 
however, from the frontiers of Cyrenaica across the 
deserts and the country of the Garamantes, A grippe 
(Pit*., I. c.) gave to this part of the world nine hun- 
dred and ten miles of extent. This measure, which 
we owe, without doubt, to the expedition against the 
Gararaantea, conducts us beyond the Andes and Bor- 
nou, but does not reach the Niger. Whatever may be 
the discussions to which the very corrupt state of the) 
in the psgse of Pliny are calculated 



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AFRICA. 



AFR 



to give rile, one thing is sufficiently evident, that the 
Romans knew only a third part of Africa. Pliny, 
moreover, gives us an account of two Roman expedi- 
tions into the interior of Africa. The first is that of 
Suetonius Paulinus. {Plin., 6, 1.) This officer, hav- 
ing set out from the river Lixus with some Roman 
troops, arrived in ten days at Mount Atlas, passed over 
some miles of the chain, and met, in a desert of black 
■and, with a river called Ger. This appears to have 
been the Gyr of Segelmeita. The second expedition 
was that of Cornelius Balbus. " We have subdued," 
says Pliny (5, 5), " the nation of the Phazanii, together 
with their cities Aide and Cillaba : and likewise Cyd- 
amus. From these a chain of mountains, called the 
Black by resson of their colour, extends in a direction 
from east to west. Then come deserts, and afterward 
Matelga, a town of the Garamances, the celebrated 
fountain of Debris, whose waters are hot from midday 
to midnight, and cold from midnight to midday ; and 
also Garama, the capital of the nation. All these 
countries have been subjugated by the Roman arms, 
and over them did Cornelius Balbus triumph." Pliny 
then enumerates a Urge crowd of cities and tribes, 
whose names were said to have adorned the triumph. 
Malte-Bron, after a fair discussion of this subject, is 
of opinion that Balbus must have penetrated as far as 
Bornou and Dongala, which appear to coincide with 
the Boin and Daunagi of Pliny. The black mountains 
were probably those of Tibati. (Malte-Brun, 1, p. 
85, Bruaelt ed.) — Marinas of Tyre, who came before 
Ptolemy, pretended to have read the itinerary of a Ro- 
man expedition under Septimius Flaccus and Julius 
Matemus. (Ptol., 1, 8, teqq.) These officers set 
out from Leptis Magna for Garama, the capital of the 
Garamantes, which they found to be 6400 stadia from 
the former city. Septimius, after this, marched di- 
rectly sooth for the space of three months, and came 
tj a country called Agyzimba, inhabited by negroes. 
Marinue, after some reasoning, fixes the position of 
this country at 84° south of the equator. A strict 
application of the laws of historical criticism will con- 
sign to the regions of fable this Roman expedition, un- 
known even to the Romans themselves. How can we 
possibly admit, that a general executed a march more 
astonishing than even that of Alexander, and that no 
contemporary writer has preserved the least mention 
of it ! At what epoch, or under what reign, are we 
to place this event? How, moreover, could an army, 
in three months, traverse a space equal to eleven hun- 
dred French leagues? (Malte-Brun, 1, p. 188, Brtu- 
telt ed.) — The form of Africa was totally changed by 
Ptolemy. We have seen that Strabo and Pliny re- 
garded this part of the world aa an island, terminating 
within the equinoctial line. The Atlantic Ocean was 
thought to join the Indian Sea under the torrid zone, 
the heats of which were regarded as the most powerful 
barrier to the circumnavigation of Africa. Ptolemy, 
who did not admit the communication of the Atlantic 
with the Erythrean or Indian Sea, thought, on the 
contrary, that the western coast of Africa, after having 
formed a gulf of moderate depth, which he calls Hes- 
perian (*iknrepu[<5f), extended indefinitely between 
south and west, while he believed that the eastern 
coast, after Cape Prasum, proceeded to join the coast 
of Asia below Catigara. (Plot., 7, 3.) This opinion, 
which made the Atlantic and Indian Oceans only large 
basins, separated the one from the other, had been 
supported by Hipparchus. The interior of Africa pre- 
sents, in the pages of Ptolemy, a mass of confused no- 
tions. And yet he is the first ancient writer that an- 
nounces with certainty the existence of the Niger, ob- 
scurely indicated by Pliny. The most difficult point 
to explain in the Central Africa of Ptolemy, is to know 
what river he means by the Gyr. (Ptol., 4, 6.) . Some 
are in favrur of the river of Bornou, or the Bahr-al- 
Gatel: (D'AnoilU, Mem. tur la fleuva it Vvttt- 
: 74 



near dt VAfrique, Acad, da Inter., vol. 86, p. 64.) 
Others declare for the Bahr-el-llfistelad. (RmneU, 
Geogr. of Herod., p. 418.) Neither, however, of 
these rivers suits the description of Claudian (Laid. 
SHlich., l,v.253), reproducing the image of the Nile by 
the abundance of its waters : " timili menittut gurgitt 
Nilum." In the midst of so many contradictions, and 
in a region still almost unknown, the boldness of igno- 
rance may hazard any assertion, and pretend to decide 
any point, while the modesty of true science resigns 
itself to doubt. 

Anuoimrs, I. Sextus Julius, a native of Palestine, 
belonging to a family that had come originally from 
Afrioa. He lived under the Emperor Heliogabalus, 
and fixed his residence at Emmaiis. This city hav- 
ing been ruined, he was deputed to wait on the em- 
peror and obtain an order for rebuilding it, in which 
mission he succeeded, and the new city took the name 
of Nicopolis. (Chrm. Patchale, am. 883.) About 
A.D. 331, Julius Africanus visited Alexandres to hear 
the public discourses of Heracles. He had been 
brought up in paganism, but be subsequently embraced 
the Christian faith, attained the priesthood, and died 
at an advanced age. - He waa acquainted with the 
Hebrew tongue, applied himself to various branches 
of scientific study, but devoted himself particularly to 
the perusal and investigation of the sacred writings, on 
which he published a commentary. The work, how- 
ever, that most contributed to his reputation, was a 
Ckronography in five books (Uevri6i6)uov xpovoto- 
yiKav), commencing with the Creation, which be 
fixes at 6480 B.C., and continued down to A.D. 831. 
This calculation forms the basis of a particular era, of 
which use is made in the Eastern Church, and which 
is styled the Historical Era, or that of the Historians 
of Alexandres* Fragments of this work are preserved 
by Ensebiue, Syncelnis, Joannes Malala, Theophanes, 
Cedrenua, and in the Chronicon Paschsle. Photius 
says of thisi production, that, though concise, it omits 
nothing important. ( Btbtioth. , vol. 1 , p. 7, ed. Bekier.) 
Eusebius has most profited by it, and, in his Chronog- 
raphy, often eopies him. He has preserved for us 
also a letter of Africanus, addressed to Aristides, the 
object of which is to reconcile the discrepance between 
St. Matthew and St. Luke on the question of our Sa- 
viour's genealogy. We have also another letter of 
his, addressed to Origen, in which he contests the au- 
thenticity of the story of Susanna. Africanus likewise 
composed a large work in nine, or, according to others, 
in fourteen, or even twenty-four books, entitled Kto-m, 
" Cestuses." This name was given it by the author, 
because, like the Cestus of Venus, his collection con- 
tained a mingled variety of pleasing things selected 
from numerous works. In it were discussed questions 
of natural history, medicine, agriculture, chemistry, 
dec. In the part that principally remains to us, and 
which appears to have been extracted from the main 
work in the eighth century, the art of war forms the 
-topic of consideration. It is printed in the Mathemat- 
id Vetera, Paris, 1693, fql., and also in the seventh 
volume of the works of Meuraiua, Florence, 1746. It 
has also been translated by Guischardt in his Mtmoiru 
MiUtaira da Greet et dtt RonuUnt, 1758, 4to. From 
some scattered fragments of other portions of the same 
work, it would appear to have been, in general, of no 
very valuable character. For example, in order to 
prevent wine from turning, we are directed tc write on 
the bottom of the vessel the words of the psalmist, 
"Taste and see how sweet is the Lord !" Again, in 
order to drink a good deal of wine with impunity, we 
must repeat, on taking the first glass, the 170th verse 
of the 8th book of the Ihad, " Jove thundered thrice 
from the summits of Olympus." He gives ns alse 
other precepts for things less useful than curious in 
their natures, and which may serve to amuse an agri- 
culturist ; as, for example, how to force fruits to as- 



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AGAMEMNON. 



AGAMEMNON. 



some the shape of any animal, or even the form of the 
Auman visage ; how to produce pomegranates without 
seeds, figs of two colours, dec. (Scholl, Hitt. Lit. 
Gt., vol. 4, p. MS, and 5, S69. — Biographic Univer 
telle, vol. l.p. 274.) — II. The surname of the Scipios, 
from their victories in Africa over the Carthaginians. 
{Vid. Scipio.)— III., IV., V. (Vid. Supplement.) 
Agaclttcs. Vid. Supplement. 
Agillis. Vid. Supplement. 
AsanioB. Vid. Supplement. 
Aoamxdks and TeophonIos, two architects and 
brothers, who built the temple of Apollo at Delphi, 
when erected for the fourth time. (Bockh, ad Find., 
fregm., voL 3, p. 570.) According to Plutarch, they 
were informed by the god, when asking him for a rec- 
ompense, that they would receive one on the seventh 
day from that lime, and were ordered to spend the in- 
tervening period in festive indulgence. They did so, 
and on the seventh night were found dead in their beds. 
{Plat., Comal., ad Ap.—Op., e&. Keitke, vol. 6, p. 413, 
ttq ) ' Cicero relates the same story, but makes the 
two brothers ask Apollo for that which was best for 
man (" quod tact optimum homini," where Plutarch 
merely has airav /uoOov), and also gives the prescri- 
bed time as three days. (Cic, Tutc. Quatt., 1, 47.) 
A very different version, however, is found in Pausa- 
nias. This writer informs us, that Agamedes and Tro- 
phonios were the sans of Erginus, monarch of Orchora- 
enus, or rather that Trophonius was the son of Apol- 
lo, and Agamedes of the king. When they had at- 
tained to manhood, they became very skilful in build- 
ing temples for the gods, and palaces for kings. 
Among other labours, they constructed a temple for 
Apollo at Delphi, and a treasury for Hyrieos. ( Vid. 
Sfhau.) In the wall of this building they placed a 
stone in such a manner that they could take it out 
whenever they pleased ; and, in consequence of this, 
they carried away from time to time portions of the 
deposited treasure. Agamedes was at last caught in 
a trap placed so as to secure the robber, whereupon 
his brother cut off his head in order to prevent discov- 
ery. After this, Trophonius was swallowed up in an 
opening of the earth, in the grove of Lebedea. The 
whole story appears to wear a figurative character. 
Ergmoa is the protector of labour (ipyfvoc, Ipyov) ; 
Trophonras is the " nourither" (rpfyu, Tpo^oj-j ; and 
Agamedes is the •' very prudent one" (iyav and/njdof). 
Trophoaias, even after he has descended to the lower 
world, makes his voice to be heard from those profound 
depths. He rules over the powers of the abyss, be- 
comes Jopiter-Tropbonius, and gives counsel to those 
who have the coinage to descend into the cave at Le- 
bedea. He is Hades, the wise and good deity, as 
Plato calls him (Phadon, $ 68). He is therefore, also, 
the supreme intelligence that rules in the lower world, 
which serves as a guide to the souls of the departed, 
and accompanies them in their migrations. In the 
■tame Hyrieus, moreover, we see "a keeper of bees," 
aw bee-master" (Tptrvc, from ipov, iptcv, " a bee- 
hive''), and the bee was connected with the mysteries 
of Ceres, and also the transmigration of souls. There 
a, moreover, a strong analogy between the story as 
here told, and that related of the Egyptian monarch 
Rbampsinitus. Both fables appear to be allegorical 
^lustrations, connected with agriculture. (Creuxer, 
Symbolik, voL 2, p. 381.— Gnigniaut, vol. S, p. 330.) 

Agibemsom, king of Mycenae and commander of 
im Grecian forces against Troy. He was brother to 
ateuelaus, and was, according to most authorities, the 
son of Plistoene*. As, however, Plistbenes died 
7onng, and bis widow Aerope was taken in marriage 
bj A tan, the sons of Plistbenes, Agamemnon and 
Meodus nzmelr, were brought up by their grand- 
koer, cow become their stepfather, and were called 



the murder of Atreus, (rid. Atreus, JSgisthus) and the 
accession of bis uncle Thyestes to the vacant throne, 
Agamemnon fled to Sparta, accompanied by bis brother 
Menelaus, after having previously found an asylum, 
first with Polyphides, king of Sicyon, and then with 
Oeneus, king of Calydon. Tyndarus was reigning at 
Sparta, snd bad married his daughter Clytemnestra to 
a son of Thyestes ; but, being dissatisfied with the al- 
liance, he stipulated with Agamemnon to aid him in 
recovering the kingdom of Atreus, provided he would 
carry off Clytemnestra and make her his qneen. This 
stipulation was agreed to ; and the plan having suc- 
ceeded, Agamemnon married the daughter of Tyn- 
darus, and became the father of Orestes, Iphigenia (or 
Iphianassa), Laodice (or Electra), and Chrysothemis. 
Agamemnon was one of the most powerful princes of 
his time, and on this account was chosen command- 
er-in-chief of the Greeks in their expedition against 
Troy. The Grecian fleet being detained by contrary 
winds at Aulis, owing to the wrath of Diana, whom 
Agamemnon had offended by killing one of her favour- 
ite deer, Calchas, the soothsayer, waa consulted, and 
he declared, that, to appease the goddess, Iphigenia, 
the monarch's eldest daughter, must be sacrificed. 
She waa accordingly led to the altar, and was about to 
be offered as a victim, when (contrary to the statement 
of Virgil that she waa actually immolated) she hi 
generally said to have suddenly disappeared, and a stag 
to have been substituted by the goddess herself. ( Fid. 
Iphigenia.) — The dispute of Agamemnon with Achil- 
les, before the walla of Troy, respecting the captive 
Chryseis ; the consequent loss to the Greeks of the 
services of Achilles ; his return to the war, in order 
to avenge the death of Patroclua ; and his victory 
over Hector, form the principal subject of the Iliad. — 
In the division of the captives after the taking of Troy, 
Cassandra, one of the daughters of Priam, fell to the 
lot of Agamemnon. She waa endued with the gift of 
prophecy, and warned Agamemnon not to return to 
Mycenae ; bat from the disregard with which her pre- 
dictions were generally treated (vid. Cassandra), he 
was deaf to her admonitory voice, and was consequent- 
ly, upon his arrival in the city, assassinated, with her 
and their two children, by his queen Clytemnestra and 
her paramour jEgisthus. ( Vid. Clytemnestra, A5gi»- 
thus.) The manner of Agamemnon's death ia va- 
riously given. According to the Homeric account, 
the monarch, on his return from Troy, was earned by a 
storm to that part of the coast of Argolis where 
^Egisihns, the son of Thyestes, resided. During his 
absence, jEgiatbus had carried on an adulterous in- 
tercourse with Clytemnestra, and be had set a watch- 
man, with a promise of a large reward, to give him the 
earliest tidings of the return of the king. As soon as 
he learned that he was on the coast, he went out to 
welcome him, and invited him to his mansion. At the 
banquet in the evening, however, he placed, with the 
participation of Clytemnestra, twenty men in conceal- 
ment, who fell on and slaughtered him, together with 
Cassandra and all his companions. They died not, 
however, unavenged, for JSgisthus alone was left alive. 
(OA, 4, SIS, ttqq.—Od., 11, 406, teoq.) Thepost- 
homeric account, followed by the TVagic writers, 
makes Agamemnon to have fallen by the hands of his 
wife, after be had just come form from the bath, and 
while he was endeavouring to put on a garment, the 
sleeves of which had been sewed together, as well as 
the opening for the head, and by which, of course, all 
his movements were obstructed, and, as it were, fetter- 
ed. (Schol. ad Ewrip., Hec, 1277.— Compare Eutip., 
Oretl., 25.— Mtck., Agam., 1363— Id., Eumm., 
631.) His death was avenged by his son Orestes. 
(Vid. Orestes.) Before concluding this article, it may 
not be amiss to remark, that Homer knows nothing of 
Plisthenes as the father of Agamemnon and Menelaus : 
he calls them simply the offspring of Atreus. Accord- 

75 



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AG A 

jog to this view of the case, Atreua,' who, as eldest 
sod, had succeeded Pelops, left on his deathbed Aga- 
memnon and Menelaus, still under age, to the guar- 
dianship of his brother Thyestes, who resigned the king- 
dom to his nephews when the; had reached maturity. 
The variations introduced into this story, therefore, 
wluld seem to be the work of later poets, especially 
o* the Tragic writers, from whom the grammarians 
and scholiasts borrowed. (Heyne, ad //., 8, v. 106.— 
Suppl. et Emend.— vol. 4, p. 686.) With respect 
to the extent of Agamemnon's sway, we are informed 
by Homer (21., 3, 108) that he 'ruled over many isl- 
ands and over all Argos (noXkyoi, vqooiai nal 'Apyel 
irovrt). By Argot appears to be here meant, not the 
city of that name, for this was under the sway of Dio- 
mede, but a large portion of the Peloponnesus, in- 
cluding particularly the cities of Mycens and Tiryns. 
(Heyne, Excurs. 1, ad 17., 2.) The islands to which 
the poet alludes can hardly be those of the Sinus Ar- 
golicus, which are few in number and small. Homer 
himself says, that Agamemnon possessed the most 
powerful fleet, and from this it would appear that he 
held many islands under bis sway, though we are un- 
acquainted with their names. (Heyne, I. c— Thwyd,, 

1, 9.) — Thus much for Agamemnon, on the supposi- 
tion that such an individual once actually existed. If 
we follow, however, the theory advocated by Hermann 
and others, and make not only the Trojan war itself to 
have been originally a mere allegory, but the names 
of the leading personages to be also allegorical, and 
indicative of their respective stations or characters, 
Agamemnon becomes the "permanent," or "general 
leader of the host" (S™ and w/ivu), the termination 
uv strengthening the idea implied by the two compo- 
nent words from which the appellation is derived, and 
denoting collection or aggregation. The name Aga- 
memnon is also connected with the early religion of 
Greece, for we find mention made of a Zeif 'kyaatu- 
vm>- (Meurt. MisceU. Loam., l,4.—EutUUh., ad A, 

2, p. 168. — Consult Hermann uni Creuseer, Brieve 
uber Horn, und He*., p. 80, and Creuzer, Symbokk, 
vol. 2, p. 460.) 

AoAKBMNoaius, an epithet applied to Orestes, a 
son of Agamemnon. ( Virg., Mn., 4, v. 471.) 

Aganipps, a celebrated fountain of Btaotia, on 
Mount Helicon. The grove of the Muses stood on 
the summit of the mountain, and a little below was 
Aganippe. The source Hippocrene was some dis- 
tance above. These two springs supplied the small 
rivers Olnrius and Permessus, which, after uniting their 
waters, flowed into the Copaie lake near Hauartus. 
(Straba, 407 and 411.) Pauaanias (0, 31) calk the 
former Lemnus. Aganippe was sacred to the Muses, 
who from it were called Aganippides. Ovid (Fatt., 6, 
7) has the expression "fimtes Aganippidos Hippo- 
crenet," whence some are led to imagine that he makes 
Aganippe and Hippocrene the same. This, however, 
is incorrect : the epithet Agamvpis, as used by the 
poet, being equivalent here merely to "Shuts sacra." 
— II . A nymph of the fountain. 

AoAVcxog, the sou of Anceus, aad grandson of Ly- 
cnrgus, who led the Arcadian forces in the expedition 
against Troy, and, after the foil of that city, was ear- 
ned by a storm, on his return home, to the island of 
Cyprus, where he founded the city of Papboa. 

Aqapbtus. Vid. Supplement. 

Aqab, a town of Africa Propria, in the district of 
Byzacinm, and probably not far from Zella. 

Aoapids. Vid. Supplement. 

Aoaba, a city of India intra Gangem, on the south- 
em bank of the Iomanes (Dtchumna), and northwest 
of Palibetbca. It it now Agra. (Buchoff und ISpUtr, 
Worterb. der Geogr., t. «.) 

AoXai ('Kyapov nbht, or 'Apycioov *6fac, Plol. — 
Argari Vrbs, Tab. Pettt ), a city of Iodia intra Gangem, 
on the Sinus Argaricus. It is thought to correspond to 

• n 



A G A 

the modem Artingari. (Bitchoff und It oiler, Wor- 
terb. der Geogr., s. ».) 

Ag arista, I. a daughter of Hippocrates, who mimed 
Xanthippus. She dreamed that she had brought forth 
a lion, and a few days after was delivered of Pericles. 
—II. (Vid. Supplement.) 

Aoasias, or Higbs! as, I. a sculptor of Ephesus, to 
whose chisel we owe the celebrated work of art called 
the Borghese Gladiator. This is indicated by an in- 
scription on the pedestal of the statue. This statue 
was found, together with the Apollo Belvidere, on the 
site of ancient Antium, the birthplace of Nero, and 
where that emperor had collected a large number of 
chefs-d'oeuvre, which had been carried off from Greece 
by his freedman Acratus. It is maintained by more 
recent antiquarians, that the statue in question does 
not represent a gladiator ; it appears to have belonged 
to a group, and the attention and action of the figure 
are directed towards some object more elevated than 
itself, such, for example, as a horseman whose attack 
it is sustaining. With regard to the form of the name, 
it may be remarked, that the iEolic and vulgar form 
was Agesias; the Doric, Agasias; and the Ionic, 
Hegesias. This Ionic form was adopted by the Attic 
writers. — II. Another Epheeian sculptor, who exercised 
his art in the island of Delos, while it was under the 
Roman sway. (Sillig, Diet. Art., s. v.) 

Aoas&s, s city of Thessaly, supposed by Manner! 
(7, 470) to be the same with the iT.gsea of Ptolemy, 
which he places to the south of Berosa. (Ptol., p. 
84.) It was given up to plunder by Paulus jEmilius, 
for having revolted to Perseus after its surrender. 
(Lip., 46, 27.) There are ruins near the modern Co- 
jam, which, in all probability, mark the site of the an- 
cient place. 

Aoasds, a harbour of Apulia, near the Promontoriura 
Garganum. (Plin., 8, 11.) It is supposed to answer 
to the modem Porto Greco. ( Cluver, JtaL Ant., voL 
2, p. 1212.) 

AoatbakchIobs, I. or Agatharchps, a native of Cni- 
dus, in the time of Ptolemy VI. (Philometor) and his 
successor. Photius states (Biblioth., vol. 1, p. 171, 
ed. Belcher), that he bad read or was acquainted with 
the following geographical productions of this writer. 

1 . A work on Asia (Td Kara H/v 'Aotav), in ten books : 

2. A work on Europe (Td /card r^v Et>p<i7n?v), in 
forty books :• and, 8. A work on the Erythraean Sea 
(Uept T§f 'EfwdpSc QcAaoayc). The patriarch adds, 
that there existed the following other works of the same 
writer. 1. An abridged description of the Erythraean 
Sea CEmTOfiii tuv nepl rijc 'EpvdpSf ■QaZaooritiAn one 
book : 2. An account of the Troglodytes (IIep<*rnuy- 
Xodvruv), in five books: 3. An abridgment of the 
poem of Antimacbus, entitled Lyde (TS?rtro/i>7 npf 
'A.vTi/idx ov Avd^f ) : 4. An abridgment of a work on 
extraordinary winds ('ExiTo/a/ rdv irepl ewvayuynt 
dav/tdeiuv aviftuv) : 6. An abridged history ('Ekao- 
yal laropuiv) : and, 6. A treatise on the art of living 
happily with one's friends. Photius passes a high eu- 
logium on this writer, and makes him to have imitated 
the manner of Thucydides. The patriarch has also 
preserved for us some extracts from the first and fifth 
books of the work of Agatharchides on the Erythraean 
Sea, in which some curious particulars are found 
respecting the Sabmans and other nations dwelling 
along the coasts. Here also we have an account of 
the mode of hunting elephants, of the method em- 
ployed by the Egyptians in extracting gold from mar- 
ble, where nature had concealed it ; while the whole 
is intermingled with details appertaining to natural 
history. The valuable information furnished by Aga- 
tharchides respecting the people of ^Ethiopia, haa already 
been alluded to under that article. The fragments ol 
Agatharchides were published, along with those of Cte 
sias and Memnon, by H- Stephens, Port*, 1657, 8vo. 
They are given, however, in s> more complete form by 



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AO A 



AO A 



Hudson, in his edition of the minor Greek geographer*. 
iSckBU, Hist. Lit. Gr., toL 3, p. 391.>-II. A native 
of Samoa, whose Hepatic* is cited by Plutarch in his 
Parallels. He is otherwise entirely unknown, and 
hence some havo supposed him to be identical with 



Agathaschidesof C nidus, arid toe HepaiKi to be merel 
• section of (he work on Asia by this writer. (SchT 
But. Lit. Gr., I- e.) 



lely 
ofl, 



Agjtkjlbchbs, I. an Athenian artist, mentioned by 
Vitro mm (kh. 7, prof.), and said by him to have in- 
Tented scene-painting. He was contemporary with 
.dEschyras, and p r ep s u e d the scenery and decorations 
for his theatre. Sillig (Diet. Art., «. *.) maintains, 
that the words of Vrtrurhn, in the passage just referred 
to. namely, " seciuas feat," merely mean, that Aga- 
tbarchns constructed a stage for jEechylus, since, ac- 
cording to Aristotle (Poet., 4), Sophocles first brought 
in the decorations of scenery (OKtpaypafla). Bat the 
language of Vitro viae, taken in connexion with what 
follows, evidently refers to perspective and seene- 
pamting, and Bent ley also understands them in this 
sense, (fits*. Phal., p. 286.) Nor do the words of 
Aristotle present any serious obstacle to this opinion, 
since Sophocles may have completed what Agatharehos 
began. — II. A painter, a native of Samoa, and con- 
temporary with Zeoxia. We hare no certain state- 
ment respecting the degree of talent which he pos- 
sessed. SiOig (Did. Art., '■ v.) thinks it wss small, 
and cites in support of his opinion the language of An- 
docides (Oral., e. Akib., 4 17). Plutarch, how erer, 
informs as, that Ardbiades confined Agatharehos m 
his mansion until he had decorated it with paintings, 
and then sent him home with a handsome present. 
(fit. Alah., 16.) Andocides charges Alcibiades with 
detuning Agatharchaa three whole months, and com- 
pelling him daring that period to adorn his mansion 
with the pencil. And be states that the painter es- 
caped to his house only in the fourth month of his du- 
ress. SilHg think* that this was don* in order to cast 
ridicule upon the artist, an inference far from probable, 
though it would seem to derive some support from the 
remark of the scholiast on Demosthenes (e. Mid., p. 
380), as to the nature of the provocation which Aga- 
tharehos hod given to Alcibiades. Bentley makes 
only one artist of the name of Agatharchus, but is 
sQent as to the difficulty which would then arise in re- 
lation to this artist's being contemporaneous with both 
.ACschytos and Zeoxis. Agatharchus prided himself 
upon his rapidity of execution, and received the famous 
retort from Zeoxis, that if the former executed his 
worts in a short time, he, Zeoxis, painted " for a long 
time,'' i. e., for posterity. 

AaiTHEM£acs,I. a Greek geographer. The period 
when be flourished is not known ; it is certain, how- 
ever, that he came after Ptolemy, and very probably 
he Sved daring the third century of our era. The only 
work by which he is known is an abridgment of geog- 
raphy, entitled "Tirorwruotf T§c ytuypa^ai, tv hnr- 
opf, in two books. This little production appears to 
have reached us in a very imperfect state. It is a 
series of lessons dictated to a disciple named Pbilo, to 
serve him as an outline for a course of mathematical 
and physical geography. In the first chapter he gives 
a sketch of history and geography, and names the most 
ireful writers in these departments. He gives us 
here some particulars worthy of notice that we might 
search in vain for in Strata. In the chapters that fol- 
ktw, Agaihemeros treats of the divisions of the earth, 
sf winds, seas, islands, &c. After the sixteenth chap- 
ter comes an extract from Ptolemy. The second book 
is only a confuted repetition of the first, and is the work, 
JMosHr, of tome ignorant disciple. The first edition 
of Aatiemema is that of Tennnlius, in Greek and 
h&Ljmtt 1671, 8ro. It "> "> J» found also in 

U^W Bat., I™ -*l 1700, 4to, and » Hud- 



son's collection. (SchUl, Hi*. Utt. Gr., vol. 5, p. 
8*4.) — II. A physician. ( Vid. Supplement.) 

AsATHfiS, * poet and historian, born at Myrina, in 
Mo\u, en the eosst of Asia Minor, probably about 636 
A D. He studied at Alexandres, and went in the year 
864 to Constantinople. He possessed some talent 
for poetry, and wrote a variety of amorous effusions, 
which be collected in nine hooka, under the title of 
" Daphniaca." A collection of epigrams, in seven 
books, was also made by him, of which a great number 
are still extant, and to be found in the Anthology. 
His principal production, however, is an historical work, 
which he probably wrote after the death of the Emperor 
Justinian. It contains, in five books, an account of bis 
own times, from the wars of Narsea to the death of 
Chosroes, king of Persia. Hit work i* of greet impor- 
tance for the history of Persia. According to his own 
account, he would appear to have been conversant with 
the Persian language, since he states that he compiled 
his narrative from Persian authorities (!«• tOi> rrapd 
offotv tyyrypawUrur, p. IS*). He writes, perhaps, 
with more regard for the truth than poets are wont to 
do ; but his style is pompous and full of affectation, 
and his narrative continually interspersed with com- 
monplace reflections. The mediocrity of a bastard 
time is clinging fast to him, and the highest stretch of 
his ambition seems to have been to imitate the ancient 
writer*. By faith he was undoubtedly a Christian, 
and probably prided himself upon his orthodoxy ; for 
when he mentions that the Franks were Christiana, 
he adda, mri r$ Apftmirp xf>"M tvot °^fp- His remi- 
niscences of the Homeric poems supplied him with a 
large stock of epic words, which swim on the smooth 
surface of his narrative like heavy fogs upon stagnant 
water. The work of Agathias may be regarded, in point 
of learning and diction, as a fair specimen of trie age in 
which he lived ; few men at Alexandre* or Constantino- 
ple may have surpassed him a* a writer. (Foreign Jlc- 
wrw, m. 9, p. 578.) The best edition it that published 
in 18*8, as Part III. in the correction of Byzantine his- 
torian*, at present publishing al Bonn. 

Asvrnfurs Via*. Supplement. 

AoItho, an Athenian tragic writer, the eontempo 
rary and friend of Euripides. At his house Plato lay* 
the scene 'of his Bymvetitah, given in honour of t 
tragic victory won by the poet. Agatho was no mean 
dramatist. He is called 'hj66av i xvlnveV by Aris- 
tophanes. (Tktmurph., 89.) The same writer pay* 
a handsome tribute to bis memory as a poet and a 
man, in, the Sana (v. 84), where Bacchus calls him 
dvoflif vmiyr^c nai rrofttivbc rofr oTXotr. In the 
Themophoriazuta, however, which was exhibited six 
years before the Rma, Agatho, then alive, is introduced 
as the friend of Euripides, and ridiculed for his effem- 
inacy. His poetry seem* to have corresponded with 
his personal appearance ; profuse in trope, iirfle rion, 
and metaphor; glittering with cparkfmg ideas, and 
flowing softly on with harmonious words and nice con- 
struction, but deficient in manly thought and vigour. 
Agatho may, in some degree, be charged with having 
begun the decline of true tragedy. It was he who first 
commenced the practice of inserting choruses between 
the acts of the drama, which had no reference whatever 
to the circumstances of the piece ; thus infringing the 
law by which the chorus wss made one of the actors. 
(Aristot., Pott., 18, 22.) He is blamed also by Aris- 
totle (Poit, 18, 17) for want of judgment, in selecting 
too extensive subjects. He occasionally wrote pieces 
with fictitious names (a transition towards the new 
comedy), one of which was called the Flower, and was 
probably, therefore, neither seriously affecting nor ter- 
rible, but in die style of the Idyl. (Schlegel, Dram. 
Litt., vol. 1, p. 189.) One of Agatho's tragic victo- 
ries is recorded, 01. 91, 8, B.C. 416. He too, like 
Euripides, left Athens for the court of Archelaua, 

AflATHOCLgi. Vid. Supplement. 

77 



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AGATHOCLES. 



AG A 



AoathSclu, I. one of tha boldest adventurers of 

antiquity. His history is principally drawn from Dio- 
dorus Siculus (books nineteen and twenty, and frag- 
ments of book twenty-one), and from Justin (books 
twenty-two and twenty-three). They derived their 
accounts from different sources, and differ, therefore, 
•specially in the history of his youth. Agathocles 
was the son of Garcinus, who, having been expelled 
from Rhegium, resided at Therms in Sicily. On ac- 
count of a mysterious oracle, he was exposed in his 
infancy, but was secretly brought up by his mother. 
At the sge of seven years the boy was again received 
by his repentant father, and sent to Syracuse to learn 
the trade of a potter, where he continued to reside, 
being admitted by Timoleon into the number of the 
citizens. He was drawn from obscurity by Damns, a 
noble Syracusan, to whom his beauty recommended 
him, and waa soon placed at the bead of an army sent 
against Agrigentum. By a marriage with the widow 
of Damas he became one of the most wealthy men of 
Syracuse. Under the dominion of Sosistratus, he was 
obliged to fly to Tarentum, but returned after the death 
of the latter, usurped the sovereignty, in which he es- 
tablished himself by the murder of several thousand of 
the principal inhabitants, and conquered the greater 
part of Sicily (317 B.C.). He maintained his power 
twenty-eight years, till 289 B.C. To strengthen his 
authority in his native country, and to give employment 
to the people, he endeavoured, like Dionysius, to drive 
the Carthaginians from Sicily. Having been defeated 
by them, and besieged in Syracuse, he Doldly resolved 
to pass over into Africa with a portion of bia army. 
Here he fought for four years, till 307, generally with 
success. Disturbances in Sicily compelled him to 
leave his army twice, and at his second return into 
Africa he found it in rebellion against his son Arcba- 

Sthus. He appeased the commotion by promising 
> troops the booty they should win ; but, being de- 
feated, he did not hesitate to give up his own sons to the 
vengeance of his exasperated soldiery, and expose these 
letter, without a leader, to the enemy. His sons were 
murdered ; the army surrendered to the Carthaginians. 
He himself restored quiet to Sicily, and concluded a 
peace 306 B.C., which secured to both parties their 
former possessions. He then engaged in several hos- 
tile expeditions to Italy, where he vanquished the 
Bruttii and sacked Crotona. His latter days were 
saddened by domestic strife. His intention was, that 
his youngest son, Agathocles, should inherit the throne. 
This stimulated his grandson Archagathua to rebellion. 
He murdered the intended heir, and persuaded Maenon, 
a favourite of the king's, to poison him. This waa done 
by means of a feather, with which the king cleaned his 
teeth after a meal. Hie mouth, and soon his whole 
body, became a mass of corruption. Before he was 
entirely dead he waa thrown upon a funeral pile. Ac- 
cording to some authors, he died at the age of seventy- 
two years ; according to others, at that of ninety-five. 
Before hia death, his wife Texena and two sons were 
sent to Egypt. His son-in-law, Pyrrhus, king of Epi- 
rus, inherited his influence in Sicily and Southern Italy. 
Agathocles possessed the talents of a general and a 
sovereign. He waa proud of his ignoble descent. 
His cruelty, luxury, and insatiable ambition, however, 
accelerated his ruin. (Justin, 22, 1, seqq. — Id., 23, 
1, teqq.— Polyb., 12, 15.— Id., 15, 35.— Id., 9, 23, 
dec.)— II. A son of Lysimachns, taken prisoner by 
the Gete. He was ransomed, and married Lysandra, 
daughter of Ptolemy Lagus. Hia father, in hia old 

X married Arsinoe, the eldest sister of Lysandra, 
, fearful lest her offspring by Lyaimachus might, on 
the death of the latter, come under the power of Agath- 
ocles and be destroyed, planned, and succeeded in 
bringing about, the death of this prince. After the 
destruction of Agathoclea she fled to Seleucus. An- 
other account makes Agathocles to have lost his life 
78 



through the resentment of Arsinoe, in consequence 
of his refusing to listen to certain dishonourable pro- 
posals made by her. (Pautan., 1, 9.— Id., 1, 10.)— 
III. A brother of Agathoclea, and minister of Ptolemy 
Philopator. (Yid. Agathoclea.)— IV. A Greek histo- 
rian, a native of Samoa, who wrote a work on the gov- 
ernment of Peasinus. (Vostrus, de Hut. Grac, 3, p. 
158.— Ernetti, Clav. Cic. InL Hut., t. ».)— V. An 
arcbon at Athens, 01. 105, at the period when the Pro. 
cians undertook to plunder Delphi— VI. An historian. 
(Vid. Supplement.) 

Aoathod^mon, or the Good Genua, I. a name ap- 
plied by the Greeks to the Egyptian Cneph, as indie- 
ative of the qualities and attributes assigned to him 
in the mythology of that nation. (Compare Eusebius, 
Prop. Ed., 1, 10, p. 41. — tablonski, PantK AZgypt., 
1, p. 86.) It is the same with the Novr,.and Pceman- 
der, of the Alexandrean school ; and the hieroglyphic 
which represents this deity is the circle, or disk, hav. 
ing in the centre a serpent with a hawk's head, or else 
a globe encircled by a serpent, the symbol of the spir- 
it, or eternal principle, male and female, that animates 
and controls the world, as well as of the light, which 
illumines all things. ( Creuzer't Symbolik, par Guig- 
niaut, vol.. 1, p. 824.) — II. A name applied by the 
Greeks to the serpent, ss an image of Cneph, the good 
genius. (PhU.,ie It. et Ot., p. 418.) The serpent 
here meant is of a harmless kind, and was also called 
Uncus (Oipaioc), or the royal serpent (Zoega, Num. 
Egypt., p. 400.— Id., de Obelise, p. 431, n. 41), and 
hence it is also the symbol of royalty, and appears on 
the heads of kings as well as of gods. (Compare re- 
marks under the article Cleopatra.) The term Agatho- 
daunon is said to be nothing more than a translation of 
the Egyptian term Cneph. (Jablonski, Voce., p. 112. 
— Oumroff, Etsai tur let Must. d'Eleusis, p. 106, 
teqq. — Creuzer's Symbolik, vol. 1, p. 505, of the Ger- 
man work. — Champollion, Precis, ate., p. 91.)— III. 
A name given by the Greek residents in Egypt to the 
Canopic arm of the Nile. (Plot., 4, 5.) The native 
appellation was Schctneuphi, i. e., !< the good arm of 
the river;" from Schet, "the arm of a river," and 
nouphi, " good," and waa used in opposition to the 
Phatnetic, or evil arm of the Nile. (Champollion, 
fBgypte tout ilet Pkaraotu, vol. 8, p. 23.) The words 
Cneph (Cnuphi) and Canobua (Canopus) were, in 
fact, the same ; and we have in the following, also, 
merely different forms of the same appellation ; Chno- 
phi, Amtbis, Mnetis, dec. — in. (Fast. Supplement.) 

Agathott cos. Vid. Supplement. 

Aoathon, I. (Vid. Agatho}— II., III. (Fid. Sup- 
plement.) 

Aoatbtbna, or Agathymum, a city of Sicily, on the 
northern coast, between Tyndaris and Calacta. It ap- 
pears to have been originally a settlement of the Siculi, 
and, owing to this circumstance probably, as well as 
to its remote position, would seem to have escaped 
the notice of the Greek geographers. Its name ap- 
pears, for the first time, in the history of the second 
Punic war, where Livy (26, 40) states, that the Ro- 
man consul Lasvinus carried away from the place a 
motley rabble, four thousand in number, consisting of 
abandoned characters, and brought them to the coast 
of Italy near Rhegium, the people of which place want- 
ed a band trained to robberies, for the purpose of rav- 
aging Bruttium. Livy writes the name Agatbyma, el 
the first declension : the more common form ia Aga- 
thymum ('kyuBvpvov). The modern St. Agatha standi 
near the stte of the ancient city. (Mannert, Geogr., 
vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 411.) 

Aoatbyksi, a nation respecting whom the accounts 
of ancient writers are greatly at variance. (Compare 
Vottiut, Annot. in Hudson, Geog. Min., vol. 1, p. 
79.) Herodotus (4, 49* plsces them in the vicinity 
of the Maris, the modem Marosch, in what is now 
Transylvania, and most writers agree in placing them 



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AGE 



AGE 



m this country and in upper Hungary. (Compare 
Remell, Gtogr. of Herod., p. 83, atqq. — Matmcrl, 4, 

L102-— Nieinkr Verm. Schrift . 1, p. 377, dec.) 
ymnus of Chios, nowever, makes them to have dwelt 
on the Palm Maiotis. The name perhaps, after all, ii 
a mere appellative, and may have been applied by dif- 
ferent authors to different tribes. What serves to 
strengthen this opinion is the fact, that the latter half 
of the term Agathyrsi frequently occurs in other na- 
tional designations, such as Idanlhyrsi, Tkyriageta, 
TkyzsagcUt, Thyrsi, &c. The reference probably is 
to the god Tyr, another name for the sun. What 
Herodotus (4, 104) states respecting this race, that 
they were accustomed to array themselves in very 
handsome attire, to wear a great number of golden or- 
naments, to have their women in common, and to live, 
in consequence of this last-mentioned arrangement, 
like brethren and members of one family, is received 
with great incredulity by many. (Compare VaUkc- 
nter. Hero*., ed. Wend., p. 338, n. 31.) All this, 
however, dearly shows their Asiatic origin, and con- 
nects them with the nations in the interior of the east- 
tan continent. The community of wives seems to have 
been a remnant, in some degree, of an early Buddhis- 
tic system The civilized habits of the Agathyrsi are, 
at ail events, worthy of notice, and favour the theory 
of those who see in them a fragment of early civiliza- 
tion, emanating from some highly cultivated race, and 
subsequently smite red by the inroads of the Scythians 
and other barbarous tribes. (Rtiter, Vorhal. , 286, teqq.) 

Agios f A71OT7), or, with the Reuchlinian pronun- 
ciation, Agavc, I. daughter of Cadmus, and wife of 
Eehion, by whom ahe had Pentheus. . Her son suc- 
ceeded his grandfather in the government of Thebes. 
While he was reigning, Bacchus came from the east, 
and sought to introduce his orgies into his native city. 
The women all gave enthusiastically into the new re- 
ligion, and Mount Cithaeron rang to the frantic yells of 
the Bacchantes. Pentheus sought to check their fury ; 
bat, deceived by the god, he went secretly and ascend- 
ed a tree on Cithauon, to be an ocular witness of their 
revels. While here, he was descried by his mother 
and aunts, to whom Bacchus made him appear to be a 
wild beast, and be was torn to pieces by them. This 
adventure of Pentheus has furnished the groundwork 
of one of the finest dramas of Euripides, his Bacchs. 
(Apollod., 3, 4, 4.— Id., 3, 5, 1 — Ovid, Met., 3, 514, 
sees. — Hygin., J , 184. — KeightUy't Mythology, p. 
398.) — If. A tragedy of Statins, now lost. (Jug., 7, 
87.) — ni. A daughter of Danaua. She slew her hus- 
band Lycos, in obedience to her father's orders. (Apol- 
1*1,1, 1, 5.)— IV. A Nereid. (Apollod., 1, 8, 7.) 

Aootstis, I. a genius or deity mentioned in the 
legends of Phrygia, and connected with the my thus of 
Cybele and Atys. An account of his origin, as well 
as other particulars respecting him, may be obtained 
from Pausanias (7, 17). He was an androgynous de- 
ity, and appears to be the same with the Adagoiis of 
the ancient writers. (Creuzer, Symbolik, vol. 3, p. 
18. — Compare the note of GuigmatU.) — II. One of 
the summits of Mount Dindymus in Phrygia, on which 
Atys was said to have been buried. (Pausaru, 1, 4.) 

Aseladas, I. an excellent statuary, and illustrious 
also as having been the instmcter of Phidias, Poly- 
detos, and Myron. His parents were inhabitant* of 
Argos. according to Psussnias (34, 8), and he himself 
was bom there, probably about B.C. 540. The par- 
ticular time, however, when he lived, has given rise 
to much discussion. Sillig, after a long and able ar- 
gument, comes to the conclusion that ^geladas, the 
matracter of Phidias, attained the height of his renown 
■boot Olymp. 70, or 500 B.C. (Did. Art., 1. e.)— II. 
Aetsser artist, probably » nephew of the former, as- 
Wttd br Pliny to Olymp- 87, or 433 B.C., which can 
Mr be correct. He was thinking, perhaps, of the 
ttkAgtlMdM*. isaiig 



Did. Art., ». «.) 



AosXastos ('Ayihurroe), an appellati on given to M 
Crassus, father of the celebrated orator, and grandfa- 
ther of Crassus the rich, from his extraordinary gravity. 
Lucilins said of him, that he laughed only once in the 
course of his life, while Pliny informs us that he was 
reported never to have laughed at all. Hence the 
name 'KyiXaaroe, " one that does not laugh," or " that 
never laughs." (Cie., de Fin., 5, 30. — Douza, ad Lm- 
cU.,fragm., p. 20.— Phn., 7, 18.) 

AeiLAUS, I. a king of Corinth, son of Ixion. — II. 
A son of Hercules snd Omphale, from whom Croesus 
was descended. (Apollod., 3, 7, 8.) Diodorus Sicu- 
lus (4, 31) gives the name of this son as Lamas. 
Herodotus, on the other hand, deducea the royal line 
of Lydia from a son of Hercules and a female slave 
belonging to Jardanus, the father of Omphale. (He- 
rod., 1, 7.) This Isst is generally considered to be the 
more correct opinion. (Consult BoAr, ad Herod., I. c. 
— Crauer,HUt. Grac. antiqui**.,Sic., p. 186.)— -III. 
A servant of Priam, who preserved Pans when expo- 
sed on Mount Ida. (Vid. Paris. — Apollod., 3, 13, S, 
and Heyne, ad lot., not. er.) 

AobndIcuh, Agedincum, or Agedlcum ('AyjiiKW, 
Plot,), a city of Gaul, the metropolis of Senonit, or 
Lugdunensis Quarts. Its later name was Senones, 
now Sens. (Cat., B. G., 6, extr.—Eutrop., 10 7.— 
Amm. MarcelL, 16, 37.) 

Asbnor, I. a son of Neptune and Libya, king of 
Phoenicia, and twin-brother of Belus (Apollod., 3, 1, 
4) ; he married Telephassa, by whom he became the 
father of Cadmus, Phrsnix, Cylix, Tharsus, Phinens, 
and, according to some, of Europe also. (Sckol. td 
Eurip., Phm., 5.— Hygin., Fob., 178.— Paiu., 5, 35, 
7.—Schol., ad ApoU. Rhod., 8, 178; 3, 1185.) Af- 
ter his daughter Europe had been carried off by Jupi- 
ter, Agenor sent oat his sons in search of her, and en- 
joined on them not to return without their sister. As 
Europa was not to be found, none of them returned, 
and all settled in foreign countries. (Apollod., 3, 1, 1. 
—Hygin., Fab., 178.) Virgil (^En., 1, 338) calls Car- 
thage the city of Agenor, by which he alludes to the 
descent ef Dido from Agenor. Buttmann (Mytkolog., 
1, p. 332, tee.) points out that the genuine Phoenician 
name of Agenor was Cms, which is the same as Ca- 
naan, and upon these facts he builds the hypothesis, 
that Agenor or Cnas is the same as the Canaan in the 
Books of Moses. — II. A son of Iasus, and father of 
Argus Panoptea, king of Argos. (Apollod., 3, 1, 3.) 
Hellanicus (Fragm., p. 47, ed. Sturx.) states that Age- 
nor was a' eon of Phoroneus, snd brother of Iasus and 
Pelasgus, and that, after their father's death, the two el- 
der brothers divided bis dominions between themselves 
in such a manner, that Pelasgus received the country 
about the river Eracinus, and built Larissa, and Iasus 
the country about Elis. After the death of these two, 
Agenor, the youngest, invaded their dominions, and 
thus became King of Argos. — III. The son and suc- 
cessor of Triopas in the kingdom of Argos. He be- 
longed to the house of Phoronens, snd was father of 
Crotopus. (Paus., 3, 16, 1.— Hygin., Fab., 145.)— 
IV. A son of Pleuron and Xanthippe, and grandson of 
JStolus. Epicaste, the daughter of Calydon, became 
by him the mother of Forthaon and Demonice. (Apol- 
lod., 1, 7, 7.) According to Pausanias (3, 13, 6), 
Thestioe, the father of Led a, is likewise a son of this 
Agenor. — V. A son of Phegeus, king of Psophis, in 
Arcadia. He was brother of Pronous and Arsinoe, 
who was married to Alcmaon, but was abandoned by 
him. When Alcmeon wanted to give the celebrated 
necklace and peplus of Harmonia to his second wife, 
Callirrhoe, the daughter of Achelous, he was slain by 
Agenor and Pronous at the instigation of Phegens. 
But when the two brothers came to Delphi, where they 
intended to dedicate the necklace snd peplus, they were 
killed by Amphoteric and Acarnan, the sons of Alc- 
snd Callirrhoe. (Apollod., 3, 7, 5.) Pausanist 

79 



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A CHS 



AGESILAUS. 



(8, 84, 4), who relates the seme story, calls the chil- 
dren of Phegeus Temenus, Axion, and Alpheeibosa. 
— VI. A son of the Trojan Antenor, and of Theaoo, a 
priestess of Minerva. (.11., 6, 898.) He appears as 
one of the bravest of the Trojans, and as leader in the 
storming of the Grecian encampment. He hastens 
with other Trojans to the assistance of Hector when 
prostrated by Ajaz, and, being encouraged by Apollo, 
he engages in combat with Achilles, whom he wounds. 
As, however, danger threatened him in this conflict, 
Apollo assumed Agenor's form, in order that, while 
Achillea turned against the god, the Trojans might be 
able to escape to the city. (il., SI, sub fin. — Hygin., 
Feb., IIS.) According to Pausanias (10, 37, 1), Age- 
not was slain by Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, 
and was represented by Polygnotu* in the great paint- 
ing in the Lesehe of Delphi. 

Asbsoeides, a patronymic of Agenor, designating a 
descendant of an Agenor, such as Cadmas, Phineus, 
and Perseus. 

AossANDsa, I. or Aoisilavs, from iyetv and dv$/> 
or Xa6c, a surname of Plato or Hades, describing bim 
as die god who carries away all men. (Callim., Hymn, 
in Patted., 130. Spank., ad Ipc.—HesycK, ». p.— 
JEtckyl. ap. Athtn., 8, p. 99.) Nicander (op. Athen., 
16, p. 684) uses the form 'HreaiXoof. — II. A sculp- 
tor, a native of the island of Rhodes. His name oc- 
curs in no author except Pliny (H. If., 36, 6, 4), and 
we know of but one work which he executed ; it is a 
work, however, which bears the most decisive testi- 
mony to his surpassing genius. In conjunction with 
Apollodorus and Athenodorus, he sculptured the group 
of Laocoon. ( Fid. Laocoon ) This celebrated group 
was discovered in the year 1606, gear the baths of Ti- 
tus on the Esquiline Hill : it is now preserved in the 
Museum of the Vatican. A great deal has been. writ- 
ten about the age when Agesander flourished, and vari- 
ous opinions have been formed on the subject. Winck- 
elmann and Muller, forming their judgment front the 
style of art displayed in the work itself, assign it to the 
age of Lysippus. Muller thinks the intensity of suf- 
fering depicted, and the somewhat theatrical air which 
pervades the group, show tint it belongs to a later 
age than that of Phidias. Leasing and Thiersch, on 
the other hand, after subjecting the passage of Pliny 
to an accurate examination, have come to the conclu- 
sion, that Agesander and the other two artists lived in 
the age of Titus, and sculptured the group expressly 
for that emperor : and this opinion is pretty generally 
acquiesced in. Thiersch has written a great deal to 
show that the plastic art did not decline so early as is 
generally supposed, but continued to flourish In full 
vigour from the time of Phidias uninterruptedly down 
to the reign of Titus. Pliny was deceived in saying 
that the group was sculptured out of one block, as the 
lapse of time has discovered a join in it. It appears from 
an inscription on the pedestal of a statue found tXNel- 
tuno (the ancient Antium), that A thenodorus was the 
son of Agesander. This makes it not unlikely that 
Polydorua also was his son, and that the father execu- 
ted the figure of Laocoon himself, his two sons the re- 
maining two figures. (Leasing, Lackoon. — Winekel- 
maun, Gesch. de Kintt, 10, 1, 10.— Thiersch, Epochal 
der Bildkumt, p. 318, Sk. — Muller, Archaol. der 
Kunst, p. 152.) 

AgxsiInax, a Greek poet, Of whom a beautiful frag- 
ment, descriptive of the moon, is preserved in Plutarch 
(De fade in orb. Luna, p. 920). It is uncertain wheth- 
er the poem t6 which this fragment belonged was of 
an epic or didactic character. 

Aobsus, one of the Iambids, and en hereditary priest 
of Jupiter at Olympia. He gained the victory there in 
the mule-race, and is celebrated on that account by 
Pindar in the 6th Olympic Ode. Bockh places hia 
victory in the 78th Olympiad. 

AoesidImos, son of Archestratus, an Epizephyrian 
80 



Locrian, who conquered, when a boy, in boxing- in the 
Olympic games. His victory is celebrated by Pindar 
in the 10th and 1 1th Olympic Odes. The scholiast pla- 
ces his victory in the 74th Olympiad. He should not 
be confounded with Agesidamus the father of Chromi- 
us, who is mentioned in the Nemean Odes (1, 42 : 9, 
99). 

AotstLAtre, I. son of Dory esos, sixth king of the 
Agid line of Sparta, excluding Aristodemus, accord- 
ing to Apollodorus, reigned 44 years, and died 886 
B.C. Pausanias makes his reign a short one, but con- 
temporary with the legislation of LyCurgus. (Pautan., 
3, 8, 3. — Clinton, Fat. Hell., 1, p. !W6.)— II. Son by 
bis Second wife, Eopolia, of Archidamus II., succeed- 
ed his half-brother, Agis II., as nineteenth king of the 
Eurypontid line; excluding, on the ground of spurious 
birth, and by the interest of Lytander, his nephew, Le- 
otychides. (Vid. LeOtychides.) His reign extends 
from 898 to 861 B.C., both inclusive; during most of 
which time he was, in Plutarch's words, " as good as 
thought commander and king of all Greece," and was 
for the whole of it greatly identified with his country's 
deeds and fortunes. The position of that country, 
though internally week, was externally, in Greece, 
down to 394, one df supremacy acknowledged : the 
only field of its ambition was Persia ; from 894 to 387, 
the Corinthian or first Theban war, one of supremacy 
assaulted : in 387 that supremacy was restored over 
Greece, in the peace of Antalcidae, by the sacrifice of 
Asiatic prospects; and thus, more confined and more 
secure, it became also more wanton. After 378, when 
Thebes regained her freedom, we find it again assailed, 
and again lor one moment restored, though on a lower 
level, in 371 ; then overthrown forever at Leuetra, the 
nest nine years being a struggle for existence amid 
dangers within and without. 

Of the youth of Agesilaus we have no detail, beyond 
the mention of his intimacy with Lyeander. On the 
throne, which be ascended about the age of forty, we 
first hear of him in the suppression of Cinadon's con- 
spiracy. In his third year (896), be crossed into Asia, 
and after a short campaign, and a winter of preparation, 
he in the next overpowered the two satraps, Tissspher- 
nes snd Pharnabazus ; and in the spring of 894 was 
encamped in the plain of Thebe, preparing M» advance 
into the heart of the empire, when a message arrived 
to summon him to the war at home. He calmly and 
promptly obeyed, expressing, however, to die Asiatic 
Greeks, and doubtless himself indulging, hopes of a 
speedy return. Marching rapidly by Xerxes' route, he 
met and defeated at Coroneia in Beeotia the allied for- 
ces. In 898 he waa engaged in a ravaging invasion 
of Argolia ; in 398 in one of the Corinthian territory ; 
in 391 he reduced the Acamanians to submission ; but 
in the remaining years of the war he ie not mentioned. 
In the interval of peace, we find him declining the com- 
mand in Sparta's aggression on Mantineia ; but head- 
ing, from motives, it is said, of private friendship, that 
on Phi ids, and openly justifying Phoebidas's seizure of 
the Cadmeia. Of the next war, the first two years he 
commanded in Boaotia, more, however, to the enemy's 
gain in point of experience than loss in any other ; from 
the five remaining he was withdrawn by severe illness. 
In the congress of 871 an altercation ia recorded be- 
tween him and Epaminondas ; and by hia advica 
Thebes was peremptorily excluded from the peace, 
and orders given for the fatal campaign of Leuetra. In 
870 we find him engaged in an embassy to Mantineia, 
and reassuring the Spartans by an invasion of Arcadia 
and in 869 to hia skill, courage, and presence of mind 
is to be ascribed the maintenance of the unwalled Spar- 
ta, amid the attacks of four armies, and revolts and 
conspiracies of Helots, Perioeci, and even Spartans. 
Finally, in 362, he led hia countrymen into Arcadia ; 
by fortunate information was enabled to return in time 
to prevent the surprise of Sparta, and was, it seems, 



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AGESIIAUS. 



AGESIPOLIS. 



wart, if Mt sole commander at the battle of Mantineia. 
To the ensuing winter moat probably be referred hit 
embassy to ibe coast of Asia, and negotiations for mon- 
ey with the re rolled eatrsps, alluded to in an obscure 
passage of Xenophon (Agenlatu, 3, 36, 37) ; and, in 
performance, perhaps, of some stipulation then made, he 
crossed, in the spring of 361, with a body of Lacede- 
monian mercenaries, into Egypt. Here, after display- 
ing much of bis ancient akillV he died, while preparing 
for his voyage home, in the winter of 361-60,- after a 
lilt of above eighty years, and a reign of thirty- eight. 
His body waa embalmed in wax, and splendidly buried 
at Sparta. 

Referring to oar sketch of Spartan history, we find 
Ageeuaraa shining moat in its first and last period, as 
commencing and surrendering a glorious career in 
Asia, and as, in extreme age, maintaining his prostrate 
country. From Coroneia to Leuctra we see him part' 
ry unemployed, at tiroes yielding to weak motives, at 
times joining in wanton acts of public injustice. -No 
oae of Sparta's great defeats, bat some of her bad pol- 
icy belongs to bun . In what others do, we miss him ; 
in what he does, we miss the greatness and consisten- 
cy belonging to unity of purpose and sols command. 
No doubt be was hampered at borne ; perhaps, too, 
from a man withdrawn, when now near fifty, from his 
chosen career, great action in a new one of any kind 
could not be looked for. Plutarch gives, among nu- 
merous apophthegm* ta, hia letter to the ephora on hie 
recall : " We have reduced most of Asia, driven back 
the barbarians, made arma abundant in Ionia. But 
■ace you bid me, according to the decree, come home, 
r shall follow my letter, may perhaps be even before it. 
For my command is not mine, but my country's and 
her allies'. And a commander then commands truly 
according to right when he aeea hia own commander 
in the raws and ephora, or others holding office in the 
state." Alio, an exclamation on hearing of the battle 
of Corinth : " Alas for Greece ! ahe haa killed enough 
of her sons to nave conquered all the barbarians." ■ Of 
hia courage, temperance, and hardiness, many instan- 
ces are given : to these he added, even in excess, the 
Ism Spartan qualities of kindliness and tenderness ss 
s rather and a friend. Thus we have the story of hia 
rating across a stick with hia children ; and, to gratify 
his son's affection for Cleonymua, son of the culprit, 
ha aaved Sphodrias from the punishment due, in right 
and pobcy, for bis incursion into Attica in 378. So, 
too, the appointment of Pisander. (Vid. Pisaoder.) A 
letter of his ran*, " If Nicia* is innocent, acquit him 
Cor that ; if guilty, for my aake ; any how, acquit him." 
From Spartan cupidity and dishonesty, and mostly, 
even in public life, from ill faith, his character is clear. 
In person he waa small, mean-looking, and lame, on 
which last ground objection had been made to hia ac- 
cession, an oracle, curiously fulfilled, having warned 
Sputa of evils awaiting her under a "lame sovereign- 
ty." In hia reign, indeed, her fall took place, but not 
through him. Ageeilaue himself waa -Sparta's moat 
perfect citizen and most eoneummategeneral ;'in many 
ways, perhaps, her greatest msn. (Xen., Hell., 3, 3, to 
the end ; Agetilmu.—Diod., 14, 15.— Pout., 3, 9, 10. 
—PbU. and O. Nepot, in Vita.—Plut., Apophthegm.) 
— fll. A Greek historian, who wrote a work on the 
early history of Italy flraAua), fragment! of which 
am preserved in Plutarch (Pmrallela, p. 313) and Sto- 
bema. (Fhtriltg., 9, 37, 54, 49, 65, 10, ed. Gaiaf.)— 
IV. A brother of Themistocles, who went into the Per- 
sian camp, and ■tabbed one of the body-guards instead 
of Xerxes, whom he intended to assassinate, bnt knew 
noC Upon being arraigned before Xerxea, he thrust 
hia band into the fire, and informed the monarch that 
ail hia countrymen were prepared to do the aame. Plu- 
tarch cites this incident on the authority of Agathar- 
cfatdee, in his Parallela. {Op., ed. Reitke, vol 7, p. 
317.) If the atary be true, it ahowa the source whence 

Id 



the Roman fable of Mucina Scavola was borrowed. 
( Vid. Agathsrchides, II.) 

AoiaiFOLia, I. king of Sparta, the twenty-first 'of the 
Agids beginning with Eurysthenee, succeeded his fa- 
ther Pausaniaa, while yet a minor, in B.C. 394, and 
reigned fourteen years. He was placed under the 
guardianship of Ariatodemus, his nearest of km. He 
came to the crown just about the time that the confed- 
eracy (partly brought about by the intrigue* of the Per- 
aian satrap Tithrauatea), which waa formed by Thebes, 
Athens, Corinth, and Argos, against Sparta, rendered 
it neceeeary to recall hia colleague, Ageailaua II., from 
Asia ; and the first military operation of hia reign was 
the expedition to Corinth, where the forces of the eon- 
federates were then assembled. The Spartan army 
waa led by Ariatodemus, and gained a signal victory 
over the allies. (Xen., HeU., 4, 2, $ 9 ) In the year 
B.C. 390, Agesipolia, who bad now reached hi* major- 
ity, waa intrusted with the command of an army for the 
invasion of Argolis. Having procured the sanction of 
the Olympic and Delphic gods for disregarding any at- 
tempt which the ArgrVea might make to atop his march, 
on the pretext of a rehgiona truce, be carried hie rava- 
ges •till farther than Ageailaua had done in B.C. 398 ; 
but, aa be suffered the aspect of the victims to deter 
him from occupying a permanent post, the expedi- 
tion yielded no fruit but the plunder. (Xen., Hell., 
4, 7, $ 3-6— Pout., 3, 5, T 8.) In B.C. 885 the Spar- 
tana, seising upon some frivolous pretexts, sent an ex- 
pedition against Mantineia, in which Agesipolis under- 
took the .command, after it bad been declined by Agea- 
ilaua. In this expedition the Spartans were aaaistsd 
by Thebes, and in a battle with the Mantineana, Epam- 
inondaa and Pelopidaa, who wore fighting aide by side, 
narrowly' escaped death. He took the town by divert- 
ing tbe river Opbia, ao as to lay the low grounds at the 
foot of the walls under water. The basements, being 
made of unbaked bricks, were unable to resist the ac- 
tion of tbe water. The walla soon began to totter, and* 
the Ma n t ineana were forced to surrender. They were 
admitted to terms on condition that the population 
should be disponed among the four hamlets, out of 
which it had been collected to form the capital. The 
democratical leaders were permitted to go into exile. 
(Xeii., Hell., 6, 3, y 1-7.— Ptut., 8, 8, 4 6.— Died., 
15, 6, Sec — Pint., Pelop., 4.— Xroer., Paneg., f. 67, 
a, De Pace, p. 179, e.) 

Early in B.C. 383, an embaaey came to Sparta from 
the cities of Acanthus and Apollonia, requesting as- 
sistance againat the Olyntbisna, who were endeavour- 
ing to compel them to join their confederacy. Tbe 
Spartans granted it, but were not at first very success 
ful. After tbe defeat and death of Teleotias in the 
second campaign (B.C. 361), Agesipolia took the com- 
mand. He set out in 381, but did not begin opera- 
tions till the spring of 380. He then aoted with great 
vigour, and took Torooe by storm ; bnt in the midst 
of his successes he wss aeixed with a fever, which car- 
lied him off in seven days. He died at Aphytie, in. 
the peninsula of Pallena. Hia body waa immersed 
in honey, end conveyed home to Sparta for burial. 
Though Agesipolis did not share the ambitious views- 
of foreign conquest cherished by Ageailaua, hia loss 
waa deeply regretted by that prince, who aeems to have 
had a sincere regard for him. (Xen., Hell., 6, 3, & 8-9, 
18-19.— Died., 16, Vl.—Thirtumll,Hut. of Greece,*, 
p. 406, 438, dec. ; 6, n. 6, dec., 20.)— II. Son of Cle- 
ombrotua, waa tbe 83d king of the Agid lme. He as- 
cended the throne B.C. 371, and reigned one year. 
(Peas., 3, 6, $ 1.— Dud., 16,6©.)— III. The Slat of 
the Agid line, waa toe ton of Ageaipolie, and grandson 
of Cleombrotus II. After the death of Cleomenea he 
was elected king while still s minor, and placed under 
tbe guardianship of hia uncle Cleomenea. (Polyb., 4, 
35.) He was, however, soon depoeed by hia colleague 
Lycurgus, after the death of Cleomenea. We hear of 
* 81 



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AGI 



AGIS. 



Mm nest in B.C. 195, when he wu at the heed of the 
Lacedemonian exiles, who joined Flamininus in bie 
attack upon Nebu, the tyrant of Lscedemon. (La., 
34, 26.) He formed one of an embassy eent about 
B.C. 198 to Rome by the LacedBmonian exile*, and, 
with his companions, was intercepted by pirates end 
killed (Polyb., 84, 11.) 

AessirmiTs. Vid. Agis, IV. 

Aevrot ('Ayijnwp), a surname given to several gods : 
for instance, to Jupiter at Lacedssmon (Stob., Serm., 
43) : the name seems to describe Zeus as the leader 
and ruler of men ; but others think that it is synony- 
mous with Agamemnon (Vid. Agamemnon): to Apol- 
lo (Enrip., Med., 486), where, however, Elmsley and 
others prefer iyt/rop : to Mercury, who conducts the 
souls of men to the lower world. Under this name 
Mercury bad a statue at Megalopolis. (Pant., 8, 81, 
44.) 

AesBNus UkiSoos, a writer on the science of the 
Agrimensores. (Diet, of Ant., p. 38.) It is uncertain 
when he lived; but he appears to have been a Chris- 
tian, and it is not improbable, from some expressions 
which he uses, that be lived at the latter part of the 
fourth century of our era. The extant works ascribed 
to him are : " Aggeni Urbici in Julram Frontinum Com. 
meutarius," a commentary upon the work " De Agro- 
rum Qualitate," which is ascribed to Frontmos; " In 
Julium Frontinum Commentariorum Liber eeenndns 
qui Dtazographua dicitar;" and " Commentariorum de 
Centroversiis Agrorum Pars poor et altera." The 
last-named work Niebuhr supposes to have been writ- 
ten by Fronthms, and in the time of Domitian, since the 
author speaks of "pmstantiasimus Domitianus :" an 
expression which would never have been applied to 
this tyrant after bis death. (Hist, of Rome, vol. 3, p. 
631.) 

AeosaiOfM, called Xasdsumkss (aavipattnt) by Di- 
oderus, the ruler of the Gaagarida. and Prasii in India, 
wna said to be the son of a barber, whom the queen 
had married. Alexander was preparing to march 
against him, when he was compelled by his soUiors, 
who bad become tired of the war, to give up farther 
conquests in India. (Curl, 6, %.—Diod., 17, 93, 94. 
—Atria*. Anab., 5, 86, etc.— Pint, Alts.., 60.) 

AoUs ('Ay/or), I. a Greek poet, whose name was 
formerly written Augias, through a mistake of the first 
" Proclus. It baa been cor- 
> Acta PkUol. Manac., 8, p. 
Monacensts, which in one pas- 
sage has Agiaa, and in another Hagiaa. The name 
itself does not occur in early Greek writers, unless it 
be supposed that Egiaa or Hegiaa frxytor) in Clemens 
Alexandria as (Sirom., 6, p. 683) and Pausaniaa (1, 
3. 4 1) •» only different forms of the same name. 
iHs was a native of Treason, and the time at which be 
onsote appears to have been shoot the year B.C. 740. 
!His poem was celebrated in antiquity, under the name 
of'N6#rst, i «., the history of the return of the Achat n 
heroes from Troy, and consisted of five books. The 
poem began with the cause of the misfortunes which 
befall the Achaaos on their way home and after their 
arrival, that is, with the outrage committed upon Cas- 
sandra and the Palladium ; and the whole poem filled 
up the space which was left between the work of the 
poet Arctinus and the Odyssey. The ancients them- 
selves appear to have been uncertain about .the author 
■of this poem, for they refer to it simply by the name 
of Noeroi, and when they mention the author, they 
only call him 6 roif Noorovf ypaekaf. (Atken., 7, p. 
Ml.— Pant., 10, 88, 4 4 ; 89, 4 8 ; 30, 4 2— Apei- 
lod., 8, 1, 4 6.—8ckol., ad Odyet., 4, 18.— Sckol., ad 
Arietoph., Eqnit., 1338. — Lucian, De Sallat., 46.) 
Hence some writers attributed the Nootoi to Uomw 
(Suid., m. v. woorot— AntkoL Pimnd., 4, 3d), while 
others ceH its author a Golopbonjan, (EmttaA., ad 
Osyaa., 16, 1 IS.) Sirouer poems, and with met same 
S% 



title, were written by ether poets also, such as Euros- 
his of Corinth (Schol., adPtnd ., OL, 13, 81), Anticlei 
des of Athens (Atken., 4, p. 157; 9, p. 466), Chide 
mus (Atken., 13, p. 609), and Lysimachus. (Atken, 
4, p. 168.— Sckol., ad ApoUm. Rkod., i., 658.) Where 
the Noorot is mentioned without a name, we have gen- 
erally to understand the work of Agiaa. — II. A comic 
writer. (Pollux, 3, 36.— Meineke, Bit*. Come. Orat., 
p. 404, 416.) He is by seme considered as the same 
person with the writer of the 'ApyoUxa, mentioned be- 
low. Caasubon, however, in his remarks on Athene- 
us, thinks that this k an error. < Ad Atken., 8, 10, p. 
169.)— III. The author of a work on Argolis ('ApyoA- 
urdy Atken., 8, p. 86, {.), mentioned in connexion with 
Dercyins. Clemens of Alexandres motes him nndet 
the name of Aigiaa (Strom., 1, p. 836), which is writ 
ten Agis in Eusebius, who has also given Kerkylus in- 
correctly for Dercyioa. (Catemk., ad Atken., lib. 3, 
c 10, p. 169.) He is called e novueoc in soother 
passage of Athene as (14, p. 636, (.), but the musician 
may be another person. — IV. Brother of Tissmenus, 
the renowned seer of the Spartans, who took part in 
the battle of Platae, Both of these ware of the race 
of the Iamidae, and received the right of citizenship at 
Sparta. Another Agiaa, son of Agetochus, grandson 
of Tissmenus, was the seer of Lysander, end predict- 
ed the victory of that commander over the Athenians 
at jEgeapotami. (Pens., 3, 11, 4 5, *.)— V. The Ar- 
cadian, one of the Grecian eommsnders in the army 
of Cyrus the Younger, when he marched against Us 
brother Anaxerxes. He wss entrapped, along with the 
other Grecian leaders, by Tisssphesnes, and put to death 
by that treacherous satrap, together with hie fol low-of- 
ficers. Xenophou praises bis couragB and fidelity. 
(Ana*., 8, 6, 81 { 3,6,80.) 
Aoume. Vid. Agie, IV. 

Agio a, or Eurystnsnkht, descendants of Agia, king 
of Sparta and eon of Enryathones. This family aba- 
red the throne of Laeedsmon along with the Proclide, 
or, as they were mere commonly called, the Eurypon- 
According to Panssniaa, the one of the Agidw 
i extinct in the person of Leorndaa, son of Cle- 
(Patunn., 3, 8 — Id., 3, 6.— J«\, 3, 7.) 
Aaimroai or Aainsn, also written Agtrmmm (Bit- 
ran., De Seript. Eetltt. in Sakadia, aL Pkabadit), a 
city of the Nitiobrigea, who were the same as the Agia- 
nenses, in Gallia Aquitania. It lay on the river Ga- 
ronne, between Pintt and Exeitnm. (PtoL, Bin., n- 
461.— TeA, Pent Scgmu, L— uiswon., En., 84, 79.) 
There waa a road leading from this city to Lactnra, 
which was situated at the distance of 16 miles, men- 
tioned in the Ham. Antonim, for an- account of which 
consult die remarks of Ckaudruc de Craztmtt, 1. 1., p. 
898. Numerous remains of ancient work* of art, in- 
scriptions, die., have been found at this place, which 
are described in a dissertation published in the Mt- 
moiret de la Societi HouaU des Antiq. de France, torn. 
8, p. 368. It was the Wthplscs of Joe. Scaliger, who 
has written about it in bis Led. Anton., 1. S, c. 10. 

Aois ('ayit), I. king of Sparta, son of Eurysthenes, 
began to reign, it is said, about B.C. 1088. (Midler, 
Dor., vol. 8, p. 611, trsnsL) According to Eusebius 
( Ckrm., 1, p. 166), he reigned only one year ; accord- 
ing to Apollodorue, aa it appears, about 3 1 years. Du- 
ring the reign of Eurysthenes, the conquered people 
were admitted to an equality of political rights with 
the Dorians. Agis deprived them of these, and redu- 
ced them to the condition of subjects to the Spartans. 
The inhabitants of the town of Heloe attempted to 
shake off the yoke, but they were subdued, and gave 
rise and name to the class called Helots. (Epkor., op. 
Strab., 8, 864.) To his reign wan referred the colony 
which went to Crete ander Poll is and Delphoa. (Co- 
Ron-, Narr., 86.) From him the kings of that Una 
were called 'kji&m. HiseeUeagoe was Sons. (Pen*., 
8,3,4. 1.) — II. The. 17* of tha Earypontid line (he, 



became i 



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AGES. 



AGIS. 



grooms; with Praelea), succeeded Ma father Arebida- 
mi B.C. 437,aad reused a little more than 88 pin. 
ha the wi— if of B.C. 438, a* lad aa amy of Pelo- 
aao naa i aaa and their alliaa aa far aa the isthnua, with 
the lotenttoa of invading Attica; bat they wete deterred 
from advancing farther by a aaecaiaien of earthquakes 
which happened when they had sot so far. {Tlmcwd., 
S, 8S.) la the spring of the following year he led an 
amy into Attica, bat quitted it fifteen days . after he 
had entered it. <T»«eje\,4, 3, «.) Ia B.C. 410, the 
Aigives, at the instigation of Afcibiades, attacked Epi- 
oa ; and Agfa, with the whole force of Lacedat- 
, eat oat at the same time, and marched to the 
1 city, Leoctra. No one, Thanydidee tells ua, 
kaew the purpose of this ezpadUion. It was neobeWv 
to make a ex version in favour of Epidauroa. (Hurt- 
wail, aoL 8, p. 343.) At Leoctta tbe aspect of the 
saen&xa deterred him frem proceeding. Ho therefore 
fad hie hoops hack, aad seat roond notice to the alUea 
to be readyfor an onpeditiea at the end of the sacred 



■ Camean festival ; and whoa the Argivee 
ir attack on Eptdauree, the Spartans sgem 
1 to the frontier town, Caryw, and again tamed 
keek, professedly on account of the aspect of the vic- 
una, at the middle of Ibe fonowibg someier (B.C. 
418). the Eaaiseneae being stUI bard pressed by the 
pvee, the 1 smlawinnieoa, with their whole force 
• the command of Agis, invaded 
Arsons. By a akflfol aaaaonrre, be succeeded in in- 
tercepting the Argives, and posted bis army sdvanta- 
in them i 



Arji»es. t 



geeeary be tw ee n them end tbe city. Bat just as the 
beetle was afoot to begin, Thraeylfas, one of the Ar- 
grre generals, end Alciphron came to Agia, sad pre- 
vailed on bun to conclude a trace for four months. 
Agis, without d iscl os i ng his motives, drew off Us army. 
On us return be wea severer! censored for having thus 
thrown away tbe opportunity of reducing Argoc, espe- 
cially ss the Arghres had seised the opportunity afford- 
ed by has return, and taken Orchoinenos. It was pro- 
posed to noil down his heoae, and inflict on faltn a line 
.089 a 



ef 100.0M drachma). Bat, on his earnest entreaty, 
they contented tfaemsehrea with appointing a council 
of war, constating of 10 Spartans, without whom he 
ess not to head an army oat of the city. (Thuyd., 
5, Si, 67, ate) Shortly^ afterward they received in- 
udbgenee fan Teges, that, if not promptly succoured, 
ne party favoarabTe to Sparta in that city would be 



to give way. The Spartans immediately 
seat their whole force under the command df Agia. 
He re e uiied tranquillity at Tag em, and then marched 
to Mantiaesa. By tarsmg the waters so as to flood 
the lamb of Mantmeia, he succeeded in drawing the 
amy of the Mantineana and Athenians down to the 
level ground. A battle ensued, in which the Spartans 
were vactoriooa. This waa one of the moat important 
battles ever fought between Grecian states. (Thuyd., 
5, 71-73.) In B.C. 417, when news reached Sparta 
of the counter-revolution at Argoe, in which the oli- 
garchical and Spartan faction was overthrown, an army 
waa sent there under Agia. He was unable to restore 
the defeated party, but he destroyed the loos walls 
which the Argrrea bad begun to carry down to the sea, 
and took Hy». ( Tkucyd., 6, 89.) In the spring of 
B.C. 413, Agis entered Attica with a Peioponneefan 
army, and fortified Decehria, a steep eminence about 
IS nuke northeast of Athens (Thieud., 7, 19, 37); 
and ia the winter of tbe same year, after the news of 
the d i sastro us fate of the Sicilian expedition had reach- 
ad Greece, he marched northward to levy contributions 
ea the allies of Sparta, for tbe parpoee of constructing 
ansae While it Deeefeta be acted in a great meas- 
ure independently of tbe Spartan government, and 
re t tind i eabaanioa as welt from the disaffected sl- 
haa ef the Athenians aa from tbe Bototians and other 
albas of Sparta. (Thuyd., 8, 8, S.) He seems to 
hare remained at Decakua till the end of the Felopoa- 



In 411, during the administration ef As 
Four Hundred, ho made an unsuccessful attempt em 
Athena itself. (TTbtcmf., 8, 71.) In B.C. 401, tbe 
wan mend of she war against Elfa waa intrusted to 
Agfa, who in the third year compelled the Eleane to see 
for peace. As he was returning from Delphi, whither 
he bad gone to c o nse c rate a tenth of the spoil, ha Ml 
sfak at Heme in Arcadia, and died in the course of a 
few days after be reached Sparta. (In, Hell., 3, 3, 
♦ 31, dbc ; 8, ♦ 1-4.) He left a eon, Leotycbidea, 
who, however, waa excluded from tbe throne, as there 
was seme suspicion with regard to hie legitimacy'. 
While Afarbiades was at Sparta he made Agia his hn- 
p fa ta hl e enemy. Later writers (Justin. », V — Pfttt., 
Aieii., S3) assign a* -a reason, that the fatter suspect- 
ed him of having disaenooreo his queen Timna. It 
was probably at the suggestion ef Agfa that orders 
were sunt oat to Aetyeebns to get hini to death. Ai- 
eibiadea, however, received timely notice (according to 
seme aeeoante, from Timna aeraelf), and kept out of 
the roach of the Spartans. (ThteU., 8, 13, 44.— 
Port., LyseaU , n._ Afettl., 8.)— III. Tbe eldest sen 
of Arcfadairraa III., waa the 30th king of the Eurypon- 
tid lino. Hfa reign waa short, but eventful. Re suc- 
ceeded bis father m B.C. 338. In B.C. 888, we find 
lean going with a angle trireme to the Persian com- 
naandert tn the dBgeaa, Phsrnsbatas and Aulophrada- 
tos, to request money and an armament for carrying 
eh hostile operations against Alexander fn Greece. 
They gave hhn 80 talents and 10 triremes. The new* 
of tbe battle of Issue, however, pot a cheek upon their 
plane. He eent the galleys to bis brother Agesifaus, 
with rnabruen'ons to sail with them to Crete, mat he 
might secure that island for the Spartan interest In 
this be seems in a great measure to have eucceeded. 
Two yean afterward (B.C. 881), the Greek states 
which were leagued together against Alexander seized 
tbe opportunity of the disaster of Zopyrion and the re- 
volt of tfae Tnraciene, to declare war against Macedo- 
nia. Agis was invested with tbe command, and with 
the Lacedemonian mope, and a body of 8000 Greek 
mercenaries, who had been present at the battle of Is- 
sue, gained a decisive victory over a Macedonian army 
under Oorregus. Having been joined by tbe other for- 
ces of the league, he laid siege to Megalopolis. The 
city held out tiB Antrpeter came to it* relief, when a 
battle ensued, in which Agis was defeated and killed. 
It happened about tbe time of the battle of Arbete. 
(Atria*, 3, 19.— Dhd., I«, 88, 88; 17, 83.— Mnk., 
e. Ctanh., p. 77.— Car*., 6, 1— Jut tin, 13, 1.)— IV. 
The elder ton of Eodamidas II., waa tbe 94th king of 
tbe Enrypontid hoe. He succeeded hie father in B.C. 
344, and reigned four rears. In B.C. 348, after the 
liberation of Corinth by Aretos, the general of the 
Achnsn league, Agfa led ah army against him, but waa 
defeated. (Pout., 3, 8, 4 4.) The interest of hfa 
reign, however, is derived from events of a different 
kind. Through tbe influx of wealth and luxury, with 
their concomitant vices, the Spartans had greatly de- 
generated from tbe ancient simplicity and severity of 
manners. Not above 700 families of the genuine 
Spartan stock remained, and, in coneeqnence of the 
innovation introduced by EpHadeos. who procured « 
repeal of the law which secured to every Spartan head 
of a family an equal portion of land, tbe landed prop- 
erty had passed into the bands of a few individuate, of 
whom a great number were females, so that not above 
100 Spartan families possessed estates, while the poor 
were burdened with debt. Agis, who from his earliest 
youth had shown his attachment to the ancient disci- 
pline, undertook to reform these abosea, and re-eetab- 
liefh tbe institutions of Lycnigua. For this end he de- 
termined to lay before the Spartan senate a proposition 
for tbe abolition of all debts and a new partition of the 
lands. Another part of his plan wss to give landed; 
to the Perked. Hfa schemes were warmly 
83 



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AQIS. 



AGI8, 



■aconded by the poorer classes and the young men, 
tad aa strenuously opposed by the wealthy. He suc- 
ceeded, however, in gaining over three very influen- 
tial persona — hia uncle Agesilaus (a man of large prop- 
erty, but who, being deeply involved in debt, hoped to 
profit by the innovations of Agis), Lyaander, and Man- 
drocleides. Having procured Lyaander to be elected 
one of the aphora, he laid his plans before the senate. 
He proposed that the Spartan territory should be divi- 
ded into two portions, one to consist of 4600 equal 
lots, to be divided among the Spartans, whose ranks 
were to be filled. up by the admission of the most re- 
spectable of the Perioeci and strangers ; the other to 
contain 16,000 equal lots, to be divided among the 
Perioeci. The senate could not, at first, come to a de- 
cision on the matter. Lyaander, therefore, convoked 
the assembly of the people, to whom Agia submitted 
bis measure, and offered to make the first sacrifice, by 
giving op hia lands and money, telling them that hia 
mother and grandmother, who were possessed of great 
wealth, with all his relations and friends, would follow 
hia example. Hia generosity drew down the applauses 
of the multitude. The opposite party, however, head- 
ed by Leonidaa, the other king, who had formed his 
habits at the luxurious court of Seleucus, kins of Syria, 
got the senate to reject the measure, though only by 
one vote. Agis now determined to nd himself of Le- 
onidaa. Lyaander, accordingly, accused him of having 
violated the laws by marrying a stranger and living in 
a foreign rand. Leonidaa waa deposed, and was suc- 
ceeded by bis son-in-law, Cleombrotus, who co-opera- 
ted with Asia. Soon afterward, however, Lysander's 
term of office expired, and the ephors of the following 
year were opposed to Agia, and designed to restore 
Leonidaa. They brought an accusation against Ly- 
aander and Mandrocleides, of attempting to violate the 
laws. Alarmed at the torn events were taking, the 
two latter prevailed on the kings to depose the ephors 
by force, and appoint others in their room. Leonidaa, 
who had returned to the city, fled to Tegea, and in hia 
flight waa protected by Agis from the violence medi- 
tated against him by Agesilaus. The selfish avarice 
of the hitter frustrated the plana of Agia, when there 
now seemed nothing to oppose the execution of them. 
He persuaded his nephew and Lyaander that the most 
effectual way to secure the consent of the wealthy to 
the distribution of their lands, would be to begin by 
cancelling the debts. Accordingly, ail bonds, registers, 
and securities were piled up in the market-place and 
burned. Agesilaus, having secured his own ends, 
contrived various pretexts for delaying the division of 
the lends. Meanwhile, the Acbatans applied to Sparta 
for assistance against the ./Etoliana. Agia waa accord- 
ingly aent at tho head of an army. The cautious move- 
ments of Aratus gave Agia no opportunity of distin- 
guishing himself in action, but he gained great credit 
by the excellent discipline be preserved among bis 
troops. During his abaence Agesilaus so incensed the 
poorer claasea by his insolent conduct and the contin- 
ued postponement of the division of the lands, that they 
made no opposition when the enemies of Agia openly 
brought back Leonidaa and aet him on the throne. 
Agis and Cleombrotus fled for sanctuary, the former 
to the temple of Athene Chalcicscus, the latter to the 
temple of Poseidon. Cleombrotus waa Buffered to go 
into exile. Agis waa entrapped by some treacherous 
friends and thrown into prison. Leonidaa immediate- 
ly came with a band of mercenaries, and secured the 
prison without, while the ephors entered it, and went 
through the mockery of a trial. When asked if he did 
not repent of what he had attempted, Agis replied that 
he should never repent of so glorious a design, even in 
the face of death. He was condemned, and precipi- 
tately executed, the ephors fearing a rescue, as a great 
concourse of people had assembled round the prison 
gates. Agis, observing that one of his executioners was 



moved to tears, said, " Weep not for me : suffering 
aa I do, unjustly, I am in a happier case than my mur 
derere." His mother, Ageatstrate, and hia grandmoth 
er were strangled on hia body Agis was the first 
king of Sparta who had been put to death by the 
ephors. Pauaaniaa, who, however, ia undoubtedly 
wrong, says (8, 10, $ 4 ; 37, $ 9) that be fell in battle. 
Hia widow, Agiatie, was forcibly married by Leonidaa 
to hia son, Cleomeaea, but, nevertheless, they enter- 
tained for each other a mutual affection and esteem. 
(Iheiarch, Agi*, CleomerUt, Aratus. — Pan*., 7, 7, f 
2.) — V. A Greek poet, a native of Argos, and a con- 
temporary of Alexander the Great, whom he accompa- 
nied on hia Aaiatic expedition. Curtiua (8, 6), as well 
aa Arrian (Anab., 4, 9) and Plutarch {De adulat. et 
amie. ditcrim., p. 60), describe him as one of the basest 
flatterers of the king. Curtiua calls him "pessimo- 
rum canninum post Cnoerilum conditor," which proba- 
bly refers rather to their flattering character than to 
their worth as poetry. The Greek Anthology (6, 15S) 
contains an epigram, which ia probably the work of this 
flatterer. (Jacob*, Anthol., 3, p. 836.— Zimmerman, 
Zeitnhrift fur die Alterth,, 1841, p. 164.) 

Atbensue (13, p. 616) mentions one Agis as the 
author of a work on the art of cooking Qb^aprvrisa). 

Aoisimba, a district of ./Ethiopia, the moat southern 
with which the ancients were acquainted. It ia sup- 
posed to correspond to Albert in Nigritia. {Buckof 
und if otter, Worttrh. der Geogr., t. ».) .It ia some- 
times written Agizmha. 

Aolaia, I. one of the Graces, called sometimes Pas- 
ipbaS. (Pautan., 9, 36.— Vid. Charites.)— II. Daugh- 
ter of Thespius, and mother, by Hercules, of Antiades. 
(Apollod., BMioth,, 3, 7, $ 8.)— IIL The wife of King 
Cbaropue, and mother of Nireua, who came with three 
vessels and a small band of followers from the island 
of Syme against Troy. (Horn., II., 3, 671.— Diod. 
Sic., 5, 53.) Homer says nothing farther about him 
than that he was the moat beautiful man in the Gre- 
cian army after Achilles (vid. Nireus) ; his story, how- 
ever, waa related at length in the Cyclic bards. {Vid. 
Heyiui Annot. ad Horn., JZ., 2, 671-3.) Lucian has 
ironically, represented him aa contesting the palm of 
personal beauty with Theraitea in the lower world. 
{Dial. Mart., 16.) 

Aqlaophemi ('AyAoo^tyiq), one of the Sirens. (Fid. 
S irenea.) 

Aqlaonici, a Thesaalian female, who prided herself 
on her skill in predicting eclipses, dec- She boasted 
even of her power to draw down the moon to earth. 
Hence the Greek adage, rip) oekqvrpi Karaoird, " She 
draw* down the moon," applied to a boastful person. 
{Eratm. Chil., «»/., 853.) 

Aolaophon, I. a painter of the isle of Thaaos, who 
flourished in the 70th Olympiad, 600 B.C. He was 
the father and master of Polygnotus and Aristophon. 
Quintilian (12, 10) speaks of his style in common with 
that of Polygnotus, as indicating, by its simplicity of 
colouring, the early stages of the art, and yet being pref- 
erable, by ita air of nature and truth, to the efforts.of 
the great masters that succeeded. — II. A son of Aris- 
tophon, and grandson of the preceding, also distinguish 
eo as a painter. He celebrated, by his productions, the 
victories of Alcibiadea. (Sillig, Diet. Art., t. v.) 

AaLAVKoa. Vid. Agraulos. 

Aolaos, » native of Paopbia, and the poorest maa 
in all Arcadia, but still pronounced, by the Delphic or- 
acle, a happier man than Gyges, monarch of Lydia. 
{Vol. Max., 7, 1.) 

Aona, or Hagna, a female in the time of Horace, 
who, though troubled with a polypus in the nose, and 
having her visage, in consequence, greatly deformed 
yet found, on this very account, an admirer in one Bat- 
binua. The commentators make her to have been i 
freed-woman and a native of Greece. {Herat., Serf* 
1,3,40.) 



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AsnodIck, an Athenian virgin, who disguised her 
aex to barn medicine, it being ordained by tbe Athe- 
nian laws, that do slave or female should learn, the heal- 
ing art. She was taught by Hierophilus the art of mid- 
wifery, and when employed, always discovered her sex 
to her patients. This brought her into so much prac- 
tice, that the males of her profession, who were now 
oat of employment, accused her before the Areopagus 
of corrupt conduct, " quod iiceraU cum glabrum esse, 
et eomtptorem eantm, et Mat tiitnlan imtecilliutem." 
Agnodice was about to be condemned, when she dis- 
covered her sex to the judges. A law was immedi- 
ately passed authorizing all freeborn women to learn 
the healing art. (frwr».,/*l.,874.) 

Abhor, I. son of Nicias, was present at tbe taking of 
Samoa by Pericles, having brought re-enforcements from 
Athens. After the Peloponnesian war bad Broken out, 
be and Cleopompus, both colleagues of Pericles, were 
despatched with the forces which the last- mentioned 
commander had previously led, to aid in the reduction 
of Patidcs. The expedition was frustrated, however, 
by sickness among the troops. Agnon was also the 
founder of Amphipolis ; but the citizens of that place, 
forgetful of past services, opened their gates to Bran- 
ds*, the Spaxun general, and when the body of this com- 
mander was subsequently interred within Amphipolis, 
they threw down every memorial of Agnon. (Tkucyd., 
1, 117.-11,1, 58.)— II. m. Supplement. 

AGHonioss, an orator, and popular leader at Athens, 
who accused Pbockro of treason for not having opposed 
with more activity tbe movements of Nicanor. After 
the death of Phocion, and when the people, repenting 
of their conduct towards him, were doing everything to 
honour his memory, Agnonidea suffered capital pun- 
ishment, by a decree passed for that special purpose. 
(Phi., Vit. Pkoc.,c. 38, 38.) 

Aeon alia and Aookia, a festival at Rome in hon- 
our of Janus, ceiebrsted on the ninth of Janaary, the 
30th of May, and the 10th of December. (Fid. Dic- 
tionary of Antiquities.) 

Aooaros (* Ajwiof), a surname or epithet of sever- 
al gods. ASschylus (Agon., 513) and Sophocles 
(TrisdL, 36) use it of Apollo and Jupiter, ana appa- 
rently in the sense of helpers in struggles and contests. 
Bat it is more especially used as a surname of Mercu- 
ry, who presides over all kinds of solemn contests. 

Aooh as Capitouhi, contests instituted by Domititn 
in honour of Jupiter Capitolinus, and celebrated every 
fifth, year on the Capita line Hill. According to Sue- 
i (Domit., 4), they were of a threefold character : 
, which included poetic contests, equestrian, sod 
tic. Prizes were awarded also for the best speci- 
mens of Greek and Latin prose composition. Censori- 
bos informs us, that they were instituted in the twelfth 
consulship of Domitian and DoUbella (A.U.C. 839). 
It waa at these contests that the poet Statins was de- 
feated. (Cent., c 18.— Cnavu, ed Suet., I. c.) 
Gasnes similar to these had been previously instituted 
by Nero. (Suet, If er., 18.). 

Aoobacbitus, s sUtnary of Pares, and tbe favourite 
pupil of Phidias, who, according to Pliny (88, 5), ear- 
ned his attachment so far as even to have inscribed on 
some of bis own works the name of bis young disciple. 
The same writer informs us, that Agoracritus contend- 
ed with Alcamenea, another pupil of Phidias, and a 
native of Athens, in nuking a statue of Venus, and had 
the mortification to see his rival crowned as victorious, 
in consequence of the prejudice of tbe Athenians in fa- 
vour of their coontryrnan. Full of resentment, he sold 
as statue to the inhabitants of Rhamnue, a borough 
of Attics, on condition that it should never re-enter 
wrtiuntbe walls of Athene. Pliny adds, that Agoracri- 
asajajed this otatoo NVmieeas, and that Vano regarded 
<LX fiueat BpedmBB of sculpture that he bad ever 
IT Pko»anisui(l7 33 > « i T ef ™ entirel » different 
a^st ^^riUtoat mentioning the name of Agorac- 



ritus, he says that the statue of the Rhamnoaian Nem- 
esis was the work of Phidias. Strabo, again, differs 
from both Pliny and Pansanias, for be asserts that the 
celebrated statue in question was ascribed to both Ago- 
racritus and Diodotus (the latter of whom is not men- 
tioned in any other passage), and that it was not at all 
inferior to the works of Phidias. (Streb., 396.) It is 
difficult to reconcile these conflicting statements. Per- 
haps the statue was by Phidias, and tbe name of his 
favourite pupil was inscribed upon it by the artist 
Equally difficult is it to conceive how a statue of Ve- 
nus could be so modified as to be transformed into one 
of the goddess of Vengeance, for such was Nemesis. 
Sillig endeavours to explain this, but with little suc- 
cess. (Diet. Art., *. *>.) 

AonBAH6ai,'Ayop0VQttO(, sometimes called Aayurrai, 
ten Athenian magistrates, five of whom officiated in 
the city, and five in the Proue. To them a certaix. 
toll or tribute was paid by those who brought anything 
into the market to sell. They had the care of aU sale- 
able commodities in the market except corn, and they 
were employed in maintaining order, and in seeing that 
no one defrauded, another, or took any unreasonable ad- 
vantage in buying and selling, (Wachemutk, Alter- 
tkumt., vol. 8, p. 66.) 

AaaioAa, or Acbaoas, I. a small river of Sicily, 
running near Agrigentum. It ia now the Sen Blotto. 
(Maimert, 9, pt. 8, p. 364 >— II. The Greek name 
of Agrigentum. ( Vvi. Agrigentum.) 
■ AobagiaKA, or Acbasian.se, Post*, galea of Syr- 
acuse. There were in this quarter a great number of 
sepulchres, and here Cicero discovered the tomb of 
Archimedes. (Tuie. Quart., 6, 38.) The name of 
these gates has given great trouble to the commenta- 
tors. Dorville (ad Chant., p. 193) reads Agragaxti- 
aas in tbe passage of Cicero juat referred to, because 
the gatea in question looked towards Agrigentum and 
the south, according to the Antoatn. Ittn., p. 96. 
Schutx gives Aekradnuu in his edition of Cicero, 
which is superior to Acrudintt, the reading of H. Ste- 
phens and Davis, though the last ia adopted by Collar. 
(Syraeut., p. 64.) The argument in its favour tarns 
upon the circumstance of a porta Ackredin* being men- 
tioned among the gatea of Syracuse, but not a porta 
Agragantma. Thus we have in Dfodorus Siculns, 
(13, 76), ry cord njv 'kxpaAivqv m/Xuvt, and (13, 
113), jrpdf r$r vvXrtv njc 'kxpoSivifc. Tbe preferable 
reading, therefore, in Cicero (I. c . ) is poriat Achradinet, 
as indicating gates in that quarter of Syracuse termed 
Achmdina. (rid. Achradina.) 

Ao« aeLk lisxs, laws enacted in Rome for the di- 
vision of public lands. In the valuable work on Roman 
history by Niebuhr (vol 8, p. 189, teqj., Cantor, 
trans/.), it is satisfactorily shown, that these laws, 
which have so long been considered as unjust attacks 
upon private property, had for their object only the 
distribution of lands which were the property of the 
state, and that tbe troubles to which they gave rise 
were occasioned by the opposition of persons who had 
aettled on these lands without having acquired any title 
to them. These laws of the Romans were so intimate- 
ly connected with their system of establishing colonies 
in the different parts of their territories, that, to attain 
a proper understanding of them, it is necessary to be- 
stow a moment's consideration on that system. — Ac- 
cording to Dionysius of Halicamaasus, their plan of 
sending out colonies or settlers began as early as the 
time of Romulus* who generally placed colonists from 
the city of Rome on thelanda taken in war. The same 
policy waa pursued by tbe kings who succeeded him ; 
end,- when ^be kings were expelled, it waa adopted by 
the senate and the people, and then by the dictators. 
There were several reasons inducing the Roman gov 
eminent to pursue this policy, which waa continued for 
a long period without any intermission ; first, to have 
a check on the conquered people ; secondly, to have 



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AGRA RLE LEGES. 



AGRARLE LEGES. 



• protection against th« incursions of an enemy ; third- 
ly, to augment their population ; fourthly, to free the 
city of Rone from an externa of inhabitants ; fifthly, to 
quiet seditions ; and, sixthly, to reward their veteran 
soldiers. These reasons abundantly appear in all the 
best ancient authorities. In the later periods of the 
republic, a principal motive for establishing colonies 
was to have the means of disposing of soldiers, and re- 
warding them with donations of lands ; and such col- 
onies were, on this account, denominated military col- 
onies. Now, for whichever of these causes a colony 
waa to be established, it wss necessary that some law 
respecting^ should be passed either by the senate or 
people. This law in either case was called lex agra- 
ria, an agrarian law, which will now be explained.-— 
An agrarian law contained various provisions ; it de- 
scribed the land which was to be divided, and the class- 
es of people among whom, and their numbers, and by 
whom, and in what manner, and by what bounds, the 
territory wss to be parcelled out. The mode of divi- 
ding the lands, as faraa we now understand it, wss two- 
fold; either a Roman population was distributed over 
the particular territory, without any formal erection of 
a colony, or general grants of land were made to such 
citizens as were willing to form a colony there. The 
landa which were thus distributed were of different de- 
scriptions, which we must keep in mind in order to have 

Zit conception of the operation of the agrarian laws, 
y were either landa taken from an enemy, and not 
actually treated by the government as public property ; 
or public lands which had been artfully and clandestine- 
ly taken possession of by rich and powerful individuals ; 
or, lastly, lands which were bought with money from 
the public treasury, for the purpose of being distributed. 
New all such agrarian laws ss comprehended either lands 
• of the enemy, or those which were treated and occu- 
pied as public property, or those which had been bought 
with the public money, were carried into effect with- 
out any public commotions ; but those which operated 
to disturb the rich and powerful citizens in the posses- 
sion- of the landa which they unjustly occupied, and to 
place colonists (or settlers)' on them, were never pro- 
mulgated without creating great disturbances. The 
first law of this kind was proposed by Spuriua Cas- 
sias ; and the same measure waa afterward attempted 
by the tribunes of the commons almost every year, 
but was as constantly defeated by various artifices of 
the nobles -, it was, however, at length passed. It ap- 
pears, both from Dionysius and Varro, that, at first, 
Romulus allotted two jupera (about H acres) -of the 
public lands to each man ; then Numa divided the lands 
which Romulus had taken in war, and also a portion 
of the other public lands ; afterward Tullus divided 
those lands which Romulus sod Noma had appropria- 
ted to the private expenses of the regal government ; 
then Servius distributed among those who had recent- 
ly become citizens, certain lands which bad been taken 
from the Veienlea, the Cantos and Tarquinn ; and, 
upon the expulsion of the kings, it appears mat the 
landa of Tarquiniua Soperbus, with the exception of 
the Campus Martina, were, by a decree of the senate, 
granted to the people. After thin period, as the re- 
public, by means of its continual wars, received con- 
tinual accessions of conquered lands, those landa were 
either occupied by colonists or remained public prop- 
erty, until the period when Spuriua Cassias, twenty- 
four years after the expulsion of the kings, proposed 
a law (already mentioned) by which one part of the 
land taken from the Hemici was allotted to the Latins, 
and the other part to the Roman people ; but as this 
law comprehended certain lands which he accused pri- 
vate persona of having taken from the public, and as 
the senate also opposed him, he could not accomplish 
the passage of it. This, according to Livy, was the 
first proposal of an agrarian law, of which, he adds, not 
one was ever proposed, down to the period of his re- 
86 



I membra nee, without very great public commotions 
I Hionysiua informs us, farther, that this public land, by 
the negligence of the magistrates, had been suffered to 
! fall into the possession of rich men ; but that, notwith- 
standing this, a division of the lands would have taken 
place under this law, if Casaius had not included among; 
the receivers of the bounty the Latins and the Henna, 
whom he bad but a little while before made citizen*. 
After much debate in the senate on this subject, a de- 
cree was passed to the following effect : that commiav 
sionera, called decemvirs (ten in number), appointed 
from among the persona of consular rank, should mark 
out, by boundaries, the public lands, and should deaig - 
nate how much was to be let out, and bow much was 
to be distributed among the common people ; that, if 
any land had been acquired by joint services in war, it 
should be divided, according to treaty, with those al- 
lies who had' been admitted to citizenship ; and that 
the choice of the commissioners, the appointment of 
the lands, and all other things relating to this subject, 
should be committed to the care of the succeeding con- 
suls. Seventeen yeara after this, there was a vehe- 
ment contest about the division, which the tribunes 
proposed to make, of lands then unjustly occupied by 
the rich men ; and, three yeara after that, a similar at- 
tempt on the part of the tribunes, would, according to 
Livy, have produced a ferocious controversy, had it 
not been for Qujntua Fabius. Some years after this, 
the tribunes proposed another law of the same kind, by 
which the estates of a great part of the nobles would 
have bean seized to the public use ; but it was stopped 
in its progress. Appisn says, that toe nobles and rich 
jn, partly by getting possession of the public lands, 
partly by buying out toe shares of indigent owners, had 
made themselves owners of all the lands in Italy, and 
had thus, by degrees, accomplished the removal of the 
common people from their possessions. This abuae 
Mnlated Tiberius Gracchus to revive the Licinian 
law, which prohibited any individual from holding 
more than 600 jugera, at about 260 acres of land ; 
and would, consequently, compel the owners to relin- 
quish aU the surplus to the use of the pubhc ; hot 
Gracchus proposed that the owners should be paid the 
value of the lands relinquished. The law, however, 
did not operate to any great extent, and, after having 
cost the Gracchi their lives, waa by degree* rendered 
wholly inoperative. After this period, various other 
Agrarian laws were attempted, and with various suc- 
cess, according to the nature of their provisions end 
the temper of the times in which they were proposed. 
One of the most remarkable wss that of RuUue, which, 
gave occasion to the celebrated oration against him by 
Cicero, who prevailed upon the people to reject the 
law. — From a careful consideration of these laws, and 
the others of the same kind, on which we have no* 
commented, it is apparent that the whole object of the 
Roman agrarian laws was, the lands belonging to the 
state, the public lands or national domains, which, aa 
already observed, were acquired by conquest or treaty, 
and, we may add also, by confiscations or direct sei- 
zures of private estates by different factions, either for 
lawful or unlawful causes ; of the last of which we 
have a well-known example in the time of SyUa'a pro- 
scriptions. The lands thus claimed by the public be- 
came naturally a subject of extensive speculation with 
the wealthy capitalists, both among the nobles and 
other classes. In our own times, we have seen, da- 
ring the revolution in France, the confiscation of die 
lands- belonging to the clergy, the nobility, and emi- 
grants, lead to similar results. The sales and pur- 
chases of lands by virtue of the agrarian laws of Rome, 
under the various complicated circumstances which 
must ever exist in such es se s, and the attempts by Use 
government to resume or regraat such ss bad been 
sold, whether by right or by wrong, especially after a 
purchaser had been long in possession, under a title 



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which he ssnpoaed the existhtg km give him, nat- 
■rsiry occasioned gnat beat ami agitation ; the sub- 
ject VLmeAi bemg mtrineicaUy one of great difficulty, 
erven when the paaaion* and interests of the partita 
oenccmed would permit a calm and deliberate axsm- 
hnation of their raapectire rights. — From the commit- 
(aooa which ososUy attended the proposal of agrarian 
laws, and from a want of exact attention to their tree 
object, there haa been a general impression, among 
reader! of tag Roman history, that thoae hma were at- 
ways a direct and violent infringement ef the righu of 
private properly. Even aoch men, it haa. been ob- 
oa md . aa Machiavelli, Montesquieu, and Adam Smith, 
here shared m this eaucooeeptioa of tbem. This er- 
soneous opinion, however, has lately been exposed by 
the genius and learning of Niebobr in his Roman his- 
tory above mc niioa o d, a work which may be said to 
aaahe aa en in that department ef learning, and in 
which he haa clearly shewn that the original and pro- 
fessed object of the agrarian laws waa the dwlribution 
of the fniiic binds only, and not thoae of private ciu- 
aans. Of the Ucxaiaa law, enacted about 876 B.C., 
on which all sabeeaoeot agrsjian laws were modelled, 
Niebuhr enomemtes the following as among the chief 
provisoes : 1. The limits of the public land shall be 
accurately denned. Portions of it, which have been 
encroached on by individuals, shall be restored to the 
state. S. Every estate in the public land, not greater 
than this lew alarm, which has not been acquired by 
violence or fond, and which is not on lease, shall be 
good against any third person. 3. Every Roman cit- 
hnm shaU ho competent to occupy a portion of newfy- 
aeeuired public land, within the limits prescribed by 
tins ks, provided this land bo not divided by law 
'among the ritrrans, nor granted to a colony. 4. No 
mat snail occupy of the public laad more than five 
bandied jugera, nor pasture on the public commons 
snare than a hundred bead af large, nor more than five 
ejoadred head of email, stock. 5. Those who occupy 
the pobbc bod ahaH pay to the sute the tithe of the 
produce of the field, the fifth of the produce of the 
tron-tree and the vineyard, and for every bead of large 
Heck, and for every head of small stock yearly- 6. 
The public lands shall be farmed by the censors to 
those willing to take them on thess terms. The funds 
hence arising are to be applied to pay the army. — The 
tangoing were the moat important permanent provis- 
ions of the Licinhra Ian, and, for rut immediate effect, 
it provided that sH the public land occupied by indi- 
vijaala, over five hundred jugero, shea Id be divided 
by lot in portions of seven jngerm to the plebeians. — 
Bat we moot not hastily infer, as some readers of 
Nieoohr's works have done, that thess agrarian laws 
did not in any manner violate private rights. This 
would be quite aa far from the troth as the prevailing 
already merit tooed, which is now exploded, 
i the argument we might derive from the very 
: of the case, we have the direct testimony of 
> to die injustice of such laws, and their 
violation of private rights It will suffice to refer to 
that of Cicero alone, who says in bis Dt O/Sdu (S, SI), 
"Those men who wish to make thenuelves popular, 
axel who, for that purpose, either attempt agrarian 
laws, in order to drive people from their possessions, 
or who —•"»«»»» that creditors ought to forgive debt- 
am what they owe, undermine the foundations of the 
slate ; they deatnsy all concord, which cannot exist 
when mosey » taken from one msn to be given to 
under; ami they net aside justice, which is always 
mcMee* woes every aasn ie not suffered to retain 
ami is aw own;" which reactions would mot have 
on aOed forth, untea* ■""« » question had di- 
noW nhrin/r T-mmterf p™raU ngnte. (fisraefs- 
p. 100, teqq.) 
slebrated at Athens m ht 



ess of Minerva. The Cyprians also oonoursd her 
with an annual festival, m the month Aphrodisiac, at 
which they offered human victims. (Rotnwtm't An 
faysnrie* of GrtKt, U ml, p. S76.) 

Aoaivtos, I. the daughter of Actaus, king of At- 
tics, and the wife of Cecrops. She became by him the 
moiher ef Erysichthon, Amnios, Hem, and Pandro- 
II. A daughter of Cecrops and Agraulos, and 
r of Akappe by Mars. ( Ftd. Supplement.) 
Aeeaaraotf, a Greek grsmmtrian mentioned by Soi- 
daa (a. v. 'AirsAfciwior). He wrote a work, Htpi 'Oft- 
uvt)nto> (amctrning parses* of the same name). He 
cannot have lived earlier than the reign of Hadrian, ss 
in his work be spoke of an Apollonian who lived in the 
lime ef that emp er or. 
Aseaos, the hunter, an epithet of Pen. 
Aeaiinas, I. a annul river of Thrace, naming mat 
the Hebros. It is new the Ergem. — II. A Thrscisn 
dwelling m the vicinity of the river Agrianaa. 
(Mtroi., *, 16.) — III. A people of IUyria, on the fron- 
tiers of lower Mania. They were originally from 
Thrace, and very probably a branch of the Thraeian 
Agrianaa. 

Aobusme, a nation of Ask, mentioned by Quints* 
Curtius (7, 8). Some difference of opiaion, however, 
exists with regard to the true reading in this passage. 
Moat editors prefer J r i m ai sa, while ethers, and evi- 
dently with more correctness, consider Araarset the 
proper lection. (Compers Scknutnkr, ad Quint. Cart, 
2. e., and aid. Arisspw ) 

Aeaio&LA, Cnews Julius, an eminent Roman com- 
mander, born A D. 40, in the reign of Caligula, by 
whom his father Julius Gmchms was put to death for 
nobly refusing to plead against Marcus Silanos. His 
mother, to whom he owed his axrsllsnt education, waa 
Julia Procilla, unhappily ur m deie d on her estate in 
Liguria by a descent of freebooters from the piratical 
fleet ef Ovho. The first military service of Agrieola 
waa under Santonins Paulinas in Britain ; and, on his 
return to Rome, be married a lady of rank, and was 
msde q nne t or in Asia, where, hi a rich province, pe- 
culiarly open to official exactions, he maintained the 
strictest integrity. He waa chosen tribune of the 
people, and piaster, under Nero, and, unhappily, in 
the co m motion which followed the a cce ssion of Osaka, 
lost bis mother aa above mentioned. By Vespasian, 
whose cause he espoused, he was made • patrician, 
and governor of Aquilania, winch post he held for 
three years. The dignity of consul followed, and in 
the usee ysar he married his daughter to tks historian 
Tacitus. He was soon afterward msde governor of 
Britain, where he subjugated the Oi donees, in North 
Walet, and red seed the island of Mens, or AngUtm. 
He adopted the most wise and generous plana for civ- 



ilians; the Britons, by inducing the nobles to 
ie Roman habit, and have their children in 



the 

the Letts language. He also gradually 
country with magnificent templea, porticoes, bathe, 
and pealie edifices, of a nature to excite the admira- 
tion and emulation of the rude people whom he gov- 
erned. With these ceres, however, be indulged the 



instructed in 
adorned the 



usual ambition of a Roman c om m ander, w add to the 

limits of the Roman territory, by extending hie ansa 
northward; and In thai succeeding three years he 
passed the river Tueeis, or Tweed, subdued the coun- 
try as far aa the Frith of Tav, and erected a chain of 
protective fortresses from the Clots, or Chid*, to the 
Bederia ASstiwrium, or Frith of Forth. He also sta- 
tioned troops on the coast of Scotland opposite to Ire- 
land, on which inland he entertained views of con- 
quest ; and, in aa expedition to the eastern part of 
Scotland, beyond the Frith of Forth, was accompanied 
by his fleet, which explored the inlets and harbours, 
and hemmed in the nativea on every aide. His seventh 
summer was passed in the same parte of Scotland, and 
the Grampian Hills became the scans ef a decisive sa- 

87 



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AGRIPPA. 



gagement with the Caledonians under their moat able 
wader Galgacua. The latter made a noble stand, but 
was at last obliged to yield to Roman valour and dis- 
cipline ; and, having taken hostages, Agricola gradual- 
ly withdrew his forces into the Roman limits. In the 
mean time, Domitian had succeeded to the empire, to 
whose mean and jealous nature the brilliant character 
and successes of Agricola gave secret uneasiness. 
Artfully spreading a rumour that he intended to make 
the latter governor of Syria, he recalled him, received 
him coldly, and allowed him to descend into private 
life. The jealousy of the tyrant still pursued him ; 
and as, after he had been induced to resign his pre- 
tension to the proconaulship of Asia or Africa, be was 
soon seized with an illness of which he died, Domi- 
tian, possibly without reason, has been suspected of a 
recourse to poison. Agricola died A.D. 93, in his 
fifty-fourth year, leaving a widow, and one daughter, 
the wife of Tacitus. It is this historian who baa so 
admirably written his life, and preserved his high char- 
acter for the respect of posterity. {Toe., Kit. Agra.) 

Agbigentcm, a celebrated city of Sicily, about three 
miles from the southern coast, in what is now called 
the valley of Mantra. The Greek form of the name 
was J crag at fAitoayac), derived from that of a small 
stream in the neighbourhood. The primitive name 
was Camicus, or, to speak more correctly, this waa the 
appellation of an old city of the Sicani, situate on the 
summit of a mountain, which afterward was regarded 
merely as the citadel of Agrigentum. The founding 
of Camicus is ascribed to Dedalua, who is said to have 
built it, after his flight from Crete, for the Sicartian 
prince, Cocalus. In the first year of the 66th Olym- 
piad, 666 B.C., a colony waa sent from Oela to this 
quarter, which founded Agrigentum, on a neighbour- 
ing height, to the southeast. Its situation wss, indeed, 
peculiarly strong and imposing, standing as it did on a 
bare and precipitous rock, 1100 feet above the level of 
the sea. To wis advantage the city added others of 
a commercial nature, being near to the sea, which af- 
forded the means of an easy intercourse with the ports 
of Africa and the south of Europe. The adjacent coun- 
try, moreover, was very fertile. From the combined 
operation of all these causes, Agrigentum soon became 
a wealthy and powerful city, and waa considered in- 
ferior to Syracuse alone. According to Diodorus Sic- 
nlus (13, 81, teqq.), it drew on itself the enmity of the 
Carthaginians (406 B.C.), by refusing to embrace their 
alliance, or even to remain neutral. It was according- 
ly besieged by their generals Hannibal and Hamilcar. 
The former, with many of his troops, died of a pestilential 
disorder, derived from the putrid effluvia of the tombs, 
which were opened and destroyed for the sake of the 
atone. But, from want of timely assistance and scar- 
city of provisions, the Agrigentines- were obliged to 
abandon their city, and fly for protection to Gela, 
whence they were transferred to the city of the Leon- 
tines, which was allotted to them by the republic of 
Syracuse. The conqueror Hamilcar despoiled Agri- 
gentum of all its riches, valuable pictures, and statues. 
Among the trophies sent to Carthage was the celebra- 
ted bull of Phalaris, which, two hundred and sixty years 
afterward, on the destruction of Carthage, was restored 
to the Agrigentines by Scipio. At a subsequent pe- 
riod, when a general peace had taken place OI. 96, 1. 
{Diod. Sic., 14, 78), we find the Argentines return- 
ing to their native city ; though, from a passage in Di- 
odorus (18, 1 13),it would seem that the place had not 
been entirely destroyed by the foe, and that many of 
its previous inhabitants might have come back at an 
earlier date. (01. 99, 4.) Agrigentum soon recover- 
ed its importance, but the tyranny of Phintias having 
induced the inhabitant* to call in the aid of Carthage, 
the city once more fell under that power. Not long 
after, it revolted to Pvrrhus {Diod. Sic., 22, exe., 14), 
but, on his departure from the island, waa compelled to 



return to its former masters. On the commencement of 
the Punic wars, Agrigentum was one of the most impor- 
tant strongholds which the Carthaginians possessed in 
the island. It suffered severely during these conflicts, 
being alternately in the hands of either party (Diod. 
Sic., S3, l.—Polyb., 1, 17, teqq — Diod. Sic, 23, 9. 
— Id., S3, 14), but it eventually fell under the Roman 
power, and, notwithstanding its losses, continued for 
a long period a flourishing place, though it is supposed 
to have been confined, after it came permanently un- 
der the Romans, to the limits of the ancient Camicus, 
with which the modem Gvrgcnti nearly corresponds. 
Diodorus-statea the population, in its best days, to have 
been not less than 130,000 persons, (itamurt, 9, pt. 
S, p. 863, teqq. — Hoare't domical Tour, vol. 3, p. 
90, teqq.) 

AeaioNU, annual festivals in honour of Bacchus, 
generally celebrated in the night. They were insti- 
tuted, aa some suppose, because the god was attended 
with wild beasts. The appellation, however, should 
rather be viewed as referring back to an early period, 
when human sacrifices were offered to Bacchus. 
Hence the terms 'Opt/a-tyc and 'kyptCniioc applied to 
this deity. (CrenzerV Swmbolik, vol. 3, p. 334.) 
Plutarch even speaks of a human sacrifice to this god 
as late as the days of Themistocles (Kit., 13), when 
three Persian prisoners were offered up by him to Bac- 
chus, at the instigation of the diviner Eurantides. The 
same writer elsewhere (VU. A *(.,S4) uses both 'Qme- 
t>ic and 'kyptoinoc, in speaking of Bacchus ; whete 
Reiske, without any necessity, proposes 'AypiuTuot 
(from iXXv/u) as an emendation. — In celebrating this 
festival, the Grecian women, being assembled, sought 
eagerly for Bacchus, who, they protended, had fled 
from them ; but, finding their labour ineffectual, they 
said that he bad retired to the Muses and concealed 
himself among them. The ceremony being thus end- 
ed, they regaled themselves with an entertainment. 
(Plut., Sympot , 8, 1.) Has this a figurative reference 
to the suspension of human sacrifices, snd the conse- 
quent introduction of a milder form of worship 1 Cae- 
tellanns, however (Syntagm. de FeatU Grocer., *. v. 
Agrienia), makes the festival in question to have been 
a general symbol of the progress of civilization and re- 
finement. (Compare Rolle, Recherche* tur le Culte de 
Bacchtu, vol. 3, p. 361.) 

Aobippa ('Aypimrac), 1. a skeptical philosopher, only 
known to have lived later than JSnesidemus, the con- 
temporary of Cicero, from whom be is ssid to hive 
been the fifth in descent. He is quoted by Diogenes 
Lsertius, who probably wrote about the time of m! An- 
toninus. The " five grounds of doubt" (ol irevrt too- 
mi), which are given by Sextos Empirical as s sum- 
mary of the later skepticism, are ascribed by Diogenei 
Lsertius (9, 88) to Agripps. 

1. The first of these argues from the uncertainty of 
the rulea of common life, and of the opinions of philos- 
ophers. 8. The second from the " rejectio sd infini- 
tum :" all proof requires some farther proof, snd so on 
to infinity. 3. All things are changed as their rela- 
tions become changed, or as we look upon them in dif- 
ferent points of view. 4. The truth asserted is merely 
sn hypothesis ; or, 5. Involves s vicious circle. (So- 
lus Empirical, Pyrrhon. Hypot., 1, IS.) 

With reference to these xivrt rpotrot, it need only 
be remarked, that the first snd third are a short summa- 
ry of the ten original grounds of doubt which were the 
basis of the earlier skepticism. The three additions! 
ones show a progress in the skeptical system, snd a 
transition from the common objections derived from the 
fallibility of sense and opinion, to more abstract and met- 
aphysical grounds of doubt. They seem to mark s new 
attempt to systematize the skeptics! philosophy, and 
adapt it to the spirit of a later age. (Killer, GeickickU 
der PhUoBopMe, 13, 4.) — II. M. Asiniaa, consul A.D. 
36, died A.D. 36, waa descended horn a family nun 



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AGRIPPA. 



AGRIPPA. 



i than ancient, and did not disgrace it by hit 
i of life. (Tee., Aim., 4, 34, 61.)— Ill Agrippa 
Castor, about A.D. 135, praised aa an historian by Eu- 
sebias, and for his learning by St. Jerome (as Vint Ii- 
huttr., c. SI), lived in the reign of Hadrian. He wrote 
against the twenty-four books of the Alexandrian Gnos- 
tic, Baaaiidee, on the Gospel. Quotations are made 
from his work by Eusebius. (Hist. Eccles., 4, 7. — 
See GolUmdfM BMiotktee Potrum, <iol. 1, p. 330.)— 

IV. Foatsios, one of the accusers of Libo, A.D. 16, 
is again mentioned in A.D. 19, aa offering his daugh- 
ter for a vestal virgin. (Tec, Am., 8, 30, 86.)— 

V. Probably the son of the preceding, commanded the 
province of Asia with proconsular power, A.D. 69, and 
was recalled from thence by Vespasian, and placed 

i A.D. 70. He was shortly afterward 
battle by the Sannatians. (Tae., Hut., 8, 
46 — fottfk., B. Jud., 7, 4,43.)— VI. Herodes I. 
CHpuAsr •Aypbrwee), called by Josephus (Ant. Jud., 
17, 2, 6 3) •* Agrippa the Great," was the son of Aris- 
toboloa and Berenice, and grsndson of Herod the Great. 
Shortly before the death of his grandfather be eame 
to Rome, where he was educated with the future em- 
; Curadroe, and Dmaoa, the son of Tiberius.- He 
Us property in giving sumptuous enter- 
t to gratify his princely friends, and in bestow- 
ing largesses on the freed men of the emperor, end be- 
came so deeply involved in debt that he waa compelled 
to fry from Rome, sod betook himself to a fortress at 
If abuse in Idnmaa. Through the mediation of bis 
wife Cypres, with his sister Herodiss, the wife of He- 
rodes Aoupes, be wss allowed to take up his abode at 
Tax-rise, and received the rank of asdile in that city, 
with a small yearly income. But, having quarrelled 
with Ins brother-in-law, be fled to Flaccua, the pro- 
consul of Syria. Soon afterward he was convicted, 
though the information of his brother Aristobulos, of 
received a bribe from the Damascenes, who 
to purchase his influence with the proconsul, 
and was again compelled to fly. He waa arrested, as 
as was snoot to sail for Italy, for s asm of money 
which he owed to the treasury of Casar, bat made his 
, and reached Alexandres, where his wife sue- 
to procuring s supply of money from Alexan- 
der the Alabarch. He then set sail, and landed at Pu- 
lejioli. He was fsvomably received by Tiberius, who 
intrusted him with the education of his grandson, Ti- 
berias. He also formed an intimacy with Cains Ca- 
ligula. Having one day incautiously expressed a wish 
•net lbs latter might soon succeed to the throne, his 
' i were reported by his freedman Eutychus to Ti- 
, who forthwith threw him into prison. Calig- 
tUa, oa his se ces s i on (A.D. 37), set him at liberty, and 
waive nan the tetrarchies of Lysariiaa (Abilene) and 
Pfubppos. (Betamea, Trachonitis, and Aoranitis). He 
also presented him with a golden chain of equal weight 
with the iron one winch he bad worn in prison. In 
the following year Agrippa took possession of his king- 
dom, sad, after the banishment of Herodes Antipas, the 
tetrarchy of the latter waa added to his dominions. 

On the death of Caligula, Agrippa, who waa at the 
tine in Rome, materially assisted Claudius tn gaining 
ptiasiniiin of the empire. As s reward for bis servi- 
ces, Jodaw sod Samaria were annexed to bis domin- 
ions, which were now even more extensive then those 
of Herod toe Great. He was also invested with the 
eaesalsr dignity, and s league wss publicly made 
with him by Claudia* in the forum. At bis request, 
the kingdom of Chalets waa given to his brother He- 
nries (A.D. 41). He then went to Jerusalem, where 
bt aBatd sacrifices, and suspended in the treasury of 
the lemon the golden chain which Caligula bad giv- 
es lis government wme mild and gentle and 
it wu tueediady poposex among the Jew. In the 

Zt JporScoem. The ao-jaeKMS of CUud.ua pre- 



vented him from finishing the impregnable fortifications 
with which he had begun to surround Jerusalem. His 
frietidahip was courted by many of the neighbouring 
kings and rulers. It was probably to increase bis pop- 
ularity with the Jews that he caused the apostle James, 
the brother of John, to be beheaded, and Peter to be 
cast into prison (A.D. 44. — Aetr, It.) It waa not, 
however, merely by such acts that he strove to win 
their favour, as ws see from the way in which, at the 
risk of hfa own life, or, at least, of his liberty, he in- 
terceded with Caligula on behalf of the Jews, when 
that emperor was attempting to set np his. statue in the 
Temple at Jerusalem. The manner of his death, which 
took plate at Cessna in the same year, as he was ex- 
hibiting games in honour of the emperor, is related in 
Acts, IS, and is confirmed in all essential points by 
Josephus, who repeats Agrippa'a words, in which be 
acknowledged the justice of the punishment thus in- 
flicted en him. After lingering five days, he expired, 



in the fifty-fourth year of his sge. 

By his wife Cypres be had a son named Agrippa, 
and three daughters, Berenice, who first married her 
uncle Herodes, king of Cbalcis, afterward lived with 
her brother Agrippa, and subsequently married Pola- 
mo, king of Cificia ; she is alluded to by Juvenal (Set., 
6, 156); Mariamne and Droailla, who married Felix, 
the procurator of Judam. (Joseph., Ant. Jud., 17, 1, 
4 3; 18, 5-3; 10, 4-8.^BeH. Jiti., 1, 38, 4 1 ; 8, 
9, U.— Dion Cot*., 60, 8.— Euseb., Hut. Eccles., 
3, 10.) — VII. Herodes II., the son of Agrippa I., was 
educated at the court of the Emperor Claudius, and at 
the' time of bis father's death was only seventeen years 
old. Claudius, therefore, kept him at Rome, and sent 
Cuspius Fadns as procurator of the kingdom, which 
thus again became a Roman province. On the death 
of Herodes, king of Chslcis (A.D. 48), bis little prin- 
cipality, with the right of superintending the Temple 
and appointing the high- priest, wss given to Agrippa, 
who four years afterward received in its stead the te- 
trarchies formerly held by Philip and Lyssnias, with 
the title of king. In A.D: 66, Nero added the cities 
of Tiberias and Tsrichew in Gslilee, and Julias, with 
fourteen villages near it, in Persia. Agrippa expend- 
ed large sums in beautifying Jerusalem and other cit- 
ies, especially Berytus. His partiality for the latter 
rendered him unpopular among his own subjects, and 
the capricious manner in which he appointed and de- 
posed the high-priests, with some other acta which 
were distasteful, msde him an object of dislike to the 
Jews. Before the outbreak of the war with the Ro- 
mans, Agrippa attempted in vain to dissusde the peo- 
ple from rebelling. When the war was begun be si- 
ded with the Romans, and was wounded st the siege 
of Gamala. After the capture of Jerusalem, he went 
with his' sister Berenice to Rome, where he wss in- 
vested with the dignity of prctor. He died in -the 
seventieth yesr of his age. in the third year of the reign 
of Trajan. He was the last prince of the bouse of the 
Herods. It wss before this Agrippa that the apostle 
Paul made bis defence (A.D. 60 — Act; 36, 86.) He 
lived on terms of intimacy with the historian Josephus, 
who has preserved two of the letters be received from 
him. (Joseph., Ant. Jus!., 17, 6, 4 4 ; 19, 9, 6 2 ; 36, 
1,63,5; 69,7; 4 1,8; Hand 11,9, 64— Bell Jud., 
3, 11. $ 6, 18; 4. 1, 19, 17; 4 1, 4, 1 ; 6 8.— Fit, a. 
54 — Phot., Cod., 38.)— VIII. Menentus. (Ftd. Me- 
nenius.) — IX. PosuVSmus, a posthumous son of M. 
Vipsanius Agrippa, by Julia, the daughter of Augustus, 
waa born in B.C. IS. He was adopted by Augustus, 
together with Tiberius, in A.D. 4, and be assumed the 
toga virilis in the following year, A.D. 6. (Suet., Oc- 
tet., 64, 65.— Dion Cots., liv. 89, 55, 33. ) Notwith- 
standing his adoption, he was afterward banished by 
Augustus to the island of Planasia, on the coaat of 
Corsica : a disgrace which he incurred on account of his 
savage and intractable character, but be was not guilty 

89 



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AGRIPPA. 



of any crime. Then he mi under the snrveiUenee 
of soldiers, and Augustus obtained a eenatu* consultum, 
by which he bsniehment wee legally confirmed for tbe 
Umo of rus life. The property of A grippe was assign- 
ed by Augustus to the tressury of tbe army. It js mid 



that during his captivity he received tbe visit of A» 
gustus, who secretly went to Planasia, accompanied by 
Fabius Maxirnua. Augustus and Agrippa, both deep- 



ly affected, shed tears when they met, and it wae be- 
lieved that Agrippa would he restored to liberty. Bet 
the news of this visit reached Livia, tbe mother of Ti- 
berius, and Agrippa remained a captive. After the ac- 
cession of Tiberius, in A D. 14, Agrippa was murder- 
ed by a centurion, who entered bis prison and killed 
kirn after a long struggle, for Agrippa was a man of 
great bodily strength. When the centurion afterward 
went to Tiberius to give him an account of the execa- 
tion, the emperor denied having given any order for it, 
and it is very probable that Livut was the secret »o- 
thor of the crime. There was a rumour that Augus- 
tus bad left an order for tbe execution of Agrippa, but 
this is positively contradicted by Tacitus. (Toe-, Ann*, 
I, 3-8.— Dion Cnw., 56, 82 ; 67, 3.— Suet., I c, 
Tii^ f3.—rdU, 3, 104, 113.) 

After the death of Agrippa, a slave of tbe name of 
Clemens, who was not informed of the murder, leaded 
on Planasia with the intention of restoring Agrippa to 
liberty and carrying him off to the army in Germany. 
When he beard of what had taken place, he tried to 
profit by his great resemblance to tbe murdered, cap- 
tive, and he geve himself oat as Agrippa. He landed 
at Qetia, and found many who believed him, or effect- 
ed to believe mm, bat he wae seised and put to death 
by order of Tiberius. (Toe, Ann., 3, 39, 40.) 

Tbe name of Agrippa Cesar is found oa a medal of 
Corinth.— IX. M. Vipeenlus, was born in B G. 63. 
He was the son of Lucius, and was descended from a 
very obscure family. At tbe age of twenty be studied 
at Apollonia in Illyria, together with young Octaiius, 
afterward Octavianu* and Augustus. After the mur- 
der of J. Cawer in B.C. 44, Agrippa was one of those 
intimate friends of Octaviua who advised him to pro- 
ceed immediately to Rome. Qctavius took Agrippa 
with him, and charged him to receive the oath of fidel- 
ity from several legions which bad declared in his fa- 
vour. Having been chosen consul in B.C. 43, Octa- 
vias gave to his friend Agrippa the delicate commit- 
awn of prosecuting C. Caseius, one of the murderers 
of J. Caasr. At the outbreak ef the Peruainian war 
between, Octaviua, now Octavisaus, and L. Antooios, 
is. B.C. 41, Agrippa, who was then pmtor, command- 
er 1 pert of the forces of Octavianus, and, after distin- 
guishing him serf by skilful maacBuvree, besieged L. An- 
tonius in Perusia. He took tbe town m B.C. 40, and 
towards the end of the same year retook Sipootum, 
which had fallen into the hands of M. Astasias. In 
B.C. 8a, Agrippa obtained fresh success in Gaul, where 
be quelled a revolt of the native chiefs', he also pens- 
traied into Gearoeny as far as the country ef the Catti, 
aad trans plan ted the Uhii to tbe left bank of the Rhine ; 
whereupon he turned hie arms against the revoked' 
Aoukeni, whom be. soon brought to obedience. Hie 
victories, especially those in A outturns, eeotribated 
ranch to securing tbe power of Octavierms, and be 
was recalled by him to undertake the command of the 
war against Sextos Pomaeioa, which was on the paint 
of breaking out, B.C. 37. Octavianus offered biro a 
triumph, which Agrippa declined, but. accepted the 
consulship, to which be was promoted by Octavianus 
id B.C. 37. Dion Caastus (48. 49) seems to say that 
ha was consul when he went to Gaul, bet the words 
tVdrror ii awre> Aovkwv TaMerv seem to be suspi- 
cious, unless they sre to be inserted a little higher, 
after tbe passage ry «F 'Ay/jMrwo rifv roi vovrutov nap- 
aneuhv tyx fl pi<"*C, which refer to an event that took 
place during the consulship of Agrippa. For, 
90 



diately after hie promotion to this dignity, he was char 
ged by Oeiaviarms with the construction of a ttsst, 
which was the more necessary, as Sextos Pompsy wu 
master ef tbe see. 

Agrippa, in whom thoughts and deeds were never 
separated (VtU»., 3, 79), executed this order with 
prompt energy. The Uterine Lake, near Bain, was 
transformed by him into a safe barbear, which he catt- 
ed the Julian port in honour of Octavianus, aad where 
he exercised his tailors aad mariners till they were skit 
to encoaater tbe experienced sailors of Pompey. In 
B.C. 80, Agrippa defeated Sextue Pompey fust et 
oCyke, end afterward at Naulocbus en the coast of Si- 
cily, and tbe latter ef these victories broke the naval 
supremacy of Pompey. He received, in rwaaaqnenes. 
the honour ef a naval crown, which was first conferred 
anon him ; though, according to other authorities, at 
Verro was the fust who obtained it ftom Pompey the 
Great. (Falte., 3, 81— Lis., EpU^ 139.— Dim 
Cur, 49, 14.— P/w, H. if., 10, 3, a. 4.— Vtrg., 
JBn , 9, 684.) 

InB.C. 86, Agrippa had the cameaand of the war in 
Illyria, and afterward served under Octaviamrs, when 
the latter bad proceeded t» that country. On his re- 
tarn, be voluntarily accepted tbe ajdileship in B.C. 38, 
although he had been consul, aad ezpeaded immense 
sums of money upon great public works. He restored 
the Appiaa, Martian, and Anienian aouedaets, con- 
atraoted a new one, fifteen miles in length, from the 
Tepala to Rome, to which -he gave the name of the 
Janan, ia honour of Octaviaaus, and had an immense 
number of smaller water-works made, to distribute the 
water within the town. He also had the large cloaca 
of Taroainiue Prisons entirely cleansed. His veriest 
works were adorned with statue* by tbe first artists ef 
Rome. These splendid buildings be augmented ia 
B.C. 37, during ha third consulship, by seven] others ; 
and among these wee tbe Pantheon, on which we still 
read the inscription, " M. Agrippa, L. F. Cos. Terb- 
um fee*." (Die* Com., 4*. 43; 63, 37 — Pun., H. 

36, 15, e. 34, 4 3.— Stni., 8, p. W6.-rFr<mtm , 
Dt Aputd.. ft.) 

When the war broke out between Octarienas and 
M- Antoaius, Agrippa was appointed commander-in- 
chief of the fleet, B.C. 33, He took'Methooe in the 
Peloponnesus, Leacas, Pains, and Corinth ; and in the 
battle of Actiom (B.C. 81), where he commanded, the 
victory wee mainly owing to hie skill. On his return to 
Rome ia B.C. 30, Octaviaaua, now Augustas, reward- 
ed him with a " vexiUum csroieum," or eon-green nag. 

In B.C. 38, Agrippa became consul for the eecoed 
time with Augustus, and about this time married Mat- 
cella, the niece of August at, aad the daughter of hit 
sister Octavia. Hie former wife, Pornpoaia, die daagb- 
tar of T. PompoBUit Attieus, wae either dead or di- 
vorced. In the following year, B.C. 37. he wee agci 
consul the third time with Aagwatuav 

Ia B-C. 36, Agrippa aoceespaoied Augustas to the 
war against the Canttbrisae. About this time jeal- 
ousy srose between him and hie brat her- to- lew. htm- 
eelms, the nephew of Augustus, and who eeetned to be 
destined as his suet eater. Augustus, anxious to pre- 
vent differences that might have had earione coate- 
qoences for him, seat Agrippa a* proconsul to Syria. 



Agrippa, of course, left Rome, but \m stopped at Myt- 
ilertt « tbe island of Lesbos, leaving; the government 
of Syria to hit legate. The spprehensiorn of Augus- 
tus were removed by the death of Marcellus in B.C 
38, and Agrippa immediately returned to Rome, wham 
he was the more anxiously expected* as troables hau 
broken rat during tbe election of the consuls in B.C. 
31. Augustus resolved to receive hie faithful friend 
into hie own family, and, accordingly, induced him to 
divorce his wife Marcella, aad marry Julia, the widow 
ef Msrcellus and the daughter of Augustus by his torn! 
wife, Scribonia (B.C. 31). 



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AGAIPFEXA. 



Id B.C. 19, Agrippe want iato GtuL Ha 
Ike turbulent natives, and constructed four great puV 
iic made and a splendid aqueduct at Nemtutus (Nl- 
bmJ. Fran thence he proceeded te Spain, and aub- 
doed the Cutabriaoa after a abort but bloody and ob- 
atioate straggle; bat, in accordance with rajs usual 
prudence, be neither aaataunaed bit viotarioa m aom- 
peaa fetters M tee senate, ner did be accept • triumph 
which Augustus offered ben. In B.C. 18, he ana in- 
Mated with the inbaaiciae power fa* five jean togeth- 
er with Augustus ; aod ie> tbe following year (B.C. 
17), ha two sons, Csius and Lucius, wen adopted by 
Augustas. Al the close of the year, be accepted an 
aviuuaa of Herod the Gnat, end weat to Jerusalem. 
He founded tbe mMitsry colony of Barytas (Beyrout) ; 
tbeece he proceeded, is B.C. IS, to the Pentus Euzi- 
am, and compelled tbe Baapanni to accept Polemo 
for their king, and to restore tbe Ramea eagtea which 
had been taken by Mithradates. On his return he May- 
ad some tine is Ionia, when he snnard privileges to 
Ike Jews, whose cause waa pleaded by Herod (Jotepk., 
Aster. Jmd-, IS, 3), and then proceeded to Borne, 
where be aimed in B.C. 13. After his thbunician 
been prolonged for fee yean, he went to 
u> restore tranquillity te that province. He 
retained s» B.C. 13, after having been succeeeful aa 
vnuX, and retired te Campania. Then be died aaex- 
peetedry, in the moth of Marco, B.C. IS, ta hi* Mat 
year. Hie body em carried ta Rome, and w 
ia the n ane o le aai of Augustas, who hianclf 
ced a raaanl oration over it. 

Dice Census tells as (68, 1, Ac.), that ia the year 
B.C. 89 Aogasr.ua assembled his friends and ceuaset 
less, Agrippa. and Maecenas, demanding their oprniea 
n le erheiner it would be adnaabla fsr hin te usurp 
a a najch i ca l po w er, or to restore to the nation its fop- 
ncr repobbcaa government. This is corroborated by 
Sartoniua (Ociav., 88), who says that Augustus twice 
aauhenud aeon that subject The speeches which 
Agnsea and Mceenas delivered on this occasion, are 
ejnen by Dion Cassias ; bat the artificial character of 
neat makes then suspicious. However, it doss net 
asam likely, from the general character of Dion Cas- 
ein as an historian, that these speeches are invented by 
size ; and il is not improbable, and such a i opposition 
sails entirely the character of Augustas, that these 
were really pronounced, though preconcerted 
Augustus aad his eooassjfcm to nuke the 
nation believe that the fate of tbe Republic 
eras am) » scatter ef discission, and that Augustas 

hsSt 




monarchical newer tin he hi 
res necessary for the veeUsn of the 
Agrippe, who, aocording to Dion 
advised Augustus to re stare the Republic, 
whose political opinions had evidently a 
1 tendency. 

Agrippa was one of the moat distinguished and ka- 
nen ef the age ef Augustus. Ha avast be con- 
si a chief snpport of the rising asonarebical oon- 
_ j aad without Agrippe Aogastus could scarce- 
tf have succeeded in auxins himself tbe absolute mat- 
tear of thn Roasaa Suopire. Dion Casaiaa (64, 99, ete-X 
Vcslnswa Pelsvcalns (i, T9X Saoeca (Em , 94), aad 
Hoasea (ChL, 1, 8) speak. with equal adaanliea of hu 

Pliny constantly refers to the " Oosomentsrii" of 
Agiifaja as an aaliwriiy (Elexctuu, 3, 4, 9, 6, cosap. 
K *), which may im*-?'- certaia eft i al lists drawn 
B) wy hin in the neasnrenent ef the Roman world 
aaaer Augustus fsssf. JSthicm\ in which be may have 
■dam pan. 

Agnppe wit several children. By his first wife, 
Pvsepenn. he has} Vinsania, who waa married to Tibe- 
nos Cawr. Ae succ e s s o r of Aogastus. By his sec 
sraj sat, H.mtlU. be bad several children, who are 
W ara^T ««« by *** tbi ™ wife ' JqU *> U 



tm daughters, Julia, married te L. <£mifius PsuDus, 
aad Agrippina, named to Germaaicua, and these sons, 
Caius (aid. Cwaar, C), Lucius (aid. Cnaar, h.\ aad 
Aaeirse Possum as. (Dim Cass , he. 46-04.— Lim, 
Efit., 117-136.— A-ffum, BtU. dr., lib. 6.— Snat, 
Qctao.—JPnmdttn, M Ksaeennw A g ' i is p a , sis* fetrs- 
rittkt Untt m clmng ibtr aVsant Ltbtn and Wvrkm, 
Ahoaa, 1838.) Thaw an severs) medals ef Agrip- 
ps, on one of which he ia represented with a aaval 
crown; an the reverse ie Neptaae indicating his sue- 
cen by sea. 

AonirviBs, I. the youngest daughter ef M. Viaea. 
aiaa Agrippe and of Jalia, the daughter ef Augustus, 
wsa bom aeme line before B.C. 18. She married 
Cans* Gomaaieoa, the sect ef Druaua Nero Gora>ahi- 
cna, by whon she bad ana children. Agrippina war 
" id with great powers of mind, a noble character, 
all the mora) and physical enslitiee that constituted 
sndel ef a Ronaa matron : her kwe far her hus- 
band waa siacete and huting, her chaatity was spot- 
less, her nrtilily waa a virtue in the eyes of the Ro- 
mans, aad her atlaohtraaat h> her ciuMrss waa an eanV 
nent fntun ef bar ch an o tea. She yielded to one daa- 
gemus paasioB, sjanitiso. Aagustus showed her pas. 
ticnlef ttteaoea and attaehmanL (aV l ss., CtUg., 8.) 

At the. death of Aagoatae ia A.D. 14, she was an 
tbe Lower Rhine with Genesises », was commanded 
than. Her husband waa the idol ef the 



amy, an 
the accession of 




lagans ont 

al Tiberias, aassnfested their 
ef pros burning Geaaauneua mastar ef tbe abate. TV- 
ben as as tad aad d w adad Qsrisaai rn s, sad be shewed 
aa much antipathy U> Agrippina aa be had love te her 
V hie first wife. In this peril 
and Agrippina saved rbenssWee by I 
prompt energy ; be swatted the oatbnak, and panned 
tbe war sgairiat the Gstmaas. In the ensuing year Ins 
lies tenant, Castas, aftar hsrjag made an invasion into 
Germany, nturaed to the Rhine. The campaign was 
not mgferfarae for the Ramans, hat they, were wan 
oat by hardships, and, perhaps, harassed on their latath 
by^ bo ate bends of Germans. Thai the nun our waa 
spread that the aaaht body of tbe Gsrmaas was ap> 
pro aching to invade Gaul. Gssmanhtua waa abeaat, 
and it wen proposed te destray tbe Bridge over the 
Rhine. (Campers Strain 4, p. 1M.) If this had 
bean done, tbe retnat of Oasclna'a army would has* 
been cat off, bet il waa mead by the firm oesssHtna 

aattag aa • 
as aa tbev crossed it ; 
among tbsm wan pt es an tev) by her with 
clothes, aad they arcaiired from fat own hoods evsry- 
tasag aatanary fsr Ike enre of ihed wsswde. (Tee., 
Asm., I, 8B.) GersjsajcDs bcrieg been reeahed bv 
Tiberiua, ana aceemaanied her husband to Aak (AD. 
17X sad after bis death, er, nther, mower (wii Gee- 
maaicoaX the returned ka Bary. She amyad some 
daye at Use iahunl of Coroyn to neeser frora, her grief, 
and then landed at Bruadisiuin, Msaaannied by Ian) 
of her children, and hekSag m hat auaa tbe urn with 
the ashes ef her noshsnd. At the news ef her arnvai 
the part, the walls, end even the roots ef the houew 
were occupied by crowds of people who wen aasJoaa 
te aw aad salute Bet. She waa solemnly received by 
the offices) of two pnstorisn cahensv which Tiberias 
had sent te Brundisien fne the purpose of aecompeny- 
fog her to Reese ; the urn contain ins; tbe sshes of Ger- 
maaicm ww hasnw by triasnes and ceatartons, and the 
funeral peocenioa was reeesved en its aaanh by the 
angiatratn ef CsUkris, Apaba, and Ganpaaia; by 
Druaus, the see of Tiberiua; Claudius, the broths* of 
Gsnaaaicus ; av the other children of Geraaokua • 
and, at last, in tbe environs of Roam, by the eeaa^li. 
the senate, and crowds of the Ronaa peenle. (Tar 
Am., \ \, Ac.) 



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AGRIPPINA. 



During some yean Tiberiue disguised fats hatred of 
Agrippina, but she soon became exposed to secret ac- 
cusations and intrigues. She asked the emperor's per- 
mission to choose another husband, but Tiberius nei- 
ther refused nor consented to the proposition. Seja- 
nus, who exercised an unbounded influence over Ti- 
oerius, then a prey to mental disorders, persuaded 
Agrippina that the emperor intended to poison her. 
Alarmed at such a report, she refused to eat an apple 
which the emperor offered her from his table, and Ti- 
oerius, in his turn, complained of Agrippina regarding 
him as a poisoner. According to Suetonius, all this 
was an intrigue preconcerted between the emperor and 
Sejanus, who, as it seems, had formed the plan of lead- 
ing Agrippina into false steps. Tiberius was extreme- 
ly suspicious of Agrippina, and showed his hostile feel- 
ings by allusive words -or neglectful silence. There 
were no evidences of ambitious plana formed by Agrip- 
pina, but the rumour having- been spread that she would 
fly to the' army, he banished her to the island of Pan- 
dataria (A.D. 80), where her mother, Julia, had died 
in exile. Her sons, Nero and Druaus, were likewise 
banished, and both died an unnatural death. She liv- 
ed three years on that barren island ; at last she refu- 
sed to take any food, and died, most probably, by vol- 
untary starvation. Her death took place precisely two 
years after, and on the aame date, as the murder of Se- 
janus, that is, in A.D. 83. Tacitus and Suetonius tell 
us that Tiberius boasted that he had not strangled her. 
(Sueton., Tit., 63.— Toe., A**., 6, 86.) The sshes 
of Agrippina, and those of her son Nero, were after- 
ward brought to Rome by order of her son, the Em- 
peror Caligula, who struck various medals in honour 
of his mother. In one of these the head of Caligula 
is on one side, and that of his mother on the other. 
The words on each side are respectively, o. cssab. 

AV8. OSS. P.M. TB. POT., and AGRIPPINA. MAT. C. OSS.- 

Ave. SUM. (Toe., Am., 1-6. — Sutton., OcUu., 64 ; 
Ti4., I. c; Calig., I e.—Dim Cast., 67, 6, 6; 58, 
22.)— II. The daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina 
the elder, daughter of M. Vipaanina Agrippa. She was 
born between A D. 13 and 17, at the Oppidum Ubio- 
rum, afterward called, in honour of her, Colonia Agrip- 
pina, now Cologne, and then the headquarters of the 
legions commanded by her father. In A.D. 28, she 
married Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbua, a man not unlike 
her, and whom she lost in A.D. 40. After his death 
ahe married Crispus Paaaienua, who died some years 
afterward ; and ahe was accused of having poisoned 
him, either for the purpose of obtaining bis great for- 
tune, or for some secret motive of much higher impor- 
tance. She was already known for her scandalous 
conduct, for her most perfidious intrigues, and for an 
unbounded ambition. She was accused of having com- 
mitted incest with her own brother, the Emperor Ca- 
ins Caligula, who, under the pretext of having discover- 
ed that she had lived in an adulterous intercourse with 
M. JEmilius Lepidus, the husband of her sister' Drusil- 
la, banished her to the island of Pontia, which was sit- 
uated in the Sinus Syrticus Major, on the coaat of Lib- 
ya. Her sister Drusilla was likewise banished to Pon- 
tia, and it seems that their exile was connected with 
the punishment of Lepidus, who was put to death for 
having conspired against the emperor. Previously to 
her exile, Agrippina waa compcll ad by her brother to 
carry to Rome the ashes of Lepidus. This happened 
in A.D. 39. Agrippina and her sister were released 
in A.D. 41, by their uncle, Claudius, immediately af- 
ter his secession, although his wife, Messalina, waa the 
mortal enemy of Agrippina. Messalina waa put to 
death by order of Claudius in A.D. 48 ; snd in the fol- 
lowing year, A.D. 49, Agrippina succeeded in marry- 
ing the emperor. Claudius was her uncle, but her mar- 
riage was legslized by a senalus consultant, by which 
the marriage of a man with hie brother's .daughter was 
declared valid ; this senatns consultum was afterward 



abrogated by the Emperors Constantine and Constant 
In this intrigue Agrippins displayed the qualities of an 
sccomplished courtesan, snd such waa the influence 
of her charms and sope.ior talents over the old emper- 
or, that, in prejudice of bie own son, Britannicus, he 
adopted Domitius, the son of Agrippina by ber first 
husband, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbua (A.D. 51). Agrip- 
pina was assisted in her secret plsns by Pallas, the per- 
fidious confidant of Claudius. ■ By her intrigues, L 
Junius Silsnus, the husband' of Octavia, the daughter 
of Claudius, was put to death, and in A.D. 63 Octa- 
via was married to young Nero. LoDia Panllina, once 
the rival of Agrippina for the hand of the emperor, wu 
accused of high treason and condemned to death, bat 
ahe put en end to her own life. Domitia Lspida, tbt 
sister of Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, met with a skni 
lar fate. After having thus removed those whose ri 
valship she dreaded, or whose virtues she envied, Agrip- 
pina resolved to get rid of her husband, and to govern 
the empire, through her ascendency over her son Nero, 
his successor. A vague rumour of this reached the 
emperor; in a state of drunkenness, he forgot prudence, 
and talked about punishing his ambitious wife. Hav- 
ing no time to loae, Agrippina, assisted by Locusts and 
Xenophon, a Greek physician, poisoned the old emper- 
or, in A.D. 64, at Sinuesas, a watering-place to which 
he had retired for the sake of his health. Nero waa pro- 
claimed emperor, and presented to the troops by Bur- 
ma, Whom Agrippina bad appointed prefectus prsetorio. 
Narcissus, the nch freedmsa of Clsudius, M. Junius 
Silsnus, proconsul of Asia, the brother of Lucius Junius 
Silsnus, snd a great-grandson of Augustus, lost their 
lives at the instigation of Agrippina, who would have 
augmented the number of her victima but for the op- 
position of Burrus and Seneca, recalled by Agrippina 
from his exile to conduct the education of Nero. 
Meanwhile the young emperor took aome steps to shake 
off the insupportable ascendency of his mother. The 
jealousy of Agrippina rose from her eon's passion foi 
Acte, and, after her, for Poppas, Sabma, the wife of 
M. Salviua Otho. To reconquer his affection, Agrip- 
pina employed, but in vain, most dsring and moat re- 
volting means. She threatened to oppose Britannicus 
ss a rival to the emperor ; but Britannicus waa poi- 
soned by Nero ; and ahe even solicited her son to an 
incestuous intercourse. At last her death was resolv- 
ed upon by Nero, wbo wished to repudiate Octavia 
and marry Poppea, but whose plan was thwarted by 
his mother. Thus petty feminine intrigues became 
the cause of Agrippina's rain. Nero invited her, un- 
der the pretext of a reconciliation, to visit him at Baiae, 
on the coast of Campania. She went thither by see- 
In their conversation hypocrisy was displayed on both 
sides. She left Baie by the same way ; but the Tea- 
sel was so contrived that it was to break to pieces 
when out at sea. It only partly broke,. and Agrippina. 
saved herself by swimming to the shore; her attend- 
ant, Acerroms, wss killed. Agrippina fled to her Tills 
near the Lucrine Lake, and informed her son of hex 
happy escape. Now Nero charged Burrus to murder, 
his mother; bat Burrus declining it, Anicetas, the 
commander of the fleet, who had invented the strata- 
gem of the ship, was compelled by Nero and Burrus tc 
undertake the task. Amcetus went to her villa with 
a chosen band, and his men surprised her in her bed- 
room. "Ventrem fori," she cried out, after ahe wai 
but slightly wounded, and immediately afterward ex 
pired under the blows of a centurion (A J). 60). ( Tae . 
Awn., 14, 8.) It waa told that Nero went to the Tills 
and that be admired the beauty of the dead body of hi 
mother : this waa believed by some, doubted by othei 
(14, 9). Agrippina left commentaries concerning h« 
history and that of ber family, which Tscitns consul 
ed, according to his own statement (lb., 4, 
Compare Pirn., Hist. Nat., 7, 6, a. 8 ; EUnclnta, 
dec.) 



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AGR 



AGR 



There are several medals of Agrippina, which are 
distinguishable from those of her mother by tbe title of 
Augusta, which those of her mother never have. Oo 
some of her medals she is represented with her bos- 
band Claudius, in others with her son Nero. (Toe., 
Ann., Kb. 12, 13, 14 — Dim Cote., lib. 59-61— Su- 
ttm., Claxd, 43, 44; Nero, 6, 6 ) — III. Vipsania, 
daughter of M. Vipsaniua A grippe and Pomponia, the 
daughter of T. Pompooiua Atticus, bis first wife. She 
wis married to Tiberius, afterward emperor, by whom 
the bad Drums. Tiberius was much attached to her, 
sod with great reluctance divorced her when com 
manded by Augustus, that he might marry Julia, the 
daughter of the emperor. She now married. Aainioa 
Gallus, the son of the celebrated Aainius Pollio, and 
bore bim several children. This gave rise to a' feeling 
of hatred m the breast of Tiberias against Aainius, 
which ultimately proved his ruin. (Fid. Asiniua, II.) 
Tbe children of Agrippina by Asinios were, C. Aainius 
Asioios Gallus, Asinios Pollio, consul 



A.U.C. 776, Aainius Agrippa, consul A.U.C. 778, and 
Aainius Celer. Agrippina died A.U.C. 773, and, sc- 
alding to Tacitus (Asm., 3, 19), she was the only one 
of all the children of Agrippa that died a natural death. 
(Tac., Asm., 1, 13 ; 3, 19; 3,76; 4, 1, 34.— Sne- 
tea., Tii., ch_ 7.— Id., Claud., ch. 13.)— IV. Coio- 
m*. also called CoUmia Agrippinennt (Tac., Hist., 
1, 57 ; 4, 65), and on inscriptions Colonm Claudia 
Augusta Agnfptxcxmim, or simply Agrippina, (Amm. 
Marc, 15, 8, ] 1 ), originally tbe chief town of the Ubii, 
and called Oppuhm Ubiorum. These are mentioned 
by Cesar as a German nation, dwelling on the right 
bank of the Rhine, who were afterwara transferred to 
the left, or Gallic side, by Agrippa. At this town 
Agrippina, daughter of Germanic us, was born; and, 
when she had attained to the dignity of empress by 
marriage with Claudius, she sent hither a military col- 
ony, AC- 60, and caused the place to be named after 
benielf. It soon became large and wealthy, and was 
adorned with a temple of Mars. The inhabitants re- 
ceived the jut Itaheum. It answers to the modern 
£Xx or Cologne. (Tat., Ann., 1, 35 ; 12, 27 — Id., 
Oat., 4, SB ; 1, 57; 4, 55.— Dim Cessna, 48, 49.) 

Acairriii oa, bishop of Carthage, of venerable mem- 
err, but known for being tbe first to maintain the neces- 
sity of rebaptizing all heretics. ( VincaU. Lain., Com- 
■sear., 1, 9.) St- Cyprian regarded this opinion as tbe 
correction of an error (St. Auguttm., De BapHtmo, 3, 
7, vol 9, p. 103, ed. Baud.), and St. Augustine seems 
to imply he defended his error in writing. (Epitt., 93, 
c 10.) He held tbe council of seventy bishops at 
Carthage, about AJ>. 300 (Vulg. A.D. 315, Mans. 
AJD. 317), on the subject of Baptism. Though he er- 
red in a matter yet undefined by the Church, St. Au- 
gustine notices that neither he nor St. Cyprian thought 
of separating from the Church, (De BapHtmo, 3, 2, 
p. 109.) — II. Paconius, whose father was pot to death 
by Tiberius on a charge of treason. (Suet., Tib., 61.) 
Agrippinus was accused at the same time aa Thrasea, 
AJ) 67, and was banished from Italy. (Toe., Ann., 
16, 28, 39, 33.) He was a Stoic philosopher, and is 
spoken of with praise by Epictetua (op. Slob., Sera., 
7% and Arriao (1, IX 

Askius ("Ay/wof), I. a son of Porthaon and Euryte, 
and brother of CEneus, king of Calydon, in jEiolia, 
Alcathoue, Melaa, Leucopeus, sod Sterope. He was 
father of six sons, of whom Thersites was one. These 
sods of Agrius deprived CEneua of his kingdom, and 
gave it to their father; bnt all of them, with the ex- 
ception of Thersites, were slain by Diomedes, the 
grandson of CEnens. (Apollod., 1, 7, 6 10, 8 ; $ 5, dec ) 
ApaGodorus places these events before the expedition 
of tie Greeks against Troy, while Hyginua (Fab., 175 : 
coBMaa HZ, and Anltmn. lab., 37) states that Diome- 
ie>,wbahe bemrd, after the fall of Troy, of the mis- 
Jbrtaei of ius grandfather CEneus, hastened back and 



expelled Agrius, who then pnt an end to his own hit ; 
according to others, Agrius and his sons were slain by 
Diomedes. (Compare Pauean., 2, 25, $ 3. — Or., He- 
raid., 9, 153.) In the mythic history of the Greeks we 
find several Agrii, and in almost all the allusion appears 
to be a symbolical one. Thus, for example, in the case 
of the one first mentioned, Agrius is the" Wild man," 
the " Man of the fields," while CEneus, on the other 
band, is the " Wine-men," the " cultivator of the vine." 
(Compare Creuxer, Symbolik, vol. 4, p. 372. — Apol- 
lod., 1, 8, 6.— Anton, Lib., Fab., Vl.—Verkeyk, ad. 
Anton, lib . Fab , 21, p. 136.) In tbe rase of the 
father of Thersites, the name Agriut may be intended 
aa a figurative allusion to the rude and lawlesa manners 
of the son. — II. According to Heaiod (Tkeog., 1018), 
a son of Ulysses and Circe, and brother of Lalinus and 
Telegonus, " who, alar in the recess of tbe Holy Isles, 
ruled over all the renowned Tyraeniana." He is the 
same, in. all probability, with the god or hero called 
Agrius by tbe Arcadians (a term to he derived from 'Ay- 
poi;, agcr), and wboae most solemn festival the Parrhasii 
introduced into the island of Ceoa, one of the Cycle* 
dee. There waa a deity of the same name in Tbesae- 
ly, whence bis worship wss carried to Cyrene in Atti- 
ca. There was an Agriua also in Bceotia, wboae name 
appears in the Cadmean genealogy. The mythology 
connected with this eon of I) lyases and Circe appears 
in Italy under a new form, and he is there to be iden- 
tified with the Arcadian Evander of the Latins, white 
his mother, Circe, seems to be the same with Carraen- 
ta, a name equivalent to the Latin Mega. (Compare 
Uty, 1, 7.) Tbis Agriua is mentioned also, by the 
scholiast on Apollonius (3, 300), and by Euata thins 
(ad Horn., IL, p. 1796) ; nor ahould it be omitted bare 
that there was among the Romans a gens Agria. ( Vet- 
ro, De Re Butt., 1, %—Cic., Fleet., 13.) Gottling, 
a recent editor of Hesiod, has a very learned note on 
the subject of Agriua, in which be appears to favour 
the reading of VpaUbv r* i/6i Aarivov in place of 'Ay- 
ptbv Aarivov as occurring in Hesiod (Tkeog., 
1013). 

AeacscrBa or Aoaomue, a Roman grammarian, the 
author of an extant work " De Orthograpbia et Differ- 
entia Sennonia," intended as a supplement to a work 
on the same subject, by Flavius Caper, and dedicated 
to a bishop, Eqcheriua. He is supposed to have lived 
in the middle of tbe 5th century of our era. His work 
is printed in Putachhu'a " Grammatical Latin* Anc- 
tores Antiqui," p. 2466-2276. 

Asians ('Aypofrof ), a Greek historian, who wrote 
a work on Scythia (Infcxd), from the thirteenth book 
of which the scholiast on Apollonras (3, 1248) quotes, 
and one on Libya (Aitvxd), the fourth book of which 
is quoted by the same scholiast (4, 1396). He is ale* 
mentioned by Stephanos Byx. («. «. 'AfiKiXof). 

AoEoiRi, the early name of Attalea, a city of Lyd- 
ia, on tbe Hermns, northeast of Sardis. Major Ken- 
nel (Tratelt, vol. 2, p. 335) remarks, " It is on the 
right bank of tbe Hermus, which flews st the base of 
a rocky mountain, through a chasm of which it disap- 
pears. The paasage here is rather dangerous. To* 
direct road from Catteba to Adala (Agroira) is twelve 
hours. No vestiges of antiquity were observed here : 
there are coins, however, of Attalea." (Sit tint, p. 
106. — Cramer' e Ana Minor, v. 1, p. 436.) 

Aobon ('Aypuv), I. the son of Ninus, the first of] 
the Lydian dynasty of the Heracleida*. The tradition 
waa, that this dynasty supplanted a native race of kings, 
having been originally intrusted with the government 
as deputies. The names Ninas and Belus, in their 
genealogy, render it probable that they were either As- 
ian governors, or princes of Assyrian origin, and 
X their accession marks tbe period of an Assyrian 
conquest. (Herod., 1, 7.)— II. The son of Pleuratua, 
a king of Illyria. In the strength of hia land and naval 
forces he surpassed all the preceding kings of that < 



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try. When the £toliant attempted to compel the 
Medioniane to join their confederacy, A gran undertook 
to protect them, having been induced to do so by ■ 
large bribe which he received from Demetrius, the fa- 
ther of Philip. ' He accordingly sent to their assistance 
• force of 6000 Myrians, who gamed a decisive victory 
over the jEtolians. Agron, overjoyed at the news of 
this success, gave himself up to feasting, and, in con- 
sequence of his excess, contracted a pleurisy, of which 
he died (B.C. 831). He was succeeded in the gov- 
ernment by his wife Touts. Just after his death, an 
embassy arrived from the Romans, who had sent to 
mediate in behalf of the inhabitants of the island of Issa, 
who had revolted from Agron, and placed themselves 
under the protection of the Romans. By his first wife, 
Triteuta, whom he divorced, he had a son named Pin- 
aes, or Pinneus, who survived him, end was placed un- 
der the guardianship of Demetrius Pharins, who mar- 
ried his mother after the death of Teuta. (Dim Cat*,, 
84, 48, 151.— PM.,%%^.—A]HriaM,ia r ,1.— FUtr., 
% 6.— Pirn., M. If., 84, «.)— 111. Son Of Eumelua, 
grandson ef Metope, lived with his sisters, Byssa and 
Meropie, in the island of Cos. They worshipped the 
earth, as the giver of the fruits of harvest, without pay- 
ing regard to any other deitv. When they were invi- 
ted to the festival ef Minerva, the brother replied that 
the black eyes of his sisters would not pi esse the 
blue-eyed goddess, and that, for himself, the owl was 
an object of aversion. IT desired to offer sacrifice to 
Mercury, he declared that he would show no honour 
to a thief. At the sacrifices of Diana he did not ap- 
pear, became that goddess rosined abroad the whole 
night long. Provoked at this conduct, Minerva, Diana, 
and Mercury came to their dwelling, the latter as a 
shepherd, the two goddesses as maidens, to invite En- 
awes sod Agron to a sacrifice to Mercury, and the ni- 
ters to the grove of Minerva and Diana. "When, how- 
ever, Meropn reviled Minerva', she and her sisters were 
changed into birds, together with Agron, who attempt- 
ad to seise upon the divinities, snd Edmehrs, who 
heaped reproaches upon Mercury for the metamorpho- 
sis of hie eon. The legend makes Meropjs to have been 
changed into a small bird of the owl kind : Byssa re- 
tained her name, and* became, as a species of tea-fowl, 
the bird of Leucothea : Agron became die bird Chan- 
dries. {Anton. Lib., 18.) 

AokoLis, surrounded the citadel of Athena ■with 
walls, except that part which' was afterward repaired by 
Cimon. (Pmuan., 1, 28.) We have here one of the 
oM traditions respecting the Pelasgic race. Agrolas 
was aided in the work by his brother Hyperbins, both 
ef (hem Pelasei. According to Pauaanias (/. e.% they 
came originally from Sicily. It is more than proba- 
ble, however, that the names in question are those of 
two loaders or two tribes, and that the work was ex- 
ecuted under their orders. The wall erected on this 
occasion was styled Pelargieon, and the builders of it 
would seem to have erected also a town or smaH set- 
tlement for themselves, which afterward became part 
of the Acropolis. (Compare Siebttu, ad Pmuan., 1, 
98. — Midler, Oetck. HeUtn. Stamme, Ac, vol. 1, p. 
448) 

Astoria i, I. an annual festival, celebrated at 
Athene to Diana Agrotera ('Aprffulk 'Ayporipfi. It 
waa instituted by Callimachns the polemareh, in con- 
sequence of a vow made by him before the battle of 
Marathon, that he would sacrifice to the goddess as 
Many y e a rling sbe-gsats ^ <pttper) as there might be 
dnemiea slain in the approaching conflict. (ScAol , ad 
ArUtoph.,Emiit., 867 —Xat., Anab., 3, S, 11.) The 
number of the Persians who fell waa so great, that a 
•officiant amount of victims could not be obtained. 
Every year, therefore, 600 goats were thrin, in order 
to make up the requisite number, until, at last, the 
whole thing grew into a regular custom. JSIian (V. 
If., X, 88) makes die vow in question to have been 



offered up by Miltiades, and the number of annual vic- 
tims 800. — II. The name Agrotera ('Ayporepa) is also 
sometimes applied to Diana herself. In this usage it 
is equivalent to icwrrftruoi, &qpcvTiioi, "the hun- 
tress." Its primitive meaning, however, ia the same 
aa ^ ipeia, "she that frequents the mountains." 
(Compare Heyne, ad Hon., 11., 21, 471.) 

Aotisds, an appellation given to Apollo. The 
term ia of Greek origin fAyvtcvf); and, if the com- 
mon derivation- be correct, denotes "the guardian 
deity of ttrtett" (from iyvtd, "a ttreet"), it being 
the custom at Athens to erect email conical cippi, ii 
honour of Apollo, >n the vestibules and before tht 
doom of their houses. Here he waa invoked as tlx 
Averter of eril (o*edf dfrorpoVeuor, " Deut overrun, 
cut"), and the worship here offered him consisted it 
burning perfumes before these pillars, in adorniuj 
them with myrtle garlands, hanging fillets upon them 
dte. We must not suppose, however, that this rue 
torn originated in Athens. It appears to have beti 
borrowed from the Dorians, and introduced into tin 
city in obedience to an oracle. (Schol., nt Arutopk 
Vetp., 870—Pautan., 8, iS —Multer, Ottck. Heltcn 
Smnme, dec., vol. S, p. 298, teqq.) Aa respects tb 
pillars erected at Athens, the ancients seem to hav 
been at a loss whether to regard them as altars, or s 
a species of statues. (Compare, on this point, th 
scholiast on Aristophanes, Veep., 870, and Thesm, 
498. — Harpocratkm, t. e. — Shadai, I. v.—Helladm 
op. Phot, cod., 279, vol. 9, p. 83."), td. Beklcer.- 
PlauluM, Mere., 4, 1, 9. — Zoega, dt Gbclixtis, \ 
210.) Miller states, that mis emblem of Apollo a[ 

6 ears on coins of ApoHonia in Epirus, Aptera in Creu 
[egara, Byiantimn, Qricum, Ambracia, dec. (Mi 
ler, Getch. HelUn. Stamme, L e.) 
AoTLta. Vid. Cane. 

AoY»?trn, a city of Sicily, northeast of Enna, an 
in the vicinity of the river Symethus. It would sera 
to have been one of the eldest settlements of the Sic 
uli, and was remarkable for the worship of a hen 
whom a later age confounded with the Grecian He: 
cuies. (DM. Sic., 4, 25 ) The place is noted ■ 
having given birth to Drodoros Siculus. The modd 
town of San Filippo SArgiro ia supposed to corn 
spond to the ancient city ; the site of the latter, bos 
ever, would appear to have been two miles farther ens 
(Manner I, vol. 9, pt 2, p. 418.) 

AevKKKtoa. Vid. Supplement. 

Aha la. Vid. Supplement. 

Ahkkobakbos. rul. Supplement 

Ajax ( Alar), I- son of Telamon by Peribosa, dasghti 
of Aleathoua, was, next to Achilles, the bravest of i 
the Greeks in the Trojan war, but, like him, of I 
imperious and ungovernable spirit. In other peci 
liarities of their history, there was also s striking r 
semblance. At die birth of Ajax, Hercules is said i 
have wrapped him in the skin of the Nemean lio: 
and to have thus rendered him invulnerable in evei 
part of his body, except that which was left exposed t 
the aperture in the skin, caused by the wound whit 
the animal had received from Hercules. This vulne 
able pert Was in his breast, or, as others say, behii 
the neck, (Lycopkr., 454. — Tzetz., ad loc. — Scha 
ad B., 23, 821.) To Ajax fell the lot of opposii 
Hector, when that hero, at the instigation of Apol 
and Minerva, had challenged the bravest of the Greei 
to single combat The glory of the antagonists vr 
equal in the engagement ; and, at parting, they e 

f changed arms, the oahlrie of Ajaat serving, most si 
ukurfy, as me instrument by which Hector was, aft 
is fall, attached to the car of Achilles. In the gam 
celebrated by Achillea m honour of Patroclus, Ai 
(as commentators have remarked) was unsuccessf 
although he was a competitor on not less than tht 
occasions : in trtrrling the quoit ; in wrestling ; and 
single combat with arms. After the death of Achslh 



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AID 



ALU 



Ajax and Ulysses disputed their, claim to tbe anna of 
las hero. Whan they were given te the Utter, Ajaz 
became ao infuriated, that, in a fit of delirium, he 
slaughtered all the sheep in the camp, under the dela- 
tion that his rival and the Abide, who bad favoured 
the cause of the former, were the objects of his attack. 
When reason returned, Ajaz, from mortification and 
despair, pot an end to his existence, by stabbing him- 
self to the heart. The sword which be used as tbe 
lastrament of his death had been received by him from 
Hector in exchange for the baldric, and thus, by a sin- 
gular fatality, the present mutually conferred contrib- 
uted to their mutual destruction. The Mood which 
no to the ground from the wound produced die flower 
kfmUhu, of a red colour, and on tbe petal of which 
nay be traced lines, imitating the form of the letters 
Al, tbe first and second of the Greek name AU.X 
(Ajax). The flower here meant appears to be ide»- 
ucal with tbe IMixm Mwrtogen ("Imperial Martagon."), 
and not the ordinary hyacinth, (Fee, fTore it Ytrgile, 
p. Ixvii.) — Some authorities give e different account 
of the cease of bis death, and make the Palladium to 
have been the subject of dispute between Ajaz and 
Ulysses, and state also that Ulysses, in concert with 
Agasnemnon, caned Ajax to be assassinated. Tbe 
Greeks erected a tomb over his remains on the pro- 
montory of Rhogteam, which was visited in a later 
age by Alexander the Great. Sophocles has made tbe 
death of Ajax tbe subject of one of his tragedies. Ao- 
cosdiag to the plot of this piece, the rites of sepulture 
are at first refused to the corpse of Ajax, but afterward 
allowed through the mtereession of Ulysses. Ajax is 
the Homeric type of great valour, unaccompanied by 
any eonwpoodiog powers of intellect. Ulysses, on 
the other band, typifies great intellect, unaccompanied 
by an equal degree of heroic valour, although he is 
far, at lie same time, from being a coward. (Mom., H., 
r*istm.—A r otlod., 3, IS, T—Otid, Met., 13, U 
*efe.) — II. The son of Oilees, king of Locris, was 
snrnnmed Leerian, in contradistinction to the son of 
Tebunon. The term Norydarf was also applied to 
him from his birthplace, the Locrian town Naryeinra, 
or Sim He went with 40 ships to the Trojan war, 
as being one of Helen's suiters. Homer describes 
nan aa small of size, particularly dexterous in the use 
of roe lance, but as remarkable for brutality and cru- 
elty. The night that Troy was taken, he offered vio- 
lence to Cassandra, who had fled into Minerva's tem- 
ple ; and for this offence, aa he returned home, the 
g o ddesa, who had obtained the thunders of Jupiter, 
and the power of tempests from Neptune, destroyed 
has ship m a storm. Ajax swam to a rock, and said 
that he was safe in spite of all the gods. Such im- 
piety offended Neptune, who struck the rock with hie 
trident, and Ajax tumbled into the aea with part of 
tbe rock, and was drowned. His body waa afterward 
found by the Greeks, and black sheep offered on bis 
tomb. According to Virgil's account, Minerva seized 
Ban ha a whirlwind, and dashed him against a rock, 
where he expired consumed by tbe name of the light- 
ning. (Aim., B., », «7, dec— Vug , M%,, 1, 48, 
*e»?.— Bggin., fob., 116, etc.) 

AinoKKos ("AicWenf), I- » surname of Pluto. It 
is only another form for 'AlStK, " the irmtibU one." 
— II. A king ti the Theeprotiano in Epirus, who de- 
feated the forces of Theseus and Piritbous, when the 
two fatter bad marched against him for tbe purpose 
of exnying off his wife Proserpina. Piritbous waa 
1 torn to pieces by Cerberus, tbe monarch's dog, while 
! Theseus was mode prisoner and loaded with fetters. 
Heaee, according to Pausanias (1, 17), who relates 
■±ii Cot arose the fable of the descent of Theseus 
•ad Ptekma to tbe lower world This explanation 
fa» art sitb the apprctoljpn of many of the learned, 

^ the rSTff *^^tZTlZ 
htkTfute unteBtM" (Commit Creaxer, Sym- 



Wti, vol. 4, p. 168.) Plutarch calls Aidoneus kmg 
of the Moiosaians in Epirus. (Vit. Thee., SO.) 

Aids LocutIos, a deity to whom the Romans erect- 
ed an altar from the following circumstance : one of 
the common people, called Cedinus, informed the tri- 
bunes, that, aa he passed one night through one of the 
streets of the city, a voice more than human, isevnur 
from above Vesta's temple, told him that Rome would 
soon be attacked by the Gauls. His information was 
neglected, but, aa its truth waa subsequently confirmed 
by the event itself, Camillas, after the departure of the 
Gauls, built a temple to that supernatural voice which 
had given Rome warning of tbe approaching calamity, 
ander tbe name of Aius Locutiua. (lot., 6, 60.— 
PhU., Vit. Camili., 80.) Thus much for tbe story it- 
self. We have here an instance of tbe imposition 
practised by the patricians, the deposits nag of religion, 
upon the lower orders of the state. Tbe commonly- 
received narrative respecting tbe Gallic invasion and 
tbe taking of Rome, u abundantly supplied with the 
decorations of fable, the work of the higher classes. 
Tbe object of the patricians, in the various legends 
which they invented on this point, seems to have been 
a wish to impress on tbe mmds of tbe people tbe con- 
viction, that divine vengeance had armed itself against 
them, for having dared to injure an individual of ses- 
atorian rank. It was to avenge the banishment of Ce- 
millos that the gods had brought the Gauls to Rome, 
and to Camillus alone did they assign the honour of 
removing these formidable visitants. (Compare Le- 
vetfue, Hitt. Crit. it U Rep. Remain*, vol. 1, p. S87.) 

Alabarda, achy of Caria, one of the most impor- 
tant of those in the interior of the country. It was 
situate a abort distance to the south of the Meander. 
Strabo(14, p. 860, ei> Caaeei.) describes its position 
between two MHs, and compares the appearance Urns 
presented to that of a loaded asa. He spesks of tbe 
Inhabitants a* addicted to the pleasures of tbe table 
and a luxurious life. From Pliny (6, 20) we learn 
that it was a free city, and the seat also of a Cmeen- 
tue Jundicut. Hierocles incorrectly names tbe place 
Alapemda. This city was said to have obtained its 
appellation from the hero Alabandus, its founder, who 
was deified after death, and worshipped within its 
walls. (Cic, If. D., 8, 19.) Stephanus Byzanlhra*, 
however, speaks of another Alabanda, commonly catt- 
ed Antwehta ad JfasneVum, and makes this one to 
have been founded by Alabandus, son of Enippua; 
while be- assigns as a founder to the other city. Car, 
a son of whose received the name of Hipponieua, from 
hfa having conquered in an equestrian conflict ; which 
appellation, according to Stephanus, was the same with 
Ataiandut in the Csrian tongue, Ala denoting " a 
horse," and Banda "a victory." From this son, 
Alabanda, as he states, took its name. (Compare the 
remarks of Berkd, ad lee., p. 86, and Adelung, Glut. 
Man., vol. 1, p. 656 ) The remains of Alabanda were 
discovered by Poeoeke (vol. 8, book S, e. 6.) and, af- 
ter him, by OhatxHeT (c. 09), in-the neighbourhood of 
the village of Karpueter or Kantueli. The inhabi- 
tants of this place were called 'kXaHavietc, and by the 
Roman' writers Alabtndente*. The name of the city 
is given by tbe latter as neuter, but by 8trsbo and Ste- 
phanus as feminine. {Mannart, 0tegr., vol. 6, pt. », 
p. 878, etqq.) 

Alabandus, I. a son of Enippus, and the founder of 
Antiockia ad MmtLtidrvm. (Vtd. Alabanda.)— 'II. A 
eon of Car, who was otherwise eaHed Hipponieua, and 
who gave name to Alabanda. ( Vid. Alabanda.) 

Auea fAXaia or 'AAwo), a surname of Minerva, 
by which she was worshipped at Tegea in Arcadia. 
There was also a festival celebrated here in honour of 
the goddess, and caned by the same name. ( Pautan.. 
8, 46.) Creuzer traces a connexion between the feuival 
termed Alea and the solar worship. [Symholii, vol. 
2, p. 778.) 



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AlaoonIa, ■ town of Messenia, distant about thirty 
atadia from Gerenia. Pausanias (3, 86) notice* it* 
temples of Bacchus and Diana. 

Alala, an appellation given to Bellona, the goddess 
of war and siater of Mars. It appears to be nothing 
more than the battle-cry personified, and occurs is what 
appears to be a fragment of an old war-song. (Pint., 
dt Frat. Am., p. 483, e.) 

Alalcohbn.*, I. a city of Bosotia, near the Lake 
Copals, and to the southeast of Chawonea. It was 
celebrated for the worship of Minerva, thence suma- 
med Alalcomeneis. (Strab., 410 and 4 13. — Compare 
Heyne, ad Htm., 1L, 4, 8, and Midler, Geteh. HeU.cn. 
Stamme, dec, vol. 1, p. 70.) The temple of the god- 
dess was plundered and stripped of its statues by Sylla. 
(Paman., 9, 83.) It is said, that when Thebes was 
taken by the Epigoni, many of the inhabitants retired 
to Alalcomena, as being held sacred and inviolable. 
(Strab., ilS.—Supk. Byz., t. v. "Atofao/ievtov.) The 
ruins of this place, according to Sir W. Gell (ltin., p. 
162), are observable near the village of Sutinara, on 
a projecting knoll, on which there is some little appear- 
ance of a small ancient establishment or town ; and 
higher up may be discovered a wall or peribolus, of 
ancient and massive polygons, founded upon the solid 
rock. This is probably the site of the temple of the 
Alalcomenian Minerva. (Cramer e A)ic. Greecc v \o\. 2, 
p. 236.) — II. A "town, situate on a small island off the 
coast of Acarnania, between Ithaca and Cephallenia. 
The name of the island was Aster is, and it is the place 
where Homer describes the suiters aa lying in wait 
for Telemachus on his return from Sparta and Pylos. 
(Horn., Od., 4,844. — Compare Slrabo, 456.) Plutarch, 
however, speaks of Alalcomene aa being in Ithaca. 
(Istr. Alex., ap. Plut.,Qiuut. Orac.) Stephanos By- 
lantinus writes it Alcomenn. 

Alalcomcnia. Vid. Supplement. 

Alalia, a city of Corsica. Vid. Aleria, , 

Alamanm. Vid. Alemanni. 

Alani, a Scythian race, occupying the regions be- 
tween the Rba and the Tanats. Their name and man- 
ners, however, would appear to have been also diffiised 
over the wide extent of their conquests. (Compare 
Balbt, Introduction a V Adas Etknographique, vol. I, 
p. 116.) The Agathyrsi and Getoni were numbered 
among their vassals. Towards the north their power 
extended into the regions of Siberia, and their southern 
inroads were pushed as far as the confines of Persia 
and India. They were conquered eventually by the 
Huns. A part of the vanquished nation thereupon took 
refuge in the mountains of Caucasus. Another band 
advanced towards the shores of the Baltic, associated 
themselves with the northern tribes of Germany, and 
shared the spoil of the Roman provinces of Gaul and 
Spain. But the greatest part of the Alani united with 
their conquerors, the Huns, and proceeded along with 
them to invade the limits of the Gothic empire. (Amm. 
MarceU., 81, 19. — Id., 33, i.—Ptol., 6, 14.) 

Alaricos, ib German AUrie, i. e., all rich, king of 
the Visigoths, remarkable as being the first of the bar- 
barian chiefa who entered and sacked the city of Rome, 
and the first enemy who had appeared before its walls 
since tbe time of Hannibal. His first appearance in 
history is in A.D. 394, when he was invested by The- 
odosius with tbe command of the Gothic auxiliaries in 
his war with Eugenius. In 396, partly from anger at 
being refused the command of the armies of the East- 
ern Empire, partly at the instigation of Rufinus, he in- 
vaded and devastated Greece, till by tbe arrival of Stil- 
kho, in 397, he waa compelled to escape to Epirua. 
He was elected king by bis countrymen in 398, hav- 
ing been previously, by the weakness of Arcadius, ap- 

S feted prefect of Eastern Illyricum. The rest of his 
e was spent in the two invasions of Italy. Tbe first 
(400-403), apparently unprovoked, brought him only 
to Ravenna, and, after a bloody defeat at Pollenlia, in 
96 



which his wife and treasures were taken, and • nut- 1 
terry retreat to Verona, was ended by the treat; v.ith 
Stilicho, which transferred his service* from Areadiot 
to Honorrus, and made him prefect of tbe Western in- 
stead of the Eastern Illyricum. The second mvuien 
(408-10) waa occasioned by delay in fulfilling his os- 1 
mands for pay. and for a western province as the fu- 
ture home of bis nation, as, also, by the masncis of 
the Gothic families in Italy on Stilicho's death. It is 
marked by the three aieget of Rome, in 408, 409, and 
410. The first of these was raised by a ransom; lbs 
second ended in the unconditional surrender of the city, 
and in the disposal of the empire by Alaric to Atta- 
lus, till, on discovery of bis incapacity, he restored it 
to Honorius. The third waa ended by the treacherous 
opening of the Salariao Gate, on August 24tb, and tbe 
sack of the city for aix day*. It was immediate!; fol- i 
lowed by tbe occupation of the south of Italy, and the 
design of invading Sicily and Africa. This intention, 
however, was frustrated by hit death, after a short ill- 
ness, at Consent!*, where he waa buried in the bed of , 
the adjacent river Busentinus, and the place of his in- 
terment was concealed by tbe massacre of all the work- 
men employed on the occaaion. Tbe few personal 
traits that are recorded of him are in the true savage 
humour of a barbarian conqueror. But the impression 
left upon us by bis general character ia of a higher or- 
der. The real military skill shown in bis escape from 
Greece, and in hie retreat to Verona ; the wish at. Ath- 
ens to show that he adopted the. use of the bath, and 
the other external forms of civilized life ; the modera- 
tion and justice wbich he observed towards the Ro- 
mans in time Of peace; the huma.nily which distiu- '. 
guished him during the sack of Roane, indicate some- 
thing superior to the mere craft an>d lawless ambition 
wbich he seems to have possessed in common with 
other barbarian chiefs. So, also, his scruples against 
fighting on Easter-day when attacked at Pollentia, and 
his reverence for the churches during tbe ssck of tbe 
city,, imply that the Christian faith had laid some bold 
at least on his imagination. 

Alazon, a nver of Albania, rising in Monnt Caucs- 
■us, and flowing into the Cyrus. Now the Alozon at 
Ahum. (Plin., 6, 10.) 

Alba, I. Sylvius, one of the pretended kings of Alba, 
said to have succeeded his father Latinos, and to have 
reigned 36 years. — II. Longa, one of the most ancient 
cities of Latium, the origin of wbich is lost in conjee- - 
ture. According to the common account, the place 
was built by Ascanius, B.C. 1153, on the spot where 
iEueaa found, in conformity with the prediction of 
Helenus (Virg., Mn., 3, 390, eeqq .) and of the god of 
the river (JEn., 8, 43), a white sow with thirty young 
ones. Many, however, have been led to conjecture, 
that Alba was founded by the Siculi, and, after the mi- 
gration of that people, was occupied by the Aborigines 
and Pelasgi. (Compare Dion. Hal., 2, 8.) The word 
Alba appears to be of Celtic origin, for we find several 
places of that name in Liguria and ancient Spain ; and 
it is observed, that all were situated on elevated spots; 
from which circumstance it is inferred that Af6a is de- 
rived from Alp. (Barifiti dell. Ling: Act frm. Abit, 
die., p. 109.) Aa Alba was entirely destroyed by 
Tullus Hostilius (Lh., 1, 39), and no vestiges of it 
are now remaining, ita exact position has been much 
discussed by modem topographers. Jf we take Slrabo 
for our guide, we shall look for Alba on the slope of the 
Mount Albanus, and at a distance of twenty miles from 
Rome. (Strab., 239.) This position cannot evidently 
agree with the modera town of Alba.no, which, is at tbe 
foot of the mountain, and only twelve miles from 
Rome. Dionysiua also informs us (1, 66), that it was 
situated on the declivity of the A loan Mount, midwa] 
between the summit and the lake of the same name 
which protected it as a wall. This description and thai 
of Strabo agree sufficiently well with the position ol 



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I «hrT"f-, a Tillage belonging to the Colorroa family, 
an the eastern side of the lake, and some distance 
above its margin. {Cramer'* Anc. hah/, vol. 8, p. 
87, way.) " The site," observes Niebuhr, "where 
Alba stretched, in a long street, between the upper part 
of the mountain and the lake, is still distinctly -marked : 
along this whole extent the rock ia eat away under it 
down to the lake. These traces of man's ordering 
hand are more ancient than Rome. The surface of the 
lake, as it has been determined by the tunnel, now lies 
far beyond the ancient city : when Alba waa stand 
lag, and before the lake swelled to a ruinous height in 
consequence of obstructions in clefts of the rock, it 
■mat have lain yet lower; for in the age of Diodorus 
sad Dmoysius, during extraordinary droughts, the re 
mains of spacious buildings might be seen at the bot- 
tom, taken by the common people for the palace of 
an impious king which had been swallowed up. " ( tfit- 
bmW* Rom Hut., voL I, p. 168, ««?»., Cambridge 
truul.) — The line of the Alban kings is given as fol- 
lows: 1. Aseanrua, reigned 8 years ; 2. Sylvius Post, 
homos. 29 years; 3. .Eneas Sylvius, 31 years; 4. 
Latinos, 5 years ; 6. Alba Sylvius, 36 years; 0. Alya 
or Capetna, 26 years ; 7. Cspys, 28 years ; 8. Calpe- 
tas, 13 years ; 9. Tiberinus, 8 years ; 10. A grippe, 
33 yean'-, 11. Remulos, 19 years ; IS. Avsntinus, 87 
years ; 13. Pieces. 13 years ; 14. Numitor and Amu- 
Iras. The staractioo of Alba took place, according 
to the uu uuu o u account, 665 B.C., when the inhabitants 
were carried to Rome. " The list of the Alban kings," 
remarks Siebahr, » is a very late and extremely clum- 
sy fabrication ; a medley of names, in part quite un- 
itarian, some of them repeated from earlier or later 
tunes, others framed out of geographical names ; and 
baring scarcely anything of a story connected with 
them. We are told that Livy took this list from L. 
Cornelius Alexander the Polybistor (Sen., ad Virg., 
Jim.. 8, 330) -, hence it is probable that this client of 
the dictator Sylla introduced the imposture into his- 
tory. Even the variations in the lists are not very 
important, and do not at all prove that there were sev- 
eral ancient sources. Some names may have occur- 
red in older traditions : kinga of the Aborigines were 
also mentioned by name (Sterceniue, for instance, un- 
less it be a false reading. — 8erv., ad Virg., Jin., 11, 
•50), entirely different from those of Alba. In the 
case of the latter, even the years of each reign are num- 
bered ; and the number so exactly fills up the interval 
between the fall of Troy and the founding of Rome, 
aceovmng to the canon of Eratosthenes, aa of itself to 
prove the lateness of the imposture." ( Niebukr't 
Roam. Hat., vol. 1, p. 170, Cambridge trawl.)— HI. 
Ikacstia, a city of Ligtiria, now AlbizzoU. — IV. Fucen- 
tn or Fncensis, a city of the Marsi. near the northern 
shore of the Lake Foe inns, whence its name. It was 
a strong and secluded place, end appears to have been 
■ e l e ct e d by the Roman senate, after it became a colony 
of Rome, A.U.C. 450, as a fit place of residence for 
captives of rank and consequence, aa well as for noto- 
rious offenders. (Strab., 241.— Compare bin., 10, 1, 
and Veil. Patere.,\, 14.) Syphax waa long detained 
here, though finally he was removed to Tibur (Lav., 
30. 46) ; as were also Perses, king of Micedon, and 
his eon Alexander. (Lie., 46, 52 — VrU. Peter c, 1, 
11. — Vol. Max., 6, 1.) At the time of Cesar's in- 
-vaskrn of his country, we find Alba adhering to the 
cause of Pompey (CVe*., Belt. Cat., 1, 16), and subse- 
quently repelling the attack of Antony ; on which oc- 
casion it obtained a warm and eloquent eulogium from 
Cicero. (Pkd, 3, 9.—Appian, Bell. C«s., 3, 46.) 
The rains of this city, which are said to be considera- 
te (Remanelli, vol. 3, p. »"). atand about a mile 
frwa ok modern Alba (Cramer'* Anc. Iuly,tt,\. 1, p. 
*"-)-F. Pompeia, a city of Ligwna, on the river 
Tuanx sow Alba. It probably owed its surname to 
ftnrew Slnbo, who eokwuxed seven! towns in the 
N 



north of Italy. It waa lbs birthplace of the Emperor 
Pertinax. (Dto Cat*., SZ —Zm. Ana., 8.)— VI. A 
city of Spain, in the territory of the Vsrduli, eight ge- 
ographical miles to the west of Pamplona, and as many 
to the east of the Iberua. It waa about two geograph- 
ical miles, therefore, to the west of the modern Eeteb- 
la. (Mannert, vol. 1, p. 375.)— VII. Augusta, a city 
of the Helvii, in Gaul, near the Rhone, ana answering 
to the modem Ape. Pliny (14, 3) names the place 
Alba Helvorum, and praises the skill of the inhabitants 
in the cultivation of the vine. — VIII. Grace, a city of 
Dacia Ripensis, at the confluence of the Danube and 
the Saavus, or Sense. It ia now Belgrade. 

Albania, a country of Asia, between the Caspian 
Sea and Iberia, bounded on the north by the chain of 
Caucasus, and on the south by the Cyrus and an arm 
of the Araxes. The Romans were best acquainted 
with the southern part, which Strabo describes as a 
kind of paradise, and in fertility and mildness of cli- 
mate gives it the preference to Egypt. Trajan's ex- 
peditions made the northern and mountainous pan bet- 
ter known. The inhabitants approached nearer a bar- 
barous than a civilised rase. They cultivated the soil, 
it is true, but with great carelessness, and yet it af- 
forded them more than sufficed for their wants The . 
forces of toe nation were respectable, and they brought 
into the field against Pompey an army of 60,000 in- 
fantry and 22,000 horse. As regsrds the origin of that 
people, all is uncertainty. The common account ia 
unworthy of a moment's attention, according to which 
they were from Alba in Latium, having left that place, 
under the conduct of Hercules, after the defeat of Ge- 
ryon. (Dim. Hal., 1, 16.— Juetm, 42, 3, 4.) It ia 
mora likely that they belonged to the great race which 
occupied the whole extent of the Tauric range alone; 
the southern snores of the Caspian. Mannert makes 
them Alani, and progenitors of the European A lard. 
(Vol. 4, p. 410.) — What waa ancient Albania ia now 
divided into innumerable cantons, but which modem 
geography comprehends under two denominations, 
Daghettan, which includes all the declivitiea of Cau- 
casus towsrds the Caspian Sea, and Letgkietan, con- 
taining the more elevated valleya towards Georgia and 
the country of the Kistes. ( MalU-Brun. vol. 2, p. 23, 
Brunei* td.) The Lssghisns appear to be the same 
with the Legs of the ancients. (Afalte-Bnm, I. e — 
R*i*tgg*, 1, 1«S.) 

Albania Pokta. Kid. Pvt-as, I. 

Albaitos, I. Mons, a mountain of Latium, a boat 
twelve miles from Rome, on the slope of which stood 
Alba longs. It is now called Monte Case. This 
mountain is celebrated in history, from the circum- 
stance of its being peculiarly dedicated to Jove, under 
the title of Latialis. (Luean, I, 198.— Cic.pro AM., 
81 . ) It was on the Alban Mount that the Feria Lati- 
ns, or bolydava kept by all the cities of the Latin 
name, were celebrated. The Roman generals also oc- 
casionally performed sacrifices on this mountain, and 
received there the honours of a triumph when refused 
one at borne. This appears, however, to have occur- 
red only five times, if we may credit the Faati Capito- 
lini, in which the names of the generals are recorded 
(Vulo. Vet. Lot., 12, 4.) Some vestiges of the road 
which led to the summit of the mountain are still to ha 
traced a little beyond Albano — IK Lacus, a lake at 
the foot of the Alban Mount. (Compare remarks un- 
der the article Alba.) This lake, which is doubtless 
the crater of an extinct volcano, ia well known in his- 
tory from the prodigious rise of its waters, to such sa 
extent, indeed, aa to threaten the whole surrounding 
country, and Rome itself, with an overwhelming in- 
undation. The oracle of Delphi, being consulted- oa 
that occasion, declared, that unleas the Romans con- 
trived to carry off the waters of the lake, they would 
never take Veii, the siege of which had already lasted 
for nearly ten years. This led to the construction, of 



97 



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that wonderful subterraneous canal, or enuttmrio, as the 
Italians call it, which is to be seen at this very day, in 
remarkable preservation, below the town of Ctutel 
Gandolfo. This channel is said to be carried through 
the rock for the space of a mile and a half, and the wa- 
ter which it discharges unites with the Tiber about five 
miles below Rome. (Cic., it Div., 1, 44. — Ltv., 6, 
15 — Vol. Max., 1,6.— Pint., Vit. Camdl.) Near this 
opening are to be seen considerable ruins and various 
foundations of buildings, supposed by some to have 
belonged to the palace of Domitian, to which Martial 
•nd Statins frequently allude. (Cramer'* Ant;. Italy, 
vol. 2, p. 40.)— III. A river of Albania, falling into 
the Caspian, to the north of the mouth of the Cyrus, 
or Kur. It is supposed by some to.be the same with 
the Samure. Mannert, however, is in favour of the 
Bilbana. 

Ai.bici, a people of Gaul, of warlike character, oc- 
cupying the mountains above Massilia, or Maricillet. 
Slrabo places them to the north of the Salyes, and 
there Ptolemy also makes them to have resided, on the 
southeast side of the Druentia, or Durance. This 
latter writer is blamed, without any reason, by those 
who suppose, that he here means the Helvii, and, con- 
sequently, places them too far to the east. Strabo calls 
the Albici, 'KXttete and 'AAouumu, Ptolemy 'EAuru- 
cot, and Pliny Alcbeci. Their capital, according to 
Pliny, waa named Alebece, now Kiez. (Cat., Bell. 
Ch., 1, 67 and 34.— Strabo, 203.— Plin., 3, 4.— 
Compare Mannert, vol. S, p. 105.) . 

Albioaonum. Vid. Albium Ingaunum. 
• AlbimotImds, I. Celsus, a young Roman, and ac- 
quaintance of Horace. He formed one of the retinue 
of Tiberius Claudius Nero, when the latter was march- 
ing to Armenia, under the orders of Augustus, in order 
to replace Tigranes on the throne. Horace alludes to 
bim in Epitt., 1, 8, 15, and addresses to him Epitt., 
1, 8. He appears to have been of a literary turn, but 
addicted to habits of plagiarism.— II. Pedo, a Roman 
poet, the friend of Ovid, who has inscribed to him one 
of the Epistles from Pontus (10th of 4th book). He 
distinguished himself in heroic versification, but only 
.a few fragments of his labours in this department of 
poetry have reached our times. In epigram also he 
would appear to have done something. (Martial, 6, 

6. ) As an elegiac poet, he composed, according to 
Joseph Scaliger and many others, the three follow- 
ing pieces which have descended to us : 1. "Conso- 
Jatio ad Liviam Augustam de morte Drusi." (Fa- 
bric., Bibl. Lot., 1, 12, v 11, 8, p. 376, teqq.) 3. 
•• De Obitu Mccenatia." (Fabric., L c., 1, 12, $11, 

7, p 376.— Burmann, AnthoL Lot., 2, ep. 119. — 
Lion, MKctnatia.no, Getting., 1824, c. 1.) 3. " De 
Mccenate moribundo." ( Burmann, I. e., 2, ep. 120.) 
Of these elegies, the first has been ascribed by many 
to Ovid, even on MS. authority, and printed in the 
works of that poet. (Compare Fabric., I. c— Patter- 
at. tit Pra/at., vol 4, p. 220, est Sum. — Amar, ad 
Ot. Carm., ed. Lemaire, vol. 1, p. S99, tcqq., and on 
the opposite side, Jot. Scaliger, and Burmann, vol. 1, 
p. 796.) The grounds on which the claim of Pedo 
rests are not by any means satisfactory : the piece in 
question, however, would seem to have been the pro- 
duction of the Augustan age. Still weaker are the ar- 
guments which seek to establish the claim of Pedo to 
the other two elegies, which, according to Wemsdorff 
(Port. Lot. Min., vol. 8, p. 1 12, teqq.), are unworthy 
of him, and must be regarded as the productions of 
some late scholastic poet.— III. P. Tullios. ( Vid. Sup- 
plement.) 

Albintchcliuh. Vid. Albium Intemelium. 

Albinos, I. Deeimus Claudius, a Roman general, 
born at Adrumetum in Africa, and sumained Albinu* 
from the extreme whiteness of his skin when brought 
into the world. He made at first some progress in lit- 
erary pursuits, and wrote a Treatise on Agriculture, 
98 



together with some Tales after the manner of these 
denominated Milesian. An invincible attachment te 
arms, however, caused him to embrace, at an early pe- 
riod, the military profession, in which he soon attained 
distinction. In the year 175 of the present era, and 
the 15th of the reign of Marcus Aurelius, he peevented 
the army, which he commanded in Bithynia, from join- 
ing the rebel Avidius Cassius. For this, according to 
some, he was rewarded with the consulship ; though 
his name does not appear at this epoch in the Fatti 
Consular tt. Governor of Gaul under Commodm.he 
defeated the Frisii, and afterward had intrusted to him 
the command of Britain. The death of Comiuodm 
brought forward Severus, Julian, and Pescenniua Ni- 
ger, as candidates for the vacant throne. The first of 
these competitors made overtures to Albinus, and of- 
fered him the title of Canar, which the Utter accepted, 
and declared for hia cause. But Severus had only 
contributed to the elevation of Albinus in order to di- 
minish the number of his own opponent*. When he 
had conquered his other rivals, he resolved to rid him- 
self of Albinus by the aid of assassins. The latter, 
however, suspected his odious projects, and his sus- 
picions were confirmed by the arrest and confession of 
Severus's emissaries. Albinus immediately took up 
arms to dispute the imperial power with his enemy. 
He gained several successes in Gaul, but was at last 
defested in a decisive battle in the same country, near 
Lugdunum (Lyons), A.D. 198. Finding himself on 
the point of falling into the hands of the foe, he put an 
end to his own existence. His head was brought lo 
Severus, who ordered it to be caat into the Knone. 
The details' of this last-mentioned conflict are variously 
given. The armies are said to have consisted each of 
150,000 men ; and the victory is reported to have been 
for a long time doubtful : at last the left wing of Al- 
binos waa totally defeated and his camp pillaged; 
while his right wing, on the other hand, proved so de- 
cidedly superior to the foe, that Severus, according to 
Herodian (3, 7, 7), was compelled to fly, after haying 
thrown aside the badges of bis rank. Spartianus (e. 
11) adds, that Severus was wounded, and that his 
army, believing him to have been slain, were on the 
point of proclaiming a new emperor. Dio Cassius 
(75, 31) states, that he had hie horse killed under him, 
and that, having thrown himself, sword in hand, into 
the midst of his flying soldiers, he succeeded in bring- 
ing them back lo the fight and gaining the day. Some 
writers inform ua that Albinus was slain by bis own 
troops ) others relate that he was dragged, mortally 
wounded, into the presence of Severus, who beheld 
him expire. The account of hia death, which we have 
given above, is from Dio Cassius, and seem* entitled 
to the most credit. According to Capitolinus (c. 10, 
teqq.), Albinus was severe, gloomy, and unsocial, in- 
temperate in wine, and remarkable for his voracious 
gluttony. This account, however, must be received 
with caution. If we form an idea of Albinus from hia 
life and actions, we muat pronounce him a brave war- 
rior, a talented man, but deficient in stratagem and 
address. (Biographic Univtrtellc, vol. l,p. 431, seqq. 
— Compare Crevier, Hitt. det Envp. Rom., vol. 6, p. 
153, teqq ) — II. A Platonic philosopher, who resided 
at Smyrna, in the reign of Antoninus Pius, and waa 
the preceptor of Galen. He is the author of an In- 
troduction to the Dialogues of Plato, which Fabriciua 
has inserted in the second volume of his Bibliolhec* 
Graca. It is also given -in Etwal's edition of three 
of the dialogues of Plato, Of on., 1771, 8vo. — III. The 
name of Albinus was common to a great number ot 
individuate belonging to the Gent Paalhuntia, for an 
account of whom eta*. Supplement. 

AlbIon, I. a giant, ihe son of Neptune, who, togeth- 
er with his brother Bergion, endeavoured to prevent 
Hercules from passing the Rhone. When the weap- 
on* of the latter failed him iu this conflict, he prayed 



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10 Jove for aid, ind that deity destroyed the two broth- 
era by * (bower of stones. The battle-ground waa 
called, from the appearance which it presented, the 
Campus LapuUtu, or " Stony plain" (Mela, 2, 5), and 
lay between Maaatlia and the Rhone. Apollodorua 
(3, 5, 10) calls the brothers Alebion and Dercynna 
('AXttiur re cat Aepxupof ), and lays the scene in I j- 
rajta (Aiymj). This, however, as Voashis (ad Mel., 
I. e.) remarks, should not have misled Salmasias (Sau- 
auise), since Lignria and the Ligures once extended 
even to the Rhone. (Compare Heyne. ad Apoltod., I. 
c.) To Albion is ascribed by some, if indeed so ridicu- 
hna an etymology be worth mentioning, one of the 
nines of Britain. — II. The earlier name of the island 
sf Great Britain, called by the Romans Britannia Ma- 
jor, from which they distinguished Britannia Minor, 
the modern French province of Bretagne. Agatheme- 
nis(Il, 4), speaking of the British islands, nses the 
nanes Hibemia and Albion for the two largest ; Ptol- 
emy (3, 3) calls Albion a British island ; end Pliny 
(4, 16) says, that the island of Britain was formerly 
called Albion, the name of Britain being common to 

all the islands around it. (" Britannia insula Al- 

Umipsi norm fuit, cam Britannica voearenter am- 
act ") The etymology of the name is uncertain 
Some writers derive it from the Greek &Xfov (the 
Motet of 4>j*6t), "white," in reference to the chalky 
cliffs on the coasts ; others have recourse to the He- 
brew alarm, " white ;" and others again to toe Phoeni- 
cian tip or Wan, " high," and " hujh mountain ;" from 
the height of the coast. SprengeT thinks it of Gallic 
origin, the same with Albm, the name of the Scotch 
bigUaad*. It appears to hirn tbeplnralof A/sor At/e, 
wajch signifies '* Rocky Mountains," and to have been 
given to the island, because the shore, which looks 
towards France, appears like a long raw of rocks. The 
term evidently comes from the same source with the 
word Atpes, and conveys the associate ideas of a high 
and chalky, or whitish, coast. (Vid. Alp**, and com- 
fare Addung, MitkradaJes, vol. 3, p. 43, not.) The 
ancient British poets call Britain Jmt Wen, " the white 
island " ( Maxnerl, Geagr., vol. 2, p. 33, stqq.) 

Aiaia, a river of Germany, now the Elbe. It is 
oiled Albios by Dio Cassius (66, 1). This waa the 
easternmost stream in Germany with which the Ro- 
ams became acquainted in the course of their expedi- 
tion : and they knew it, moreover, only in the north- 
era part of its course. Tacitus leaned that the Her- 
arndori dwelt near its sources. (Germ., 41.) Ptol- 
emy shn was acquainted with the quarter where it 
rose, oa the east aide of his Sudetes, near the confines 
of the modern Moravia. The only Roman who passed 
this stream with an army was L. Domitius Ahenobar- 
tea. A.U.C. 744 ; and though he made no farther 
progress, the passage of the Alois was deemed worthy 
of a triumph. (Phn, 4, 14 — Veil. Paterc.fi, 106. 
—Toot., Attn., 1, 59. — Id. »., 13, tub Jin— Flat 
YopUe. Pre*., 13.) 

Af-aioa, I. Ingaunnm, a city of Lignria, on the 
coast, some distance to the southwest of Genoa. It 
waa the capital of the Ingauni, and answers to the 
modem Albenga. (Strab., 303.— Km, 8, 6.)— II. 
Interoelium, a city of Lignria, on the coast, to the 
aoothwest of the preceding. It waa the capital of the 
Irstcsneiri, and corresponds to the modern Vintmigba. 
{Strata, «K — Plin., 3, 5.) From Tacitus (Hut., 3, 
13). we learn that it was a mmricipram. 

Audi, a, the more ancient name of the Tiber. Man- 
. considers Albola the Latin, and Tiberis the Etru 
for the stream ; which last became in the 
of time the prevailing one. Fid. Tiberis. 
(Geagr., voL 9, p. 607.) 

Auvljbs avom, a name given to some cold mephitie 
asanas, aboat sixteen miles from Rome, which issued 
from a small bat deep lake, and flowed into the neign- 
They were highly esteemed by 



the Romans for their medicinal properties, and were 
used both for drinking and bathing. ( Vitrun., 8, 3.— 
Km., 31, 11.) 

Albunba, the largest of the springs or fountains 
which formed the Albula Aqua. It proceeded, like 
the rest, from a small but deep lake, and flowed with 
them into the Anio. In the immediate vicinity of the 
fountain waa a thick grove, in which were a temple 
and oracle of Faimus. (Virg., JSa., 7, 83, teqq.— 
Heyne, ad Virg., L c.) Both the grove and fountain 
were sacred to the nymph or sibyl Albunea, who waa 
worshipped at Tibur, and whose temple still remains 
on the summit of the cliff, and overhanging the cas- 
cade. "This beautiful temple," observes a recent 
traveller, " which stands on the very spot where the 
eye of taste would have placed it, and on which it ever 
reposes with delight, is one of the most attractive fea- 
tures of the scene, and perhaps gives to Tivoli its 
greatest charm." (Rome ta the Nineteenth Century, 
vol. 3, p. 398. Am. ed.) Varro, as cited by Lactan- 
tiua (de Falsa Ret., 1, 6), gives a list of the ancient 
sibyls, and among tnem enumerates the one at Tibur, 
sumamed Albunea, as the tenth and lsst Suidaa 
also says, Ascdrn &: Tttovpria, bvouari 'AXtowaia. 
(Compare Hot., Od., 1, 7, 13, and MiUektrliek and 
Fea, ad lac — Consult also Creuzer, SymboUk, vol. 8, 
976, and vol. 4, p. 37.) 

Albdbkus, a ridge of mountains in Lucania, near 
the junction of the Silarus and Tanager, and between 
the latter river and the Calor. It is now called Monte 
it Posliglume, and sometimes Alburno. Near a part 
of the ridge, and on the shores of the Sinus Pestanua, 
waa a harbour of the same name (Alburnus Partus), 
where the Silarus emptied into the sea. ( Virg., Georg., 
3, 146. — Cromer'* -lite. Italy, vol. 3, p. 376.) 

Albvs, I. Pobtos, a harbour on the coast of Syria, 
supposed by Gail to be the harbour of Laodicea to 
which Appian alludes (koX if to iriXayof Ixovoa ipfsov. 
Beit. Ctv , 4, 60), and placed by him to the west of 
the promontory of Ziaret. (Gail, ad Anon. Stadiasm. 
Maria Mag —Geagr. Gr. Min., vol. 3, p. 638.)— II. 
Vious (h Aevtci/ Kuprj), a harbour in Arabia, from which 
Gallus set out on his expedition into the interior. 
(Strab., 781.) It is supposed by Mannert to be the 
same with the modem harbour of Iamho. (Geagr., 
vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 60.— Compare Peripl. Mar. Erythr., 
p. 11. — Geagr. Gr. Mm., td. Hudson, vol. 1.) 

AlbutIus, I. a wealthy Roman, remarkable for bis 
severity towards bis slaves. According *° sn ancient 
scholiast, be even punished them sometimes before 
they had committed any offence, " lest," said he, •• I 
should have no time to punish them when they do of- 
fend." (Horat.,Serm., 8, 3, 67.— Sckol., ad Herat., L 
e.) Povphyrioo (ad Hor., I. c.) styles him, " et anarus, 
etelegans comneiorum apparalor." The epithet use- 
rs*, however, must evidently be thrown out, ss con- 
tradicting what follows. — II. T., a Roman of the Epi- 
curean school. He waa educated at Athena, and ren- 
dered himself ridiculous, on his return home, by his 
excessive attachment to the language and manners of 
Greece. About A.U.C. 648, he was sent as prater 
to Sardinia. For some unimportant services ren- 
dered here, he believed himself entitled to a triumph. 
The senate, however, rejected his application, and he 
waa accused, on bis return, by the augur M ucius 
Scmvola, of extortion in his government. Being con- 
demned, he went into exile at Athens, where he con- 
soled himself, amid his disgrace, by philosophical in- 
vestigations, and by composing satires in the style ol 
Lucilius. (Cic., Brut., 36. — Id., de Fin., 1, 3. — Id., 
Oral., 44 — Id., m Pis., 38.— Id., Brut., 3 6 — Id., 
fast. Quetst., 6, 87.)— III. C. Situs, a rhetorician in 
the age of Augustas. He was a native of Novaria in 
Cisalpine Gaul, where he exercised for a time the tunc 
tions of ajdde. Being grossly insulted, however, by 
some individuals against whom he waa pronouncing • 

09 

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decision, ind being dragged by the feet from hi* tri- 
bunal, be left hit native city and came to Rome, where 
he toon attained to distinction aa a pleader. A sin- 

Slar adventure induced him to leave the bar Intend- 
j, on one occasion, merely to employ a rhetorical 
figure, he said to the opposite parly, who •was accused 
of impiety towards his parents, " Swear by the ashes 
of thy lather and mother" (and thou shut gain thy 
cause). The defendant immediately accepted the con- 
dition, and, though Albutius protested that he merely 
employed a figure of rhetoric, the judgea admitted the 
oath, and the defendant was scquitted. In his old age 
Albutius returned to Novaria, where he assembled his 
fellow-citizens, and represented to them that hia age 
and the maladies under which he waa labouring ren- 
dered life insupportable. When he had finished his ha- 
rangue he retired to his dwelling, and starved himself. 
—IV. Vid. Supplement. 

Alcjeos, I. a celebrated poet of Mytilene, in Les- 
bos, and the contemporary of Sappho, Pittacus, and 
8tesichorus. (Clinton's Fast. HcU.,to\. l,p. b.ided.) 
He was famed as well for his resistance to tyranny and 
bis unaettled life, as for bis lyric productions. Having 
aided Pittacus to deliver his country from the tyrants 
Which oppressed it, he quarrelled with this friend, 
When the people of Mytilene had placed uncontrolled 
power in the hands of the latter, and some injurious 
verses, which be composed sgsinst Pittacus, caused 
himself and his adherents to be driven into exile. An 
endeavour to return by force of arms proved unsuc- 
cessful, and Alcasus fell into the power of bis former 
.friend, who, forgetting all that had passed, generously 
granted him both life and freedom. In his odea Al- 
cssus treated of various topics. At one time he in- 
veighed against tyrants ; at another he deplored the 
misfortunes which had attended him, and the pains of 
exile: while, on other occasions, he celebrated the 

r'sesof Bacchus and the goddess of love. He wrote 
the -rEolic dialect. Dionysiua of Halicarnassus 
speaks in high commendation of the lofty character of 
hia compositions, the conciseness of his style, and the 
clearness of his images. His productions, indeed, 
breathed the same spirit with his life. A strong, 
manly enthusiasm for freedom and justice pervaded 
even those in which he sang the pleasures of love and 
wine. But the sublimity of his nature shone brightest 
when he praised valour, chastised tyrants, described 
the blessings of liberty, and the misery and hardships 
of exile. His lyric muse was versed m sll the forms 
and subjects of poetry, and antiquity attributes to him 
hymns, odes, and songs. A few fragments only are 
left of all of them, and a distant echo of hia poetry 
reaches us in some of the odes of Horace. Alcana 
waa the inventor of the metre that bears his name, one 
of the most beautiful and melodious of all the lyric 
measures. Horace has employed it in many of bis 
odea. Aa regards the personal- character of the poet, 
it may be remarked, that the charge of cowardice 
which some have endeavoured to fasten upon him, for 
hia misfortune in having lost his shield during a con- 
wet between toe Mytileneans and Athenians for the 
possession of Sigsum, would seem to be anything but 
just Equally unjust is the same charge, as brought 
againat Horace for his conduct at Philippi. (Consult 
the work of Van Ommeren, Horaz alt Mensch und 
Burger von Horn., etc., Am dem Holland., von L. 
Welch.) — The fragments that remain to na of the po- 
etry of A learns, are to be found in the collections of 
H. Stephens and Fulviua Ursinus. Jam, one of the 
editors of Horace, published, from 1780 to 1782, three 
Prolusimei, containing those fragments of Alcasus 
which the Latin poet had imitated. In 1813, Stange 
united these opuscula in a volume which appeared at 
Halle, under the title of "Aleai poet* lyrici Jragmen- 
aa." The most complete and accurate collection, how- 
ever, is that by Matthias, Lips., 18S7. A collection 
100 



was also made by Blomfield in the Museum Cnticum, 
I, p. 421, Sec., Catnb., 1826, reprinted in Gaistord's 
Poets Greci Minorca. Additional fragments have 
been printed in the Rhenish Museum for 1829, 1833, 
and 1835 ; in Jahn's Jabrbtjch. fiir Philolog. for 1830; 
snd in Cramer's Anecdote Grsca, Oion., 1835. 
(SehoU, Hut. LUt. Gr., vol. 1, p. 204.— Bade, Gesek, 
der Lymchcn Dichikuntt der Hcllcntn, 2, p. 378, seiq.) 
— II. An epigrammatic poet. (Vie!. Supplement.) 
— III. A comic poet of Athens, contemporary with 
Aristophanes. Some of his contemporaries are cited by 
Athenasue (3, p. 107.— Vol. 1, p. 418, cd. Schvxigk.\ 

and others. (Compare Cosoubon, ad Aihen., I. c 

Clinton't Faeti HeUeniei, vol. 1, p. 101.)— IV. An 
Athenian tragic poet, whom some, according to Sui- 
das, made to have been the first writer in tragedy. 
(Compare Cataubon, ad Athen.,3,p. 107, and the re- 
marks of Sckweighamttr, vol. 9, p. 14.)— V. A son 
of Perseus, and father of. Amphitryon, from whom 
Hercules has been called Alcidea. (Apollod., 2, 4, 
12. — Compare Heyne, ad loc.) 

Alcamenes, L ninth king of Sparta, and one of the 
Agidas (vid. Aside), succeeded his father A.M. 3235 
B C. 769, ana reigned thirty-eeven yean, in which 
time there was a rebellion of the Helots. Plutarch 
cites some of his apophthegms. (Plut., Apopk. ba- 
con., 32. — Pautan., 3, 2. — Meursius,de Reg. Loam., 
9.)— II. A statuary and sculptor of Athens, who flourish- 
ed about 448 B.C. He waa the pupil of Phidias, and 
adorned his country with numerous specimens of his 
superior skill, a skill which almost equalled that of his 
master. (Quintd,, 12, 10.— Dionys. Hal., da De- 
mos th. Acuta., pt. 6, p. 1108, ed. Reiske.) The most 
celebrated of his productions waa hia statue of Venus, 
commonly atyled i) 'Aspooinj h> rot; mjiroif, and 
sometimes simply mjjrot. It is ssid to hsve received 
its laat polish from the hand of Phidias himself, and is 
spoken of in high terms by Lucian and others. (Luc. 
Imag.. i et 6.) Whether this waa the statue of Venus, 
by which Alcamenes obtained his victory over Agora- 
critus (vid. Agoracritua), cannot, be determined with 
certainty from the words of Pliny. If we suppose it 
to have been the same, we have this difficulty, that all 
ancient writers pronounce the Venus h Kt/iroit of Alca- 
menes, one of the highest productions of the art, while 
Pliny asserts, that the artist was indebted for his suc- 
cess, in the contest just mentioned, not to the superi- 
ority of his performance, but to the spirit of party which 
influenced the umpire*. Another highly celebrated 
work of his waa the rear pediment of the temple of 
Jupiter at Olympia, of which Pauaanias has left ua a 
description (6, 10). On it waa represented the conflict 
between the Centaurs snd Lapiths. Cicero (N. X)., 
1, 30) speaks of a statue of Vulcan by this artist, and 
Valerius Maxim us (8, 11, 3) informs us, that although 
the god was exhibited as lame, yet the lameness waa 
in a great measure concealed by the drapery and posi- 
tion. The distinguished merit of Alcamenes obtained 
for him the honour of being placed in a bas-relief on 
the temple at Eleusis. (Plin., 34, S.^Id. ibid., 36, 
6. — Pautan., 1, 19.) — III. An artist whose name oc- 
curs on some Roman embossed work, described by 
Zoega. (Batt. Ant., Sic, tav. 23.— Consult Sillig, 
Diet. Art-, s. v.) He is called a duumvir, and it haa 
been conjectured that, besides being raised to civil hon- 
our* in the municipal state to which he belonged, he 
also obtained hia livelihood by exercising the art of 
modelling. (StUig, ubi supra.) 

Alcandee. * Lacedemonian youth, of hasty tem- 
per, but not otherwise ill-disposed, who, during a pop- 
ular tumult, struck out one of the eyes of Lycurpus. 
The people were so moved with shame and sorrow at 
the outrage, that they surrendered Alcsndcr into his 
hands, to do with him aa he pleased. Lycurgrus took 
him to his own home, and so won, upon him by mild 
treatment, that Alcander became one of his warmest 
friends and an excellent citizen. (Plut., Vit. Lye. ,11.) 



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Alc»tb5o(, T. a son of Pelops, who, being sospect- 
ed of murdering his brother Chryaippua, came to Me- 
gan, where be killed a lion, which had destroyed the 
king's son. The monarch bad promised the hand of 
his daughter, and the succession to the throne, unto 
him who should succeed in destroying the wild beast. 
Alcat>ous, therefore, gained both of these prizes, and 
succeeded in the course of time to the kingdom of Me- 
gan. In commemoration of him, feativale, called Al- 
cathoia, were instituted at Megan. (Pauttn., 1, 41, 
Ac.}— II. One of the two citadels of Megan, so called 
from its (bander Alcatbous. (Ptuun.. 1, 40 and 43.) 

Alcs, a town of the Cehiberi, in Hispania Tarra- 
eoneosis, called also Alcantium. It answers to the 
modem Aleartz, in Now Castile, on the river GuanU- 
ssraa. (Ltv., 40, 47, teqq.) 

Alcbkor, an Argive, who, along with Chronius, 
survived on his side, the battle between 300 of his 
countrymen and 300 Lacedamtonians. (Vii. Othrya- 
dw — Htrodat , 1, 83.) 

Alckstis, daughter of Pelies and wife of Admetus. 
Her father had offered to give her in marriage to this 
prince, on condition of his previously yoking lions and 
■oars to a chariot, and Admetus successfully accom- 
plished thti through the aid of Apollo. This same deity 
who was then serving with Admetus, in accordance 
with the sentence that had been passed against him 
(rid. . T Ucnhpras. Amphryaus, and Cyclopes), obtained 
from the rates, that when Admetus should be about 
to end his existence, his life would be spared and pro- 
longed, provided another willingly died in his stead. 
When die day came, Alccstia heroically devoted her- 
eetf far her husband, but was resetted from the lower 
world and restored to the regions of day by Hercules. 
According to another version of the legend, she was 
sent back again to life by Proserpina. Euripides has 
bonded upon this story of Alcestis one of his moat 
beautiful tragedies. (Apolloi., 1, 9, 14.) This same 
legend is also given in a different and more historical 
form, as follows : when Medea bad prevailed upon the 
daughters of Pelias to cut their father in pieces, in ex- 
pectation of seeing him restored to youth, and they 
were pursued by their brother A castas, Alcestis fled 
for protection to her cousin Admetus. This prince 
refusing to deliver her up, Aesstus marched against 
him. took him prisoner, and threatened to put him to 
searh, when Alcestis heroically surrendered herself 
ism her brother's hands, and saved the life of Adme- 
tus. It happened, however, that, just at this time, Her- 
cules came that way with the bones of Diomede, and 
was hospitably entertained by Admetus. On learning 
horn him what bad taken place, the hero waa fired with 
Migration, attacked Acsatns, destroyed his army, and 
rescued Alceetia, whom be restored m safety to bis 
royal boss. (Eudoda, Im. op. YtUoiton., Anted. 6r«e., 
vol 1. 11, see*.) 

Alcbtas, I. a km* of Epirus, descended from Pyr- 
rhas, the son of Achilles, arid an ancestor of Pyrrhus, 
lung of Epirus. He was driven by his subjects from 
the throne, bat regained his power by the aid of Dio- 
nysus the elder, of Syracuse. — II. King of Epirus, 
son of Arymbaa. and grandson of the preceding. His 
subjects strangled him, together with his two sons, 
B.C. 31*. — III. The eighth king of Macedonia, son 
of iEropas, and father of Amyotaa I. He reigned 39 
yean, from 576 to 647 B.C. — IV. A general of At- 
exandex die Great, and rmither of Perdkcas. He slew 
Himself after a defeat by Antigonoa, during the contests 
that ensued after Alexander' a decease. — V. An his- 
torian who wrote sn account of rhe offerings st Delphi, 
*rpi rwr tv A*Af«f araOvftaTuv. (Atknunu, 13, p. 
601, e.) 

AtxnuIeBS, a celebrated Athenian commander, son 
of Camas, nephew to Pericles, and lineally descended, 



in shuts ting and graceful demeanour, be made himself 
still more conspicuous for his extravagsnt expenditures, 
his contempt of order, and his dissolute mode of life. 
The lessons and the example of Socrates, who num- 
bered him for some time among hia disciples, operated 
but feebly ia checking the vicious propensities of the 
young Athenian, or in restraining bis bold and ambi- 
tious designs. He took Pericles as hia model in pub- 
lic life, and resolved to tread in the footsteps of that 
illustrious statesman, and aucceed, if possible, to the 
authority which he hsd enjoyed. The Athenians, in 
the lime of Pericles, had entertained a strong desire of 
becoming masters of Sicily, and Alcibiades, after the 
death of hia uncle, succeeded in prevailing upon them 
to send an armament for that purpose. This wss du- 
ring the Peiopoanesian war. The expedition waa di- 
rected against Syracuse, and Alcibiades, with Nicies 
and La nuchas, received the command. A short time, 
however, before the departure of the fleet, the Henna 
or images of Mercury, placed throughout Athena, were 
all mutilated in the course of one night, and suspicion 
fell upon Alcibiades, who was supposed to have bees] 
guilty of this set of profanation during a drunken ca- 
rousal with some of hia young friends. After having 
been allowed to sail with the expedition, he was soon 
sent for, and summoned to stand trial for this and other 
alleged acta of impiety. Avoiding, however, a return 
to Athena, he took refuge, first in Argos, and after- 
ward at Sparta, at which latter place he excited very 
friendly feelings towards himself by the important ad- 
sice he gave respecting the future movements of the 
war, and became an object of wonder by the eaae wits) 
which be adopted the plain and austere manners of 
the Spartans, so directly at variance with hia previous 
mode of life. Distrusting, however, at last, the sin- 
cerity of the Lacedaemonians, he betook himself to Tie- 
eaphemes, satrap of the King of Persia, and soon at- 
tained to gnat favour. Not long after this, he was 
restored, by a strange turn of fortune, to the good-will 
of his countrymen ; the sentence of banishment that 
had been passed against him was revoked, be waa 
appointed to a command, and, after a career of brill- 
iant success, returned in triumph to Athens. His pop- 
ularity, however, was of short continuance. Lysander, 
the Spartan admiral, defeated the Athenian fleet, ami 
alew Antioebus, to whom Alcibiades hsd left it in 
charge, when departing for Carle, in order to raise 
money for the war; and Alcibiadea soon found himself 
compelled to solicit once more the protection of the 
Persians. Pharnabazua, the satrap, allowed him for a 
while a safe residence m Phrygia, but finally, through 
the solicitations of Lysander, he caused Alcibiadea 
to be stain, by an armed party, at his place of abode, 
in a small village. This remarkable man died in hia 
40th year, B.C. 404. If the Athenians had only known 
how to retain among them an individual of so rare merit 
both as a civilian and a soldier, they might easily have 
given the law to all Greece. And yet impartial his- 
tory, while it awards him the highest praise for his tal- 
ents as a statesman, and bis skill and intrepidity as % 
commander, cannot but condemn, in the most unequiv- 
ocal manner, the licentiousness of his private life, the 
versatility and chameleon-like character of hia princi- 
ples of action, and his traitorous conduct, on mora 
than one occasion, to the best interests of his country. 
(Pf«l., Vit. Alcib.— Corn. Ntf., Vit. Alcib.) 
AboiOAHAS, a Greek rhetorician. (Vii- Supple- 

»*•) . 
A Loin a a, a naval commander of Sparta in the time 
of the Peloponnesian -war, B.C. 438. He, on one oc- 
casion, lost, in consequence of his habitual caution, the 
opportunity of following up a victory gained by hint 
over the Athenians and Corcyroans. 
ALcinaa, I. a name of Hercules, either from bis 



waa said,' from the TeUurjonian Ajax. He was Mimgtk, dJurry. or from his grandfather Alcaua— II. 
bora B.C. 46©- Conspicuous for beauty, and for an [A surname of Minerva in Macedonia. (£»., 43, 61.) 



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ALCNLEON. 



For AlcitUm in the pa wage of Lin hero quoted, we 
•hould no doubt read, according to Tumobus (Advtrs., 
30, 57), Alcidtmum, " the people's strength." 

Alcimachos, a painter. ( Pid. ^Supplement.) 

Alcihsoon, I. an Arcadian hero. (Vid. Supple- 
ment.) — II. An embosser or chaser spoken of by Vir- 
gil (Eelog., 3, 37, 44), who mentions some goblets of 
his workmanship. Sillig thinks he was a contempo- 
rary of the poet's. 

A minims. Vid. Supplement. 

Alcimos. Vid. Supplement. 

AlcinSus, I. • son of Nausithooa, king of Pheacia, 
praised for his lore of agriculture. He kindly enter- 
tained Ulysses, who had been shipwrecked on his coast. 
The gardens of Alcihoua are beautifully described by 
Homer, and have afforded, also, a favourite theme for 
succeeding poets. The island of the Phsacians is 
called by Homer Schcria. Its more ancient name 
was Drepane After the days of Homer it was called 
Corcyra,. Now Corfu. ( Kid. Corcyra. — Homer, Od., 
7.— Ort*., tit Argon.— Virg., G., 8, St.— Slat., 1.— 
ttyh., 3, 81.)— II. A Platonic philosopher. (Vid. 
Supplement.)— III. A son of Hippolhoon, who, in con- 
junction with bis father and eleven brothers, expelled 
Icarion and Tyndareua from Lacedatmon, but was af- 
terward killed, with his father and brothers, by Hercu- 
les. (ApoUod., 8.10. 5.> 

AlcYpbeon, the most distinguished of the Greek 
epistolary writers. Nothing is Known of his life, and 
even his era is uncertain. Some critic* place him be- 
tween Lucian, whom he has imitated, and Arietane* 
tus, to whom he served as a model ; in other words, 
between the years 170 and 350 of the present era. 
Others, however, are inclined to transfer him to the 
fifth century. Neither side have attended to the cir- 
cumstance of there being among the letters of Aris- 
tsmetus a kind of correspondence between Lucian 
and Alciphron. This correspondence, it is true, is 
fictitious ; yet it indicates, at the same time, that Aris- 
tenetus regarded these two writers as contemporaries, 
and we have no good reason to accuse him of any er- 
ror in this respect. Though 'a contemporary, Alciph- 
ron might still have imitated Lucian : it is much more 
probable, however, that the passages which appear to 
as to be imitations are borrowed ov tnese two writers 
from some ancient comic poets. Tne .etters of Al- 
ciphron are 1 16 in number, lormmg taree oooa. They 
are distinguished for Duritv. clearness, and simolicitv. 
and are important as giving ns a reoresentation of) 
Athenian manners, drawn irom dramatic ooets wnose I 
writings are now loat. Tne oest portion o. tne worn 
is the 3d book, containing the letters 01 tne neierte. or 
courtesans; and, among these, that of Menanaer to 
Olycerion, and that of Glycerion to Menander. Tne 
principal editions are, that of Bergler, Lips., 1715, 8 vo, 
with an excellent commentary ; that of Wagner, lap:, 
1778, S vols. 8vo, containing a corrected text, a Latin 
version, the commentary of Bergler, and the editor's 
own notes ; and that of Boissonade, Pari*, 1822, 8vO. 
Wagner had been furnished by Bast with the readings 
of two Vienna MSS., but, according to the Critical 
Epistle of the last-mentioned scholar, did not make all 
the use of these collated readings which he might have 
done. Among the papers of Baat, after his decease, 
were found various readings of the Letters of Alciph- 
ron, derived from four Paris MSS., two of the Vat- 
ican, and one of Heidelberg. Many of these were 
preferable to the received readings. Along with them 
were found various unedited fragments, and even en- 
tire letters, Which bad never yet been printed. These 
papers are now in England, and were used by Bois- 
sonade in hia edition. (Scholl, Hist. Lit. Gr., vol. 
4, p. 313, ttqq. — Wackier, Handbuch der Gesck. da- 
Lit., vol. 1, p. 341.) 

Aloipfb, I. a daughter of the god Mars, by Agrau- 
los. — II. The daughter of (Enomaus. 
108 



Alois, a surname of Minerva, and the name ot • 
deity among the Naharvali. (Vid. Supplement.) 

Alcithoc, aTheban female, who, together with her 
sisters, contemned and ridiculed the orgies of Bac- 
chus, and, while these rites were getting celebrated 
without, employed themselves at home with the distaff, 
and beguiled the time by recounting poetic legends. 
They were changed into bats, and the spindles and 
yam, with which they worked, into vines and ivy. (Ov., 
Met., A, I, ttqq. — U. ib., 389, ttqq. ) As regards the 
terms Mmye'iut and Minytia proles, which Ovid ap 
plies to the sisters, consult Gierig, ad loc. 

Alcilxon, I. a son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle, 
and • native of Argoa: When his father went to the 
Theban war, where he knew he was to perish, Ale- 
mason was directed by him, when he should hear of hit 
death, to kill Eriphyle who bad betrayed him. (Vid. 
Eriphyle.) The son obeyed the father's injunctions, 
and was pursued, in consequence, by the furies, the 
avengers of parricide. According to another account, 
being chosen chief of the seven Epigoni, he took and 
destroyed Thebes, and, after thia event, put his moth- 
er to death, in obedience to an oracle of Apollo. 
(ApoUod., 3, 7, 3.) While in the state of phrensy which 
was sent upon him as s punishment for this deed, be 
came first to Arcadia, to O'icleua, and, from the resi- 
dence of this his paternal grandfather, went subsequent- 
ly to the city of Psophia, to, Phegeua, its king. Being 
purified of the murder by Phegeus, be married Arsinoe, ■ 
the daughter of the latter, and gave to her, as a bridal 
present, the fatal collar and robe (rov rr Spftov noi rot 
KhrXov) which hia mother Eriphyle had received to be - 
tray his father. The country, however, becoming bar- 
ren, in consequence .<f his residing in it (dV ovrov), he 
was directed by an as the only means of es- 

caping the vengeaucj ji the fanes, to find, and dwell 
in, a land which was not in existence when he slew his 
parent. (Pausan.. 8, 84. — Compare Heyne, ad ApoU 
hd., I. c.) He at last found rest, for a short time, on 
an island at the mouth of the Acheloue, formed by the 
alluvial depositee of that stream. (Vid. Echinacea.) 
Here he married Callirhoe, the daughter of the river- 
god, after repudiating his former wife Arsinoe. But 
be did not long enjoy repose. At the request of his 
wife, he attempted to recover from his former father- 
in-law the collar and robe which he had presented to 
his daughter, and, ss a pretext for obtaining them, 
stated that he bad been directed by an oraole, as the 
on.T means of freeing himself from the furies, to con 
secrate toe articles in question to Apollo st Delphi. 
Pnegeue gave went up. but the imposition being made 
known to nun ov an attendant, he ordered hie aons to 
wav.ar ana aestrov Aicmieon, which was accordingly 
aone. A,cmson s aeatn was avenged by the two sons 
wnom he bad bv Callirhoe. Their mother entreated 
ot Jupiter tnat tney mignt speedilv attain to manhood, 
and retaliate on their father's murderers. The prayer 
waa heard ; tnev oecame on a suaaen men in toe prime 
of life, and slew not only the two eons of Phegeus, out 
the monarch himself end his wife. The sons of A le- 
nt con by Callirhoe were Amphoterua and Acaman, 
and are said to have settled subsequently in Acarna- 
nia, the latter giving name to the country. (Apollod., 
I: c.) Pausamas calls Arsinoe by the name of Alphe- 
sibcBa (vid. Alphesiboaa), and, in other parts of his nar- 
rative also, differs from Apollodorus. On these end 

other variations, consult Heyne, ad Apollod., I. c. 

II. The founder of an illustrious family at Athena, call 
od after him Alcmnonids. He was the son of Sillus, 
and great grandson of Nestor; snd, being driven from 
Measenia, with the rest of Nestor's family, by the Herac- 
lide, settled at Athens. ( Pausan. , 2, 18. — Compare 
the note of Clinton, Past. Hell., vol. 1, p. 299, id ed., 
where he disproves the assertion of Larcher. ad Herod., 
6, 126, who makes the Alcmaonidas to have been de- 
scended from Melanthua.) — III A eon of Megaclea, 



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Having shown nrach kindness tnd attention to the 
persons whom Cronos had sent U> Delphi for the pur- 
pose of consulting the oracle, that monarch invited 
him to Sardis, and gave him permission to carry from 
the royal treasury aa much gold aa be could bear off 
with him at one visit. Herodotus (6, 136) gives an 
account of the mode in which he availed himself of 
the royal offer, filling with gold his anna, the folds of 
his habit, his large shoes worn expressly for the occa- 
sion, and having not only his hair powdered with gold- 
dust, bat hia mouth fall of it. To these Croesus even 
added other valuable presents ; and to this source He- 
rodotus traces the wealth of the family. We must not, 
however, regard this Alcmason aa the founder of the 
line. (Compare Alcnaeon, II.)— IV. The last of the 
perpetual archons at Athena, was succeeded by Cha- 
mpa, the son of ^Esehylus, as decennial arcbon, 
Boeefch {Ex/He. ad Pmd., Pwtk., 7, p. 301) makes htm 
not to have belonged to the family of the Alenueonidw 
proper, bat to have been reckoned among the Alcnueon- 
ida merely because hia mother belonged lo that house. 
— V. A natural philosopher. (Vid. Supplement.) 

AicblsokJo.2, a noble family of Athena, descended 
from Alcmason. ( Vid. Alcmason, II.) When driven 
from Athens by the tyranny of the Pimstratidm, they 
first endeavoured to return by force of arms ; but hav- 
ing met with a serious check at Lipsydrion, in the 
Psonian horoagh of Attica, they turned their atten- 
tion to a surer and more pacific mode of operation. 
The temple at Delphi having been burned, and having 
remaned in rains for some considerable time, the Alc- 
Bveooids, after their defeat, engaged with the Am- 
phictyonic council to rebuild the structure for the 
sum of 300 talents. They finished the work, however, 
in a much more splendid manner than the terms of 
their contract required, and attained, in consequence, to 
treat popularity. By dint of the favour with which 
they were now regarded, as well aa by means of a 
large sum of money, they prevailed upon the Pytho- 
ness, whenever application of a public or private na- 
ture waa made from Lacedasmon to the god at Delphi, 
to conclude the answer of the oracle, whatever it might 
be, with an admonition to the Lacedemonians to give 
liberty to Athens. This artifice had the desired effect ; 
rad, though Sparta was in friendly relations with the 
Pisatratidc, it waa determined to invade Attica, 
v/hich wsa accordingly done, and the result waa, that 
Vac Spartans expelled Hippiaa, and restored the Ale- 
■smicUe (B.C. 610). The restored family found 
themselves in an isolated position, between the nobles, 
■»ho appeared to have been opposed to them, and the 
popakr party, which had been hitherto attached to the 
Fiststratidio- Clisthenes, now the head of the Ale- 
msHxuda, joined the latter party, and gave a new con- 
sot oil on to Athens. He abolished the four ancient 
tribes, and made a fresh geographical division of Atti- 
ca into ten new tribes, each of which bore a name de- 
rived from some Attic hero. The ten tribes were sub- 
divided into districts of various extent called demtt or 
tarngks, each containing a town or village as its chief 
place. The constitution of Clisthenes bad the affect 
of transforming the cooimotislty into a new body. The 
whole frame of the state waa reorganized to Corre- 
spond with the new division of the country. To Clis- 
c h en c a , also, ia ascribed tbo formal institution of the 



Alchik. Vid. Supplement. 
Avemint, was daughter of Electryon, king of My- 
cenae, and Anaxo, whom Plutarch calls Lysiaice, and 
Diodonrs Siculua Enrymede. She was engaged in 
marriage to her cousin Amphitryon, son of Alcsjus, 
when an unexpected event caused the nuptials to be 
deferred. Electryon had undertakes an expedition 
against the Teleboans, or subjects of Taphius, in or- 
der to avenge the death of hia sons, whom the sons of 
Tapsna had slain in a combat. Returning victorious, 



he waa met by Amphitryon, endwae killed by an eocv 
dental blow. This deed, though involuntary, lost Am- 
phitryon the kingdom, which he would otherwise have 
enjoyed in right of his wife. Sthenelus, the brother oi 
Alcmena, availing himself of the public odium against 
Amphitryon, drove him from Argolis, and seized upon 
the vacant throne, the possession of which devolved, 
at hia death, upon bis son Eurystbeus. Amphitryon 
fled to Thebes, where he was purified by Creon ; but 
when be expected that Alcmena, who bad accompanied 
him hither, would have given him her band, she de- 
clined, on the ground that she was not satisfied with 
the punishment inflicted by her father on the Teis- 
boana, and intended to give her hand to him who 
should make war upon them. Amphitryon, in conse- 
quence of this, made au alliance with Creon and other 
neighbouring princes, and ravaged the isles of the Te- 
leboans. While Amphitryon waa absent on this ex- 
pedition, Jupiter, who bad become enamoured of Alc- 
mena, assumed the form of Amphitryon, related to 
her all the events of the war, hia success over the foe, 
and finally persuaded her to a union. Amphitryon, 
on his return, waa surprised at the indifference with 
which be waa regarded by Alcmeua ; hut, on corning to 
an explanation with her, and consulting Tireaiaa, the 
famous diviner of Thebes, he discovered that it was 
no less a personage than Jove himself, who had as- 
sumed bis form. Alcmena brought forth twine, Her- 
cules the son of Jupiter, and Ipbjeles the progeny of 
her mortal lord. According to the ancient poets, 
Juno retarded the birth of Hercules until the mother 
of Eurystbeus waa delivered of a son, unto whom, by 
reason of a rash oath of Jupiter's, Hercules waa made 
•object. It aeema that the day on which Alcmena 
was to be delivered in Thebes, "ove, in exultation, 
announced to the gods that a man }f hia race was that 
day to see the light, who would rule over all his neigh- 
bours. Juno, pretending incredulity, exacted from him 
an oath that what he had said should be accomplish- 
ed. Jupiter, unsuspicious of guile, gave it, and Juno 
hastened down to Argos, where* the wife of Sthene- 
lus, the son of Perseus, waa seven months gone of a 
son. The goddess brought on a premature labour, and 
Eurystbeus came to light that day, while ahe checked 
the parturition of Alcmena, and kept back Lucina. 
(Vid. Galanthia.) The oath of Jove was not to be 
recalled, and his son waa fated to serve Eurystbeus. 
(Horn., U., 10, 101, tern.— Ovid, Met., 9, 386, «?«.— 
Anion. Lib., c. M.—KtightUy'i Mythology, p. 810, 
ttqq ) According to Pherecydea (ap. Anton. Lib.,c. 
83), when Alcmena, who long aurvived her son, died, 
and the Heraclidai were about to bury bar at Thebes, 
Jove directed Mercury to steal bar away, and convey 
her to the islands of the biassed, where she should es- 
pouse Rhadamanthua. Mercury obeyed, and placed 
a atone instead of ber in the coffin. When the Herae- 
lidss went to carry ber forth to be buried, they were 
surprised at the weight, and, on opening the coffin, 
found the stone, which they took out, and set it up 
in the grove where her hercim stood at Thebes • 
66iirtptonv rd iip&ov to 7% 'kixfaivas tv Bipocur. 

Alcor, I. a statuary, who made an iron statue ot 
Hercules, kept at Thebes. Pliny assigns the reason for 
the choice of this metal, when be says, " Latorum 
deifatitntta induetm." (86, 14). — II. A surgeon un- 
der Claudiua. (Vid. Supplement) — III. A son of 
Erechtbeua, king of Athens, and father of Pbalerua. 

AlctShk, or HalctSm, I. daughter of .£ohis, 
married Ceyx, who waa drowned aa be waa going to 
consult the oracle. The gods apprised Alcyone in a 
dream of her buaband'a fate ; and when ahe found, oh 
the morrow, his body washed on the seashore, ahe 
threw herself into the sea. To reward their mutual 
affection, the gods metamorphosed tbem into halcyons, 
and, according to the poets, decreed that the sea 
should remain calm while these birds built their nests 

108 ' 



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upon it. The halcyon wa«, on this account, though a 
querulous, lamenting bird, regarded by the ancients as 
a symbol of tranquillity ; ana, from bring principally 
an the water, was consecrated to Thetia. According 
to Pliny (10, 47), the halcyons only showed them- 
selves at the setting of the Pleiades and towards the 
winter-solstice, and even then they were but rarely 
seen. They made their nests, according to the same 
writer, during the seven days immediately preceding 
the winter-solstice, and lsid their eggs during the seven 
days that follow. These fourteen days are the " dies 
kalcyonti," or " halcyon-days," of antiquity. He de- 
scribes their nests as resembling, while they float upon 
the waters, a kind of ball, a little lengthened out at the 
top, with a very narrow - opening, and the whole not 
unlike a large sponge. A great deal of this is pure 
/able. The only bird in modem times at all resem- 
bling either of the two kinds of halcyons described by 
Aristotle (8, 8), is the Aletdo Ispida, or what the 
French call martin-ptekeur. All that is said, too, 
•bout the nest floating on the water, and the days of 
calm, is untrue. What the ancients took for a nest 
•f a bird, is in reality a zoophyte, of the class named 
haleyonium by Linneus, snd of the particular species 
called gtedu by Lamarck. The nartm-picheur makes 
its nest in boles along the shore, or, rather, it depositee 
its eggs in such holes as it finds there. Moreover, it 
lays its eggs in the spring, and has no connexion 
whatever with calm weather. (G. Cuvicr, ad Plin., 
L e >— II. A daughter of Atlas, snd one of the Pleia- 
des. (Vid. ¥\end<ss.—Apollod., 3, 10.)— III. An ap- 
pellation given to Cleopatra, daughter of Idas and 
Marpessa The mother bsd been carried off, in her 

Cnger days, by Apollo, bnt had been rescued by her 
band Idas, and from the plaintive cries which she 
uttered while being abducted, resembling the lament 
of the halcyon, the appellation Alcyone was given as 
• kind of surname to her daughter Cleopatra. (Horn., 
H., 9, 653, Stqq.) 

AlcyonIa, Palds, a pool in Argolis, not far from 
the Lemean marsh. Nero attempted to measure it by 
means of a plummet several stadia in length, but could 
discover no bottom. (Ptutan , 2, 37.) 

Ar.cYONloM mark, a name given to an arm of the Si- 
nus Corinthiacus, or Gulf of Lepanlo, which stretched 
between the western coast of Bceotia, the northern coast 
of Megiris, and the northwestern extremity of Corin- 
thia, as far as the promontory of CMmias. (Slrab., 336.) 
Alduabis. Vid. Dubis. 

Alia, a town of Arcadia, near the eastern confines, 
and to the northeast of Orchomenus. It bad three 
famous temples, that of the Euhesian Diana, of Miner- 
va Alea, and of Bacchus. The feast of Bacchus, call- 
ed Skiria, was celebrated here every third year, at 
which time, according to Pausaniaa, the women were 
scourged, in obedience to a command of the oracle at 
Delphi. (Pautan.. 8, S3.) 

A lesion and DisctNva, sons of Neptune. (Vid. 
Albion, I.) 

Alecto, one of the Furies. The name is derived 
from A, prit., end Myo, " to cease" from her never 
ceasing to pursue the wicked. ( Vid. Eumenides.) 
Alectob. Vid. Supplement. 
Aleoteyoh, a youth whom Mars, during his meet- 
ing with Venus, stationed at the door to watch against 
the approach of the son. He fell asleep, and Apollo 
came and discovered the guilty pair. Mara was so 
incensed that he changed Alectryon into a cock, who, 
still mindful of his neglect, announces, ssy the an- 
cient writers, at early dawn, the approach of the sun. 
(Lucian, Somn. ttu. Gall., 3.) 

Alectvs, s military prefect and usurper in Britain, 
who slew Carausins, but was in turn slain by Asclepio- 
dotus, a general under Conttanttus Chlorus. He died 
A D. 396. (Eumen. ptmeg. Const. Cos. — Crewier, 



Hist, dee Emp. Rom., 6, p. 303, teqq .) 



A talus Campos ('AXqlev mown), a tract in Cflicia 
Campestris, to the east of the river Saras, between 
Adana and the sea. The poets fabled that Bellero- 
phon wandered and perished here, after having been 
thrown from the horse Pegasus. The name comes 
from iXaoutu, " to wander." {Homer, 11., 6, 201- 
Dwnyt. Peritg., 873.— Ovid, Ibis, 359.) 

Alimarmi, or Alamanki, a name assumed by a 
confederacy of German tribes situate between the 
Neckar and the Upper Rhine, who united to resist the 
encroachments of Roman power. - According to Man- 
ner! (Geogr., vol. 3, p. 335, teqq.), the shattered re- 
mains of the army of Ariovistus retired, after the de- 
feat and death of their leader, to the mountainous 
country of the Upper Rhine. (Compare, however, 
Pfister, Getch. der Teuttchen., vol. 1, p. 179, teqq., 
where a different account is given of the origin of the 
Alemsnni.) Their descendants in after days, in order 
to oppose a barrier to the continued advance of the 
Roman arms, united in a common league with the 
German tribes which had originally settled on the left 
bank of the Rhine, but had beeu driven across by their 
more powerful opponents. The members of ibis union 
styled themselves Alemanni or all-men, i. e., men of 
all tribes, to denote at once their various lineage and 
their common bravery. They first appeared in a hos- 
tile attitude on the banks of the Mayn, but wore de- 
feated by CaracaUa, who was hence honoured with the 
surname of Alemannicut. In the. succeeding reigns, 
we find them at one time ravaging the Roman territo- 
ries, at another, defeated and driven back to their na- 
tive forests. At last, after their overthrow by Clovis, 
king of the Saltan Franks, tbey ceased to exist as one 
nation, snd were dispersed over Gaul, Switzerland, 
and northern Italy. 

Alebia, a city of Corsica, on the eastern coast. It 
was founded by the Phocnans, under the name of Ala- 
lia ('AXaXia), and about twenty years after its first 
settlement, was much enlarged by the addition of those 
of the inhabitants of Pnocajs, who fled from the sway 
of Cyrus. (Vast. Phocssa.) Its rapid advance in mari- 
time power, subsequent to this increase of numbers, 
excited the jealousy of the Etrurians snd Carthagin 
ians. A naval contest ensued, in which the people ol 
Alalia, though victorious, suffered so severely, as to be 
convinced of the impossibility of long withstanding the 
united strength of their foes. They migrated, there- 
fore, once more, and settled on the southwestern coast 
of Italy (Herod., 1, 166), where they founded the city 
of Hyela, or Velia. A portion of them, however, went 
to the Phocatan colony of Massilia. (Seneca, de Con 
tol., ad Halt, matr., 8.) The history of Alalia, after this 
event, remains for a long period enveloped in obscuri- 
ty. The Carthaginians, probably, took possession of 
the place. In the second Punic war, it fell, together 
with the whole islsnd, under the Roman sway ; at least 
Zonaras (8, II) speaks of a place called Valeria as 
the most important city in the island, and aa having 
been taken by Lucius Scipio. Alalia remained in 
obscurity under its new mssters also, until Sylla sent 
thither a Roman colony, as Marius bad done a short 
time previous to the ssme island, founding in it the 
colony of Mariana. From this period Alalia, was known 
under the name of Aleria, and the earlier appellation 
fell into disuse. 'When, snd under what circumstances, 
this city was finally destroyed, is not ascertained. Its 
ruins are to be found a short distance below the 
mouth of the river Tarignano. (Mannert, 9, pt. 3, 
p. 616, stqq.) 

Ales, a small river of Ionia in Asia Minor, which emp 
ties into the Mgetn near Colophon. (Pautan., 8, 28.) 

A Lis a, Alaesa, or Halesa, a very ancient city of 
Sicily, built by Arcbonides, B.C. 403. It stood neat 
the modem city of Caronia, on the river Alesus, or 
Fiume di Caronia. The inhabitants were exempted 
by the Romans from taxes. (Dud. Sic., 14, 16.) 



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ALEXANDER. 



AlbsTa or Alexia, a fimont and strongly fortified 
city of the Mandubii, in Gallia Celtics. It was so an- 
cient a city, that Diodonis Sicuhis (4, 19) ascribes 
the building of it to Hercules. (Compare the learned 
and ingenious remarks of Hitter, in bis Vorkailt, p. 
878. on the subject of the Celtic Hercules.) It 
situate on a high hill, supposed to be Mount 4uxou, 
near lhe,aoorces of the Sequana or Seine, and washed 
cn two sides by the small rivers Lulosa and Ozera, 
aow Lose and Oztrasn. Alesia was taken and destroy- 
ed by Cesar after a famous siege, but was rebuilt, and 
Became a place of considerable consequence under the 
Roman emperors. It was laid in ruins in the 9th 
century by the Normans. At the foot of Mount Auxois 
s a village called Aiise (Depart. CM* a" Or), with 
several hundred inhabitants. (Flar., 8, 10. — Cow., 
*. <?.. 7, 69.) 

Alisidm, a mountain in the vicinity of Man tinea, on 
which was a grove dedicated to Ceres ; also the tem- 
pts of the equestrian Neptune, an edifice of great an 
bqoity, which bad been originally built, according to 
tradition, by Agamedes and Tropbonius, but was af- 
terward enclosed within a new structure by order of 
Hadrian. The mountain was said to have taken its 
name from the wanderings of Rhea (to ipot to 'AAj;- 
jim, iii t?v Uav, 4f faai, a&aiptvov rip/ "Peat. 
Passes. 8, 10). 

A let it CAjurrst), a son of Hippotea, and descend- 
ant of Hercmes in the fifth degree. He is said to have 
taken p os sess i o n of Corinth, and to have expelled the 
SmjpLidm durty years after Ike first invasion of the 
PeJspaooeaos by the Herachda. His family, some- 
lines called the Aleuda, msintained themselves at 
Conau down to the lime of Bncchis. (Ptau., 2, 4, 
3; 5, 18, 2.— Strai , 8, p. 889 — Cstfrm., Frag , 103. 
— Pad.. Ofym. 13. 17.) Veileius Paterculus (1, 3] 
calk him a descendant of Hercules in the sixth de- 
gres. He received an oracle piomiaing him the sov- 
ereignty of Athens, if during the war which was then 
going on its kings should remain uninjured. This 
cracie became known st Athens, and Codrus sacrifi- 
ced himself for his country. (Vid. Codrus. — Comm., 
Kant., 26.) Other persons of this name are men- 
lioaed in Apollod., 3, 10, 6 ; Hygin., Fai^ 123; and 
Vtrgd. Mk., 1, 121 ; 9, 462. 
Alkoad^k. Kid. Supplement. 
Auoia Fiat Supplement 
AtiiiMBMoa, I. a nativa of Teas. (Fid. Sapple- 
swot ) — IL A general of the iEtoliaas, who, with a body 
of as countrymen, alew Nabia, tyrant of Sparta. He 
had bean seat at toe bead of a band of auxiliaries, by the 
/ftnhns, ostensibly to aid Nabis, bat in reality to get 
poasesskra of Laveedmmon. The inhabitants, however, 
rallied after the fail of the tyrant, defeated the vEtoli- 
so, who were scattered throughout the city and plun- 
dering it, and slaw Alexsmenus. (£•»., 86, 34, teaq.) 

Auucdii, a name of very common occurrence, 
at designating not only kings, but private individuals. 
We wdl classify the monsrehs by countries, and then 
come to private or leu conspicuous personages. 

1. King* of Macedonia. 
Auiwdii I., son of Amyntas, and tenth king of 



He ascended the throne 497 B.C., and 
reigned 43 years. It was he who, while still a youth, 
slew, in company with a party of his young friends, 
banned in female attire, the Persian embeesadors at 
ha father's court, having been provoked to the act by 
their immodest behaviour towards the females present 
at a banquet. With this prince the glory of Macedon 
any be said to have commenced. He enlarged bis 
termories, partly by conquest, and partly by the gift 
watch Xerxes bestowed upon him, of all the country 
from Mount Olympus to the range of Hsmua. (Herod., 
5, 18. sees. — Justin, 7. 3.) 
Auxasbkk II., son of Amyntas II. He was treach- 
O 



eroushr slain by Ptolemy Alorites, after having reigned 
from B.C. 369 to B.C. 367, and not, according to the 
common account, for one year merely. Ptolemy Al- 
orites, however, who slew him, was neither king nor 
the son of Amyntas, although called so by Diodo- 
rna (16, 71). It seems probable, from a compari- 
son of iEscbines (it Fait Leg., p. 32) with a frag- 
ment in Syncellus (Dexipptu, op. Syneeil., p. 263, B.), 
that Ptolemy was appointed regent in a regular way, 
during the minority of Perdiocas ; that he afterward 
abused his trust, and was, m consequence, cut off by 
Perdiccas. The duration of bis administration, three 
years, is mentioned by Diodorus (15, 77). 

Alkxakdce III., snrnamed the Great, son of Philip 
of Macedon, was born in the city of Pells, B.C. 366. 
His mother was Oiympiss, the daughter of Neoptole- 
mus, king of Epirua. Leounatus, a relation of his 
mother's, an austere man, and of great severity of 
manners', was bis early governor, and at the age of 
eight years, Lyaimachua, an Acaruanian, became his 
instructor. Plutarch gives this individual an unfa- 
vourable character, and insinuates that he was more 
desirous of ingratiating himself with the royal family, 
than of effectually discharging the duties of his office. 
It was his delight to call Philip, Peleus ; Alexander, 
Achilles i and to claim for himself the honorary name 
of Phoenix. Early impressions are the strongest, and 
even the pedantic allusions of the Acarnanian might 
render the young prince more eager in after life to im- 
itate the Homeric model In bis fifteenth year, Alex- 
ander was placed under the immediate tuition of the 
celebrated A ristotle. The philoso uber joined his royal 
pupil B.C. 342, and did not finally quit him until he 
came to the throne. The master was worthy of the 
scholar, and the scholar of his master. The mental 
stores of Aristotle were vast, and all arranged with 
admirable accuracy and judgment ; while, on the other 
band, Alexander was gifted with great quickness of 
apprehension, an insatiable desire of knowledge, and 
an ambition not to be satisfied with the second place 
in any pursuit. At a distance from the court, this 
great philosopher instructed him in all the branches of 
human knowledge, especially those necessary for a 
ruler, and wrote, for bis benefit, a work on the art of 
government, which is unfortunately lost. As Mace- 
don was surrounded by dangerous neighbours, Aris- 
totle sought to cultivate in his pupil the talents and 
virtues of a military commander. With this view he 
recommended to him the reading of the Iliad, and re- 
vised this poem himself. The poet, as Aristotle em- 
phatically names Homer, was the philosopher's insep- 
arable companion : from him be drew bis precepts sod 
maxims ; from him he borrowed his models. The pre- 
ceptor imparted his enthusiasm to his pupil, and the 
most accurate copy of the great poem was prepared by 
Aristotle, apd placed by Alexander in a precious cas- 
ket which he found among the spoils of Darius. The 
frame of the young prince was, at the same time, 
formed by gymnastic exercises. He gave several 
proofs of manly skill and courage while very young ; 
one of which, the breaking in of his fiery courser Bu- 
cephalus, which had mastered every other rider, is 
mentioned by all his historians as an incident that con- 
vinced his father Philip of his future unconquerable 
spirit. When he was sixteen years old, Philip, set- 
ting out on an expedition against Byzantium, delega- 
ted the government to him during his absence. Two 
years later (B.C. 338), he performed prodigies of val- 
our in the battle at Cbawonea, where he obtained great 
reputation by conquering the sacred band of the The- 
bans. "My son," said Philip, after the battle, em- 
bracing him, " seek another empire, for that which I 
shall leave you is not worthy of you." The father 
and son, however, quarrelled when Philip repudiated 
Oiympiss. Alexander, who took the part of his moth- 
er, was obliged to flee to Epirus to escape the ven- 

106 



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gr Mice of his father, but he soon obtained pardon and 
returned. He afterward accompanied Philip on an 
expedition against the Triballi, and saved his life in a 
battle. Philip, having been elected chief commander 
of the Greeks, was preparing for a war against Persia, 
when be was assassinated, B.C. 336. This occur- 
rence, at an eventful crisis, excited some suspicion 
against Alexander and Ofympiaa ; but as it was one 
of his first acts to execute juatiee on those of his fa- 
ther's assassins who fell into his bands, several of the 
nobility being implicated in the plot, this imputation 
rests on little beyond surmise. It is more than prob- 
able that the conspirators were in correspondence with 
the Persian court, and that ample promises of protec- 
tion and support were given to men undertaking to 
deliver the empire from the impending invasion of the 
captain-general of Greece. Alexander, who succeed- 
ed without opppaition, was at thia time in his twentieth 
year ; and his youth, in the first instance, excited sev- 
eral of the states of Greece to endeavour to set aside 
the Macedonian ascendency. By a sudden march into 
Thessaly he, however, soon overawed the most active ; 
and when, on a report of his death, chiefly at the in- 
stigation of Demosthenes and bis party, the various 
states were excited to great commotion, he punished 
the open revolt of Thebes with a severity which ef- 
fectually prevented any imitation of its example. In- 
duced to stand a siege, that unhappy city, after being 
mastered with dreadful slaughter, was razed to the 
ground, with the ostentatious exception of the house 
of the poet Pindar alone ; while the unfortunate sur- 
viving inhabitants were stripped of all their posses- 
sions and sold indiscriminately into slavery. Intimi- 
dating by this cruel policy, the Macedonian party 

g lined the ascendency in every state throughout 
reece, end Athens particularly disgraced itself by 
the meanness of its submission. Alexander then pro- 
ceeded to Corinth, where; in a general assembly of 
the states, his offlee of superior commander was rec- 
ognised and defined ; and in the twenty-second year 
of his age, leaving Antipater, his viceroy, in Macedon, 
he passed the Hellespont, to overturn the Persian em- 
pire, with an army not exceeding four thousand five 
hundred horse and thirty thousand foot. To secure 
the protection of Mmorva, he sacrificed to her on the 
plain of Ilium, crowned the tomb of Achilles, and con- 
gratulated this hero, from whom he was descended 
through his mother, on his good fortune in having had 
auch a friend as Patroclna, and such a poet as Homer 
to celebrate his fame. The rapid movements^ Alex- 
ander had evidently taken the Persian satraps by sur- 
prise. They had, without making a single attempt to 
molest his passsge, allowed him, with a far inferior 
fleet, to convey his troops into Asia. They now re- 
solved to advance and contest the passage of the river 
Granicus. A force of twenty thousand cavalry was 
drawn up on the right bank of the stream, while an 
equal number of Greek mercenaries crowned the hills 
in the rear. Unintimidated, however, by this array, 
Alexander led his army across, and, after a severe con- 
flict, gained a decisive victory. The loss on the Per- 
sian side was heavy, on that of their conquerors so 
extremely slight (only eighty-five horsemen and thirty 
foot-soldiers) as to lead at once to the belief, that the 
general, who wrote the account of Alexander's cam- 

S signs, mentioned the loss of only the native- bom 
lacedonians. Splendid funeral obsequies were per- 
formed in honour of those of his army who had fallen ; 
various privileges were granted to their fathers and 
children ; and as twenty-five of the cavalry that had 
been slain on the Macedonian side belonged to the 
royal troop of the " Companions," these were honour- 
ed with monumental statues of bronze, the workman- 
ship of the celebrated Lysippus. The immediate con- 
sequence of this victory was the freedom and restora- 
tion of all the Greek cities in Asia Minor, and its sub- 
106 



sequent results were shown in the reduction of almost 
the whole of that country. A dangerous sickness, 
however, brought on by bathing in the Cydnus, check- 
ed for a time nis career. He received a letter from 
Parmenio, saying that Philip, his physician, had been 
bribed by Darius to poison him. Alexander gave the 
letter to the physician, and at the same time drank the 
potion which the latter had prepared for him. (Scarce!) 
was he restored to health when he advanced towards 
the defiles of Cilicia, whither Darius had imprudently 
betaken himself with an immense army, instead of 
awaiting his adversary on the plains of Assyria. The 
second battle took place near Issus, between the sea 
and the mountains, and victory again declared for the 
Macedonian monarch . The Macedonians conquered 
on this day, not the Persians alone, but the united ef- 
forts of southern Greece and Persia, ; for the army of 
Darius, besides its eastern troops, contained thirty 
thousand Greek mercenaries, the largest Greek force 
of that denomination mentioned in history. It was 
this galling truth that, among other causes, rendered 
the republican Greeks so hostile to Alexander. All 
the active partisans of that faction were at Issus, not 
were the survivers dispirited by their defeat. Agis, 
king of Sparta, gathered eight thousand who had re- 
turned to Greece by various ways, and fought with 
them a bloody battle against Antipater, who with dif- 
ficulty defeated the Spartans and their allies. With- 
out taking these facts into consideration, it is impos- 
sible duly to estimate the difficulties surmounted by 
Alexander. After the defeat at Iasus, the treasures 
and family of Darius fell into the hands of the con- 
queror. The latter were treated moat magnanimous- 
ly. Alexander did not pursue the Persian monarch, 
who fled towards the Euphrates, but, in order to cut 
bim off from the sea, turned towards Code-Syria and 
Phoenicia. Here he received a letter from Darius, 
proposing peace. Alexander answered, that if be 
would come to him he would restore, not only his 
mother, wife, and children, without ransom, but also 
his empire. This reply produced no effect. The 
victory at Issus hsd opened the whole country to the 
Macedonians. Alexander took possession of Damas- 
cus, which contained a large portion of the royal treas- 
ures, and secured all the towns along the Mediterra- 
nean Sea. Tyre, imboldened by the strength of its 
insular situation, resisted, but was taken, after seven 
months of incredible exertion, and destroyed. The 
capture of Tyre was perhaps the greatest military 
achievement of the Macedonian monarch ; but it was 
tarnished by his cruel severity towards the conquered, 
thirty thousand of the inhabitants having been sold by 
him as slaves. Some excuse, however, may be found 
in the excited feelings of the Macedonian army, oc- 
casioned by numerous insults on the part of die Tyri- 
ena ; by acta of cruelty towards some of their Mace- 
donian csptives ; and also by the length and obstinacy 
of the siege ; for more men were slain in winning 
Tyre, then in achieving the three great victories over 
Darius. Alezsnder continued his victorious march 
through Palestine, where sll the towns surrendered 
except Gaza, which shared the fate of Tyre. Egypt, 
wearied of the Persian yoke, received him as a deliv- 
erer. In order to confirm hia power, he restored the 
former customs and religious rites, and founded Alex- 
andres, which became one of the first cities of ancient 
times. Hence he went through the desert of Libya, 
to consult the oracle of Jupiter Ammon, an adventure 
resembling more the wildness of romance than the so- 
berness of history, and which has on this very sccount 
been regarded by aome with an eye of incredulity. 
It rests, however, on too firm a basis to be invalidated. 
After having been acknowledged, say the ancient wri- 
ters, as the son of the god (rnd. Ammon), Alexander, 
at the return of spring, marched against Darius, who 
in the mean time had collected an army in Assyria, 



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and rejected the proposals of Alexander for peace. 
A battle was fought at Gaogamela, not far from Arbo- 
rs. B.C. 331. Arrian estimates the army of Darius at 
1.000,000 of infantry and 40,000 cavalry ; while that 
of Alexander consisted of only 40,000 infantry and 
7000 horse. On the Persian side, moreover, were 
some of the bravest and hardiest tribes of upper Asia. 
Notwithstanding the immense numerical anperiority of 
his enemy, Alexander was not a moment doubtful of 
victory. At the head of hia cavalry be attacked the 
Persians, and rooted them after a abort conflict. One 
great object of his ambition waa to capture the Per- 
sian monarch on the field of battle ; and that object 
was at one time apparently within his grasp, when he 
received, at the instant, a message from Parmenio that 
the left wing, which that general commanded, was -hard 
pressed by the Sacas, Albanians, and Parthians, and be 
was compelled, of coarse, to hasten to its relief. Dari- 
us tied from the field of battle, leaving his army, bag- 
gage, and immense treasures to the victor. Babylon 
and Susa, where the riches of the East lay accumula- 
ted, opened their gates to Alexander, who directed hia 
march to Pereepous, the capital of Persia. The only 
passage thither was defended by 40,000 men under 
Ariobanxaes. Alexander attacked them in the rear, 
routed them, and entered Persepohs triumphant. 
From this time the glory of Alexsnder began to decline. 
Master of (he greatest empire in the world, he became 
a slave to his own passions ; gave himself up to arro- 
gance and dissipation ; showed himself ungrateful and 
cruel, and in the arms of pleasant shed toe blood of 
his hrsfest generals. Hitherto sober and moderate, 
lis hero, who strove to equsl the gods, and called 
hansel/ a god, sunk to the level of vulgar men. Per- 
sepolis, the wonder of the world, be burned in a fit of 
retoxicatioo Ashamed of this act, he set out with his 
cavalry to pursue Darius. Learning. that Bessus, sa- 
trap of Bactriana, kept the king prisoner, he hastened 
his inarch with the hope of earing him. But Bessus, 
when be saw himself closely pursued, caused Darius 
to be assassinated (B.C. 330), because he waa an im- 
pediment to his flight. Alexander beheld on the fron- 
tiers of Bactriana a dying man, covered with woonds, 
lying on a chariot. It was Darius. The Macedonian 
hero could not restrain his team. After interring him 
with all the honours usual among the Persians, he took 
possession of Hyrcania and Bactriana, and caused 
nbraelf to be proclaimed King of Asia. He waa form- 
ing sail more gigantic plana, when a conspiracy broke 
oat ai his own camp. Philotaa, the son of Parmenio, 
was implicated. Alexander, not satisfied with the 
blood of the eon, caused the father also to be put to 
death. This act of injustice excited general displeas- 
ure. At the same time, hia power in Greece waa threat- 
ened; and it required all the energy of Antipater to dis- 
solve, by force of anna, the league formed by the 
Greeks against the Macedonian authority. In the 
mean time, Alexander marched in the winter through 
the north of Asia as far aa it waa then known, check- 
ed neither by Mount Caucasus nor the Oxus, and 
reached the Caspian Sea, hitherto unknown to the 
Greeks. Insatiable of glory and thirsting for conquest, 
he spared not even the hordes of the Scythians. Re- 
turning to Bactriana, he hoped to gain the affections of 
the Persians by assuming their dress and manners; but 
lias hope wss not realized. The discontent of the 
army gave occasion to the scene which ended in the 
death of CUtos. Alexander, whose pride be had offend- 
ed, kitted him with bis own band at a banquet. Clitus 
had been one of his most faithful friends and brave of- 
ficers, and Alexander was afterward a prey to the 
keenest remorse. In the following year he subdued 
the whole of Sogdiana. Oxyantes, one of the leaders 
of the enemy, bad secured his family in a castle built 
on a lofty rock. The Macedonians stormed it. Rer- 
an*, the daughter of Oxyantes, one of me most beau- 



tiful virgins of Asia, waa among the prisoners. Al- 
exander fell in love with end married her. Upon the 
news of this, Oxyantes thought it best to submit, and 
came to Bactria, where Alexander received him with 
distinction. Here a new conspiracy waa discovered, 
at the head of which waa Hermolaus, and among the 
accomplices Calliatbenes. All the conspirators were 
condemned to death except Caliisthenes, who waa 
mutilated and carried about with the army in an iron 
cage, until be terminated his torments by poison. Al- 
exander now formed the idea of conquering India, the 
name of which waa scarcely known. He paaaed the 
Indus, and formed an alliance' with Taxilus, the ruler 
of the region beyond this river, who assisted him with 
troops snd 130 elephants. Conducted by Taxilus, be 
marched towards the river Hvdaspes, the passsge of 
which, Porus, another king, defended at the head of 
his army. Alexander conquered him in a bloody bat- 
tle, took him prisoner, but restored him to his king- 
dom. He then marched victoriously on, established 
Greek colonies, and built, according to Plutarch, 
seventy towns, one of which he called Bucephala, after 
hia horse, which had been killed on the Hydaspee. 
Intoxicated by success, he intended to advance aa fin; 
aa the Ganges, and waa preparing to paaa the Hypha- 
ais, when the discontent of hia army obliged him to 
terminate his progress and return. Previous to tam- 
ing back, however, be erected on the banks of the 
Hyphssis twelve towers, in the shape of altars ; mon- 
uments of the extent of his career, and tealimoniala of 
his gratitude towards the gods. On these gigantic al- 
tars he offered sacrifices with all doe solemnity, and 
horse-races and gymnastic contests closed the festiv- 
ities. When he bad reached the Hydaspea, be built 
a fleet, in which he sent a part of hia troops down the 
river, while the rest of the army proceeded along the 
banks. On his inarch ha encountered several Indian 
princes, and, during the siege of a town belonging to 
the Malli, waa severely wounded. Having recovered, 
be continued bis course down the Indus, and thus 
reached the sea. Having entered the Indian Ocean 
and performed some rites in honour of Neptune, be left 
his fleet ; and, after ordering Nearcbus, aa soon aa the 
season would permit, to sail to the Persian Gulf, and 
thence op the Tigris, he himself prepared to march to 
Babylon. He had to wander through immenae deserts, 
in which the greater part of hia army, destitute of wa- 
ter and food, perished in the sand. Only the fourth 
part of the troops with which he bad set out returned 
to Persia. On bis route he quelled several mutinies, 
and placed governors over various provinces. In Susa 
he married two Persian princesses, and rewarded those 
of bis Macedonians who bad married Persian women ; 
because it waa hia intention to unite the two nations 
as closely as possible. He distributed rich rewards 
among his troops. At Opis, on the Tigris, he declared 
his intention of sending the invalids borne with pres- 
ents. The rest of the army mutinied ; but he persist- 
ed, snd effected his purpose. Soon after, his favour- 
ite, Hephestioii, died. His grief waa unbounded, and 
he buried bis body with royal splendour. On his return 
from Ecbalana to Babylon, the magicians are said to 
have predicted that this city would be fatal to him. 
The representations of his friends induced him to de- 
spise these warnings. He went to Babylon, where 
many foreign ambassadors waited for him, and was 
engaged in extensive plana for the future, when he 
became suddenly sick after a banquet, and died in a 
few days, B.C. 333. Such waa the end of this con- 
queror, in bis 32d year, after a reign of 12 years and 
8 months. He left behind him an immenae empire, 
which became the scene of continual ware. He had 
designated no heir, and being aaked by hia friends to 
whom he left the empire, answered, " To the worthi- 
est. 1 ' After many disturbances, the generals acknowl- 
edged Aridasus, a man of a Very weak mind, the earn 
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ALEXANDER. 



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of Philip and the dancer Philinna, and Alexander the 
posthumous son of Alexander and Roxana, as kings, 
and divided the provinces among themselves, under 
the name of ealrapie*. They appointed Perdiccas, to 
whom Alexander, on his deathbed, had given his ring, 
prime minister of the two kings. The body of Alex- 
ander was interred by Ptolemy in Alexandres, in a 
golden coffin, and divine honours were paid to bun, 
not only in Egypt, but also in other countries. The 
sarcophagus in which the coffin was enclosed has been 
in the British Museum since 1802. The English na- 
tion owe the acquisition of this rehc to the exertions 
of Dr. Clarke, the celebrated traveller, who found it in 
the possession of the French troops in Egypt, and was 
the means of its being surrendered to the English 
army. In 1805, the same individual published a dis- 
sertation on this sarcophagus, fully establishing its iden- 
tity. — No character in history has afforded matter for 
more discussion than that of Alexander ; and the ex- 
act quality of his ambition is to this day a subject of 
dispute. By some he is regarded ss little more than 
a heroic madman, actuated by the mere desire of per- 
sonal glory ; others give him the honour of vast and 
enlightened views of policy, embracing the consolida- 
tion and establishment of an empire, in 'which com- 
merce, learning, and the arts - should flourish in com- 
mon with energy and enterprise of every description. 
Each class of reasonera find facts to countenance their 
opinion of the mixed character and actions of Alexan- 
der. The former quote the wildness of his personal 
daring, the barren nature of much of his transient mas- 
tery, and his remorseless and unnecessary cruelty to 
the vanquished on some occasions, and capricious 
magnanimity and lenity on others. The latter advert 
to facts like the foundation of Alexandres, and other 
acta indicative of large and prospective views of true 
policy ; and regard his expeditions rather as schemes 
of discovery ana exploration than mere enterprises for 
fruitless conquest. The truth appears to embrace a 
portion of both these opinions. Alexander waa too 
much smitten with military glory, and the common self- 
engrossment of the mere conqueror, to be a great and 
consistent politician ; while such waa the strength of 
his intellect, and the light opened to him by success, 
that a glimpse of the genuine sources of lasting great- 
ness could not but break in upon him. The fate of a 
not very dissimilar character in our days shows the 
nature of this mixture of lofty intellect and personal 
ambition, which has seldom effected much permanent 
good for mankind in any age. The fine qualities and 
defects of the man were, in Alexander, very similar to 
those of the ruler. His treatment of Parmenio and of 
Clitus, and various acta of capricious cruelty and in- 
gratitude, are contrasted by -many instances of extra- 
ordinary greatness of mind. He was also a lover and 
favourer of the arts and literature, and carried with 
him a train of poets, orators, and philosophers, although 
his choice of his attendants of this description did not 
always do honour to his judgment. He, however, en- 
couraged and patronised the artists Praxiteles, Ly sip- 
pus, and Apellea ; and his munificent presents to Ar- 
istotle, to enable him to pursue his inquiries in natural 
history, were very serviceable to science. Alexander 
also exhibited that unequivocal test of strong intellect, 
• disposition to employ end reward men of talents in 
every department of knowledge. In person this extra- 
ordinary individual was of the middle size, with a neck 
somewhat awry, but possessed of a fierce and majestic 
countenance. — It may not be amiss, before concluding 
this sketch, to consider for a moment the circumstan- 
ces connected with the death of this celebrated leader. 
His decease has usually been ascribed either to excess 
in drinking or to poison. Neither of these suppositions 
appears to be correct. The fever to which he fell a 
victim (for the Royal Diary whence Arrian has copied 
his account of the last illness of Alexander, speaks ex- 
108 



pressly of a violent fever having been the cause of 
his decease) waa contracted very probably in his visit 
to the marshes of Assyria. The thirst which subse- 
quently compelled him, on a public day, to quit his 
military duties, proves that this fever was raging in his 
veins before it absolutely overcame him. The carou- 
sals in which he afterward indulged must have seri- 
ously increased the disease. Strong men like Alex- 
ander have often warded off attacks of illness by in- 
creased excitement; but, if this fail to produce the de- 
sired effect, the reaction is terrible. It is curious to 
observe, in Arrisn's account of Alexander's last illness, 
that no physician is mentioned. The king seems to 
have trusted to two simple remedies, abstinence and 
bathing. His removsl to a summer-bouse, close to the 
large cold bath, shows, how much be confided in the 
latter remedy. ' But die extraordinary fatigues which 
he had undergone, the exposure within the last three 
years to the rains of die Pendjab, the marshes of the 
Indus, the burning sands of Gedrosia, the hot vapours 
of Susiana, and the marsh miasma of the Babylonian 
Lakes, proved too much even for his iron constitution. 
The numerous wounds by which his body had been 
perforated, and especially the serious injury done to his 
lungs by an arrow among the Malli, must in some de- 
gree have impaired the vital functions, and enfeebled 
the powers of healthy reaction. (Plut., Kit. Alex.— 
Arrian, Exp. Alex. — Quintu* Curtiu*. — Diod. Sic, 
17 et 18. — Eneyclop. Amerie., vol. 1, p. \&l,*eqq. — 
Biogr. Univ., vol. 1, p. 105.— William*'* Life of Al- 
exander Ike Great, p. 346, <fcc, Am. ad.)— After many 
dissensions and bloody wars among themselves, tbe 
generals of Alexander laid the foundations of several 
great empires in the three quarters of the globe Ptol- 
emy seized Egypt, where he firmly establiahed him- 
self, and where his successors were called Ptolemies, 
in honour of the founder of their empire, which sub- 
sisted till the lime of Augustus. Seleucus and his 
posterity reigned in Babylon and Syria. Antigonui 
at first established himself in Asia Minor, and Antipa- 
ter in Macedonia. The descendants of Anti pater were 
conquered by the successors of Antigonus, who reign- 
ed in Macedonia till it was reduced by the Romans in 
the time of King Perseus. Lystaiachua made bimselt 
master of Thrace ; and Leonatus, who had taken pos- 
session of Phrygia, meditated for a while to drive An- 
tipster from Macedonia. Eumenes established him- 
self in Cappadocia, but was soon overpowered by his 
rival Antigonus, and starved to death. During his 
lifetime, Eumenes appeared so formidable to the suc- 
cessors of Alexander, that none of them dared to as- 
sume the title of king. 

Alixahoib IV., son of Alexander the Great and 
Roxana. He waa born after his father's death, and 
waa proclaimed king while yet an infant, along with 
Philip Arideus, an illegitimate brother of Alexander 
the Great. Scion after, however, ho was put to death, 
together with Roxana, by Cassander, who thereupon 
assumed the sovereign power. {Juttm, 16, 2.) 

Alexander V., son of Cassander. Ho ascended 
the throne of Macedonia along with his brother An- 
tipater, B.C. 298. Antipater/however, having put to 
death Thessalonica, their mother, Alexander, in order 
to avenge his parent, called in the aid of Demetrius, 
son of Antigonus. A reconciliation, however, having 
taken place between the brothers, Demetrius, who was 
apprehensive lest this might thwart his own views on 
the crown of Macedon, slew Alexander and seized upon 
the royal authority. (Juttin, 16, 1.) 

3. King* of Epirus. 
Alixindik I., sumsmed Molossus, was brother of 
Olympiaa, and successor to Arybas. He came into 
Italy to aid the Taren tines against the Romans, and 
used to ssy, that while his nephew, Alexander the 
Great, was warring against women (moaning die ef- 



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ALEXANDER. 



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femmaie nation* of the east), he was fighting against 
men. (Justin, 17, 3. — Int., 8, 17, et 27.) As re- 
gard* the circumstances connected with his death, vid. 
Acheron, II. 

Aleiakdu n , son of the celebrated Pyrrhua. To 
avenge the death of his father, who had been slain at 
Argos, fighting against Antigonus, he seized opon 
Macedonia, of which the latter waa king. He was 
•ooo, however, driven out. not only from Macedonia, 
but also bom his own dominions, by Demetrius, son of 
Antigonus. Taking refuge, on this, among the Acar- 
naniana, be succeeded, by their aid, in regaining the 
throne of Epirus. (Justm, 26, 3.— Id., 28, 1.— 
Pit., Vit. Pyrr^ 34.) 

3. Kings of Syria. 
Alkiasdke I-, surmuned Bala or Balas, a man of 
low origin, but of great talents and still greater auda- 
city, who claimed to be the son of Antiochu* Epiphsnea, 
assumed the name of Alexander, and being acknowl- 
edged by Ptolemy Philometor, Ariarathea, and AtUlus, 
sened upon the throne of Syria. He. was afterward 
defeated and driven out by Demetrius Nicator, the 
lawful heir ; and, having uken refuge with an Arabian 
prince, waa pat to death by the latter. (Justin, 36, 
1, ««»■) 

Alixaxobb II., aornamed Zabina the Slave, a 
usurper of the throne of Syria. He was toe son of a 
petty trader m Alexandres, but claimed, at the instiga- 
tion' of Ptolemy VII., io have been adopted by Ami- 
echus Vlli. Ptolemy aided him with troops, and De- 
metrius Nicator was defeated at Damascus, and driven 
oat of his kingdom. A few years after, however, 
Alexander was himself defeated by Autiochus Grypua, 
used in his torn by the same Ptolemy, and put to death. 
Grypua was son of Demetrius Nicator. - (Justin, 39, 
1 «,.) 

4. Prince* of Judtea. 

Alkxakdeb I., Jannssua, jnonarch of Judaa, son of 
Byrcanns, and brother of Arislobulus, to whom he sac- 
reeded, B.C. 106. He wa* a warlike prince, and dis- 
played great ability in the different wars iu which he 
was engaged daring his reign. Driven from his king- 
sum by bis subjects, who detested him, he took up 
arms against them, and waged a cruel warfare for the 
apace of six years, slaying upward of 50,000 of hia 
(sea. Having at last re-entered Jerusalem, he cruci- 
fied, for the amusement of his concubines, 800 of his 
reioUed subjects, and at the same lime caused their 
wives and children to be massacred before their eyes. 
Being re- established on the throne, he made various 
conquests in Syria, Arabia, and Idumea, and finally 
died of intemperance at Jerusalem, B.C. 76, after a 
reign of 27 years. (Josepkus, Ant Jud., 17, 22, dec.) 

Alxiamdbb II., son of Ariatobulua II., wss nude 
prisoner, along with hia father, by Pompey, but managed 
to escape while being conducted to Rome, raised an 
array, and made some conquests. Hyrcanus, son of 
Alexander Jannans, being then on the throne, solicited 
the aid of the Romans, and Marc Antony being sent by 
Gabtnina, defeated Alexander near Jerusalem. After 
funding a siege for some time io the fortress Alexan- 
drekm, he obtained terms of peace ; bu' not long after, 
having taken up arms for Cesar, who bad released his 
lather, be fell into the bands of Melellus Scipio, and 
w» beheaded at Antioch. (Josepkus, Anttq. Jud., 
14, 13 ) 

Albxsndbs HI., son of. Herod the Great, put to 
•rath by his father, along with Arisiobulus hia brother, 
on false charges brought against them by Pheroras their 
node, and Salome their aunt. (Josepkus, Anttq: Jud., 
M.17.) 

5. Kings of Egypt. 
Auunu I., II., HT.,«trf. Ftolema.ua JX , X, XI. 



6. Individuals. 
Alexander, I. tyrant of Pberc in Theasaly, whs 
seized upon the sovereign power, B.C. 368. He was 
of a warlike spirit, but, at the same time, cruel and vin- 
dictive, and his oppressed subjects were induced to 
supplicate the aid of the Thebans, who aent Pelopidas 
with an army. The tyrant was compelled to yield; 
but, having subsequently escaped from the power of the 
Thoban commander, he reassembled an army, and 
Pelopidas having been imprudent enough to come to 
him without an escort, the tyrant seized and threw him 
into prison, whence he wss only released on the ap- 
pearance of Epaminondas at the head of an armed 
force. By dint of negotiation, be now obtained a 
truce, but renewed hia acts of violence and cruelty as 
aoon as the Thebans had departed. Pelopidas marched 
against and defeated him, but lost his own life io the 
sction. Stripped upon this of all his conquests, and 
restricted to the city of Phens, he no longer dared to 
carry on war by land, but turned his attention to pira- 
cy, and bad even the audacity to pillage the Piratua or 
main harbour of Athena. He was assassinated st last 
by his wife Tbebe. (Vol Max., », 13.— Com. Nep., 
Vit. Ptlap. — Pamsan., 6, 5.)— -II Lyncestes, was ac- 
cused of being one of the conspirators in the plot 

Jinst Philip of Macedon, which resulted in the death 
that monarch. He waa pardoned on account of hia 
having been the first to salute Alexander, Philip's son, 
as king. Not long after, however, he was detected iu 
a treacherous correspondence with Dsnos, and put to 
death. (Justin, 11, 2.)— III. Son of Polyspercboo, 
st first a general on the aide of Antigonus, after the 
death of Alexander the Great, and very active in dri- 
ving out for him, from the Peloponnesus, the garrisons 
of Cassander. He afterward went over to Cassan- 
der, but was assassinated by some Sicyonians, after 
no long interval of time, at the siege of Dyma. — IV. 
A famous impostor of Paphlagonia, wbo lived in the 
lime of Lucisn, under the Emperor Marcus Aureliua. 
By his artifices he succeeded in passing himself for • 
person aent by iEsculspins, and prevailed Opon the 
Paphlagonians to erect a temple to this, deity. As the 
priest slid prophet of the god, he ran a long career of de- 
ception, a full account ol which is given in the Sup- 
plement. — V Severus, a Romsn emperor. (Vid. Se- 
vern*.) — VI. An Athenian painter, whose portrait ap- 
pears on a marble tablet found at Reams in 1746, and 
staling the name and country of ihe artist. The sga 
in which he lived is not known. — VII. A native of A ear- 
ns. (Vid Supplement.)— VIII. ^Elolus. (Kid. 
Supplement.)— IX. A commander of horse in the army 
of Auiigonos Doson. ( Vid. Supplement.) — X. A son 
of Marc Antony and Cleopatra. (Vid. Supplement.) 
—XI. Brother of Molo. (Vid. Supplement.)— XII. 
A native of Cotycum, in Phrvgia. or, according to 
Suidas, of Miletus, who flourished in the second cen- 
tury of our era. He look the name of Cornelius 
Alexander, from hisvhavmg been a slave of l.orne- 
liua LentoJue, who gave bim bis freedom, snd tnsda 
him ibe instructor to bis children He was sur- 
named Polyhiator, from the variety and multiplicity 
of bis knowledge. The ancient writers cue one of 
bis works in forty books, each one of which appears to 
have contained the description of some particular 
country, and lo have had a separate title, auch aa 
Alyvxrtaxd. Kapuucd, etc. Pliny often refers to him. 
It is probable that be waa the author of a work enti- 
tled QavpaouM owayuyti, " A collection of wonderful 
things," of which Photius speaks as the production of 
an individual named Alexander, without designating 
him any farther. This work contained accounts of 
animals, plants, rivers, dec. (SchSU, Hist. Litt. Gr.. 
vol. 6, p. 276, sea)— XIII. A native of Alga in Achaia, 
the disciple of Xenocrates, and, aa is thought, of Soai- 

Sinea. He was one of the instructed of the Emperor 
ero. Some critics regard him aa the author of the 

1P9 



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ALEXANDER. 



ALEXANDREA. 



commentary on Aristotle, which commonly passes un 
der the name of Alexander of Aphrodisia. (SchbU, 
Hiat. Lxtt. Gr., vol. 5, p. 156.V- XIV. A native of 
Aphrodisia in Caria, who flourished in the beginning 
of the third century. He is regarded as the restorer 
♦f the true doctrine of Aristotle, and he is the princi- 
pal peripatetic, after the founder of this school, who 
adopted the system of the Utter in all its purity, with- 
out intermingling along with it, as Alexander of JEgte 
and his disciples did, the precepts of other schools. 
He wss surnamed, by way of compliment, 'E&ryyrijc, 
Btegete* (" the interpreter," or " expounder"), snd 
became the head of s particular class of A ristoteiian 
commentators, styled " Alexandreans." He wrote, 1. 
A treatise on Destiny snd Free Agency (Ilepi Eiftap- 
fuvnt xai roi ey~^iu*v), a work held in high estima- 
tion, and which the author addressed to the' emperors 
Septimius Sevens and Antoninus Csrscalla. In it 
be combats the Stoic dogma, as hostile to free agency, 
and destructive, in consequence, of all morality. The 
beat edition of this work is that printed at London, in 
1658, 12mo. It is inserted slso, with new corrections, 
in the 8d vol. of Grotius's Theological Works, Amet., 
1679, fol. 2. A commentary on the first book of the 
first Anslytice of Aristotle, Gr., fol., Venet., 1489, and 
4to., Florent., 1521. Translated into Latin by Feli- 
cianus, fol., Venet., 1642. 1546, and 1560. 3. A com- 
mentary on the eight books of the Topics, fol., Venet., 
1613 snd 1626. A Latin translation by Dorotheas, 
which appeared for the first time in 1524, fol., Venet., 
has been often reprinted. In 1563, a translation by 
Rasarius appeared, fol , Venet., which is preferable to 
the other. 4. Commentaries on the Elenchi sophistici 
of Aristotle, Gr, fol., Venet., 1620, and 4to, Florent., 
1552. Translated into Latin by Rasarius, Venet., 
1567. 5. A commentary on the twelve books of the 
metaphysics of Aristotle. The Greek text has never 
been printed, although there are many MS. copiea in 
the Royal Library at Paris, snd other libraries. A 
Latin translation, however, by Sepulveda, appeared at 
Rome, 1527, in fol., and has been often reprinted. 6. 
A commentary on Aristotle's work De Sentu, <kc, Gr., 
at the end of Simplicity's commentary on the work 
of Aristotle respecting the Soul, fol., Venet., 1527. 
'7. A commentary on the Meteorologies of Aristotle, 
Gr., fol., Kotef.,1527, and in the Latin of Alex. Pi- 
colomini, fol., 1540, 1548, 1575. 8. A treatise mpi 
uli-euc (De Mistione), directed against the dogma of 
the Stoics respecting the penetrability of bodies, Gr., 
with the preceding. Two Latin translations have ap- 
peared, one by Caninius, Venet., 1555, fol., and toe 
other by Scbegk, Tubing., 1540, 4to. 9. A treatise 
on the Soul, in two books, or, more correctly speak- 
ing, two treatises on this subject, since there is little 
if any connexion between these books. Gr., at the 
end of Themistius ; and in I^atin by Donati, Venet., 
1602, fol. 10. Physics Scholia, dec. (bvouc&v oro- 
Auw, iiroptSv, kcu Xvatuv, f3i6Ma d"), Gr., fol., Ve- 
net., 1536, and in Latin by Bagolinns, Venet., 1641, 
1649, 1566, 1589. 11. Problemsta Medics, etc , the 
best Greek edition of which ia in Sylburgius's works 
of Aristotle ; this is attributed by some to Alexander 
Trallisnos. 12. A treatise on Fevers ; never pub- 
lished in Greek, but translated by Valla, and inserted 
in a collection of various works, Venet., 1488. 
For medical works VU. Supplement. — XV. A 
native of Myndus, quoted by Athemeus. (Compare 
Meure'Bibl., in The: Gronov., vol. 10, p. 1208. 
teqq.) He is supposed by some to be the same with 
the writer mentioned by Atheneus under the name of 
Alexon. (SchmeigK., Index Auct. ad Aiken. — Op., 
vol 9, p. 24, teqq.)— XVI. A native of Tralles, who 
lived in the sixth century, and distinguished himself as 
a physician. He wrote several treatises on medicine, 
some of which are extant, and have been published 
at different times ; namely, a Greek edition, foL, Pari*, 
110 



1548; a Latin edition among the "Medicc «rt\s 
Principes," fol., Petri*, 1567, &c. Alexander Trslli- 
anus is a most judicious, elegant, and original author. 
No medical writer, whether of ancient or modern times, 
has treated of disesses more methodically than be has 
done ; for, after all the Nosological systems which 
hsve been proposed and tried, we can name none 
more advantageous to the student than the method 
adopted by him, of treating of disesses according to 
the part of the body which they affect, beginning with 
the head and proceeding downward. The same plan 
is pursued in the third book of Psulus ..Eginets, who 
has copied freely from Alexander. Of the ancient 
medical writers subsequent to Galen. Alexander shows 
the least of that blind deference to bis authority for 
which all have been censured : nay, in many instances 
he ventures to differ from him ; not, however, appa- 
rently from a spirit of rivslship, but from a commenda- 
ble love of truth. In his eleventh book, he has given 
the fullest account of the causes, symptoms, and treat 
ment of gout which is to be met with in any ancient 
writer ; and as it contains many things not to be met 
with elsewhere, it deserves to be carefully studied. 
He judiciously suits the treatment to the circumstances 
of the case, bot his general plan of cure appears to 
have consisted in the administration of purgative 
medicines, either cathartic salts or drastic purgatives, 
such ss scsmmony, sloes, and hermodactylus. The 
Isst-mentioned medicine wss most probably a species 
of Colekicum Autuvmole, which forme the active in- 
gredient of a French patent medicine called L'Eem 
MedieinoU d'Hyitop, much celebrated some years 
ago for the cure of gout and rheumatism. Dr. Hideo 
lately published s small pamphlet, wherein Colekicum 
wss strongly recommended ss sn antiphlogistic remedy 
of great powers. The writers, both Greek and Ara- 
bian, subsequent to Alexander Trsilianus, repeat the 
praises bestowed by him upon the virtues of hermo- 
dactylus. Demetrius Pepagomenos has written a pro- 
fessed treatise to recommend this medicine in gout. — 
The style of Alexander, although less pointed than 
that of Celsus, snd less brilliant than that of Aretsus, 
is remarkable for perspicuity and elegance. It must 
be mentioned with regret, however, a* a lamentable 
instance of a sound judgment being blinded by super- 
stition, that our author had great confidence in charms 
and amulets. Such weakness is to be bewailed, but 
need not be wondered at, when we recollect that Wise- 
man, one of the best English authorities on aurgery, 
had great confidence in the royal touch for the cure 
of Scrofula. — XVII. Isius. (Kid. Supplement.)— 
XVIII. Lycbnus. (VU. Supplement.)— XIX. Myn- 
dius. (VU. Supplement.) — XX. Noumentue. (VU. 
Supplement.)— XXI. A Greek rhetorician. (Fid. 
Supplement.) — XXII. Philalethcs. (Kid. Supple- 
ment.) — XX III. A Roman usurper. (Vid. Supple- 
ment.) — XXIV. Tiberius. (VU. Supplement.) 

Alexandria (less correctly Alexandria, Bumaxn, 
ad Propert., 3, 9, 33. — Vrtin.,md Cie., Ep. ad Fern., 
4, 3, 10 — Fen, ad Horat., Od., 4, 14, 36), the name 
of eighteen cities, founded by Alexander during his 
conquests in Asia, among which the most deserving of 
mention ere the following : I. The capital of Egypt, 
under the Ptolemies, built B.C. 332. It was situate 
about 12 miles to the west of the Canopic mouth of 
the Nile, between the Lake Mareotis and the beauti- 
ful harbour formed by the Isle-of Pharos It was the 
intention of its founder to make Alexandres at once 
the seat of empire and the first commercial city in the 
world. The latter of these plsns completely succeed- 
ed ; and for a long period of yearn, from the time ai 
the Ptolemies to the discovery of the Cape of Goal 
Hope, the capital of Egypt was the link of connexioa 
between the commerce of the east and west. Thi 
goods and other articles of traffic were brought op Usi 
I Red Sea, and landed at one of three different points 



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ALE 



Of these, die first waa at the head of the western 
pi If of the Red Sea, where the canal of Neco com- 
menced, and where stood the city of Arsinoe or Cleo- 
patris. This route, however, was not much used, on 
account of the dangerous navigation of the higher parts 
of the Red Sea. The second point was the harbour 
of Myos Hormos. in latitude 27°. The third was 
Berenice, sooth of Myos Hormus, in latitude 88° 30\ 
What the ships deposited at either of the last two 
places, the cararans brought to Coptos on the Nile, 
whence they were conveyed to Alexandres by a canal 
connecting this capital with the Canopk branch. Be- 
tween Coptos and Berenice a road was constructed by 
Ptolemy Philadelpbns, 358 miles in length. Ptolemy, 
the son of Lagust, who received Egypt in the general 
division, improved what Alexander had begun. On 
the long, narrow island of Pharos, which is very near 
the coast, and formed a port with a double entrance, 
a magnificent tower of while marble waa erected, to 
serve as a beacon and guide for navigators. The ar- 
chitect was Sostratus of Cnidus. — The first inhabi- 
tants of Alexandres were a mixture of Egyptians and 
Greeks, to whom most be added numerous colonies of 
Jews, transplanted thither in 396, 320, and .343 B C, 
to increase the population of the city. It was they 
who made the well-known Greek translation of the 
Old Testament, under the name of Septusginta, or 
the Septoagint— -The most beautiful part of the city, 
near the great harbour, where stood the royal palaces, 
magnificently built, was called Brvckim. There was 
the large and splendid edifice, belonging to the acad- 
emy and Museum, where the greater portion of the 
royal library (400,000 volumes) was placed ; the rest, 
amounting to 300,000, were in the Serapion, or -temple 
of Jupiter Scrapie. The larger portion was burned 
during the siege of Alexandres by Julius Casar, but 
was afterward in part replaced by the library of Per- 

Smos, which Antony presented to Cleopatra. The 
aseum, where many scholars lived and were sup- 
ported, ate together, studied, and instructed others, re- 
mained unhurt till the reign of Aurelian, when it was 
destroyed in a period of civil commotion. The libra- 
ry in ibe Serapion, was preserved .to the time of The- 
odonas the Great. He caused all the hesthen tem- 
ples throughout the Roman empire to be destroyed ; 
and even the splendid temple of Jupiter Serapis was 
not spared. A crowd of fanatic Christiana, headed by 
their archbishop, Theodosius, stormed and destroyed it. 
At that time, the library, it is said, was partly burned, 
parti; dispersed : and the historian Orosius, towards 
the close of the fourth century, saw only the empty 
shelves. The common account, therefore, is an erro- 
neous one, which makes the library in question to have 
been destroyed by the Saracens, at the command of 
the Calif Omar, A.D. 642, and to have furnished fuel 
during six months- to the 4000 baths of Alexandres. 
This narrative testa merely on the authority of the 
htatorisn Abulphaxsgius, and has no other proof at all 
to support it- But, whatever, may have been the cause 
of this disastrous event, the loss resulting to science 
was irreparable. The Alexandrean library, called by 
Livy "-Etegantue regnm carers* egreginm optu," 
embraced the whole Greek and Latin literature, of 
which we possess but single fragments. — In the divis- 
ion of the Roman dominions, Alexandres, with the 
rest of Egypt, was comprehended in the Eastern em- 
pire. The Arabs possessed themselves of it in 640 ; 
the Calif Motawakel, in 849, restored the library and 
academy ; bat the Turks took the city in 868, and it 
declined more and more, retaining, however, a flour- 
ishing commerce, until, as has already been remarked, 
the Portuguese, at the end of the 15th century, 
discovered a way to the East Indies by sea. — The 
modern city, called in Turkish Scanderia, doea not 
occupy the site of the old town, of which nothing re- 
mains except a portico in the vicinity of the gate lead- 



ing to Roaetta, the southwestern amphitheatre, the 
obelisk, or needle of Cleopatra, and Pompey'a pillar, 
88 feet 6 inches high, which, according to an English 
writer ( WalpoW* Collection, vol. 1, p. 380). was erect- 
ed by Pompeius, governor of part of Lower Egypt, in 
honour of the Emperor Dioclesian. The equestrian 
statue on the top is no longer standing. (Manncrt, 
10, pt. 1, p. 611, ttqq. — Encyclop. Americ., vol. 1, p. 
163, teqq.) — II. A city of Sogdiana, on the river lax- 
sites, to the east of Cyropolis. Jt was founded by 
Alexander on the farthest limits of his Scythian expe- 
dition, and hence it was also called Alexandresrhsta 
{'AXefavipeaxara, i. e. f 'Afcjuvdoria toxin)- Alex- 
audrea Ultima). — III. A city of Arachosia, near the 
confines of India ; now Semdtrie of Arokhage, or 
Vaihend. — IV. A city of India, at the junction of the 
Indus and Acesines ; now, according to some, Lahor, 
but, according to others, Kea. — V. A city in the vicin- 
ity of the range of Paroparnisua, on the east aide of the 
Coas. — VI. A city of Aria, at the mouth of the river 
Arius ; now Cerra. — VII, A city of Carmania, near 
Sabis. — VIII. A city of Gedroaia ; now Hormoz, or 
Heats. — There were several other cities of the same 
name, called after Alexander, though not founded 
by him. Among these may be mentioned the follow- 
ing.— IX. Trot ('AXrfuvdocto *} Tpcxff), a city on 
the western coast of Mysia, above the promontory of 
Lectum. It waa more commonly called Alexandres ; 
sometimes, however, Troas. (Act. Apott., 16, 8. — 
III*. Ant., p. 334.) The place owed its origin to 
Antigonus, who gave it the name of Antigonia Troas. 
After the fall of Antigonus, the appellation was chan- 
ged to Alexandres Troas by Lysimachus, in honour of 
Alexander. Antigonus had already increased its pop- 
ulation by sending thither the inhsbitants of Cebrene, 
Nesndria, and other towns ; and it received a farther 
increase under Lysimschus. Under the Romans it 
acquired still greater prosperity, and became one of 
the most flourishing of their Asiatic colonies. (Strab., 
693.— Pliny, 5, 30.) In the Acta of the Apostles it 
is simply called Troas, snd it was from its port that 
St Paul and St. Luke set sail for Macedonia ( 16, 
11). We are informed by Suetoniua ( Vit. Cat., 79), 
that Julius Cesar once bad it in contemplation to 
transfer the seat of empire to this quarter ; a plan far 
from hsppy, since the port was not large, and the fer- 
tility of the surrounding country not st all such aa to 
warrant the attempt. The same idea, however, is 
said to have been entertained by Augustus. (Faber, 
Efntt.. 2, 43. — Compare the commentators on Ho- 
race, CM., 3, 3.) In a later age, Comtantine actually 
commenced building a new capital here, but the su- 
perior situation of Byzantium soon induced him to 
abandon the undertaking. (Zotimut, 2, 30, p. 151, 
teqq., td. Reittmeitr.— Compare Zonmrat, 13, 3.) 
Augustus, when he gave over the design just alluded 
to, atill sent s Roman colony to this place, and hence 
the language used by Strabo (13, p. 594, ed. Cataub), 
vth> H koi Vu/iatov imuucai icAtrrai. (Compare 
Pint., 6, 30.— Corn*, m leg. 7, dig. de Cent.) 
The ruins of this city sre called by the Turks EM 
(Old) Stamboid. (Manner!, 6, pt. 3, p. 473, teqq.)— 
X. Ad latum (xera 'Iavov), a city of Syria, on the 
coast of the Sinua Iasicus, about sixteen miles from 
Issus in Cilicia. The founder is unknown. The 
Itin. Hieros. (p. 680) gives it the name of Alexandres 
Seabiota. (Compare Citron. AUxandr., p. 170, where 
the appellation is given as Gabion.) The modem 
Scanderoon, or AUzmdrtUa, occupies the site of the 
ancient city. 

ALlXAitoaiA oltIku. Vid. Alexandres, II. 
' Alix VKDBI a*jb, according to some, the limits of 
Alexander's victories near the Tanais. This, however, 
is all a mere fable of the ancients, who made Alexan- 
der to have crossed the Tanais, and approached what 
they considered the limits of the world in that quarter. 

Ill- 



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ALEXANDRIA SCHOLA. 



ALEXANDRINA SCHOLA. 



Manner t, 4, p. 159 and 456.) For the true Alexan- 
dri Aim, vid. Hyphaais. 

Alexandbi c a btb a 0i 'kXei-uvdpov irape/itoZq), a 
place in Marmarica, at the Oaaia of Amnion, where 
the Macedonian forces were encamped while Alexan- 
der was consulting the oracle. (Ptol.) 

Alexandri insula, an island in the Sinus Persi- 
cus, on the Persian coast. (Ptol. — Plin., 6, 25.) 

Alexandri fortus, a harbour of Gedrosia, where 
the fleet of Nearchus was detained four weeks by ad- 
verse winds. {ArruM, Indie., 22.) It was in the 
immediate vicinity of Eirus Promontorium, or Cspe 
Monze. (Compare Vincent's Commerce of the An- 
cients, vol. 1, p. 187.) 

Alexandrine aqu.se, baths in Rome, built by the 
Emperor Alexander Severas. 

Alexandrina schola. When the flourishing pe- 
riod of Greek poetry wss past, study was called In to 
supply what nature no longer furnished. Alexandres 
in Egypt was made the seat of learning by the Ptole- 
mies, admirers of the arts, whence this age of liter- 
ature took the name of the Alexandrean. Ptolemy 
Pbiladelphos founded the famous library of Alexan- 
dras, the largest and mm* valuable one of antiquity, 
which attr&ct&u many scholars from all countries ; snd 
also the Museum, which may justly be considered the 
first academy of sciences and arts.' ( Vid. Alexandrea.) 
The grammarians and poets are the most important 
among the scholar* of Alexandrea. These gramma- 
rians were philologists and literati, who explained 
things ss well as words, And may be considered a kind 
of encyclopedists. Such were Zenodotus the Ephe- 
sian, who established the first grammar-school in Alex- 
andrea, Eratosthenes of Cyrene, Aristophanes of By- 
zantium, Aristarchus of Samothrace, Crates of Msllus, 
Dionysius the Thracian, Apollonius the Sophist, and 
Zoilus. Their merit is to hsve collected, examined, 
reviewed, and preserved the existing monuments of 
intellectual culture. To them we are indebted for 
What is called the Alexandrean Canon, a list of the 
authors whose works were to be regarded as models 
in the respective departments of Grecian literature. 
The names composing this Canon, with some remarks 
upon its claims to attention, will be given at the close 
of the present article. — To the poets of the Aleian- 
drean age belong Apollonius the Rhodinn, Lyco- 
phron, AratuB, Nicander, Euphorion, Callimachus, 
Theocritus, Philetaa, Phanocles, Timon the Phliasian, 
Seymnus, Dionysius, and seven tragic poets, who were 
called the 'Alexandrean Pleiades. The Alexandrean 
age of literature differed entirely, in spirit and charac- 
ter, from the one that preceded. Great attention was 
paid to the study of language ; correctness, purity, 
and elegance were cultivated ; and several writers of 
this period excel in these respects. But that which 
no study can give, the spirit which rilled the earlier 
poetry of the Greeks, is not to be found in most of 
their works. Greater art in composition took its 
place ; criticism was now to perform what genius hsd 
accomplished before. But this was impossible. Ge- 
nius was the gift of only a few, and they soared far 
above their contemporaries. The rest did what may 
be done by criticism snd study ; but their works are 
tame, without soul and life, and those of their disci- 
ples, of course, still more so. Perceiving the want of 
originality, but appreciating its value, and striving af- 
ter it, they arrived the sooner at the point where poe- 
try is lost. Their criticism degenerated into a dispo- 
sition to find fault, snd their art into snbtilty. They 
seized on what was strange and new, and endeavoured 
to adom it with learning. The larger part of the Al- 
exandreans, commonly grammarians and poets at the 
same time, are stiff and laborious versifiers, without 
genius. —Besides the Alexandrean school of poetry, 
one of philosophy is also spoken of, but the expres- 
sion is not to be understood too strictlv. Their dig- 
its 



tingoishing character arises from this circumstance, 
that, in Alexandrea, the eastern and western philoso- 
phy met, and an effort took place to unite the two 
systems ; for which reason the Alexandrean philoso- 
phers hsve often been called Eclectics. This nunc, 
however, ia not applicable to all. The New Platon- 
ists form a distinguished series of philosophers, who, 
renouncing the skepticism of the New Academy, en- 
deavoured to reconcilo the philosophy of Plato with 
that of the East. The Jew Pbilo, of Alexandrea, be- 
longs to the earlier New Platonisls. Plato and Aris- 
totle were diligently interpreted and compared in the 
1st and 2d centuries after Christ. Ammonius the 
Peripatetic belongs here, the teacher of Plutarch. 
But the real New Platonic school of Alexandrea was 
established at the close of the 2d century after Christ 
by Ammonius of Alexandrea (about 193 A.D.), whose 
disciples were Plotinus and Origan. Being for the 
most part Orientals, formed by the study of Greek leam 
ing, their writings are strikingly characterized, e. g., 
those of Ammonius Saccas, Plotinus, Ismblicus, Por- 
phyrins, by a strange mixture of Asiatic and European 
elements, which had become Amalgamated is Alexan- 
drea, owing to the mingling of the eastern aDd west- 
ern race in its population, as well as to its situation 
and commercial intercourse. Their philosophy had a 
great influence on the manner in which Christianity 
was- received and taught in Egypt. The principal 
Gnostic systems hsd their origin, in Alexandrea. The 
leading teachers of the Christian catechetical schools, 
which had risen and flourished together with the ec- 
lectic philosophy, hsd imbibed the spirit of this phi- 
losophy. The most violent religious controversies 
disturbed the Alexandrean church, until the orthodox 
tenets were established in it by Athanssius in the con- 
troversy with the Ariana. — Among the scholars of 
Alexandrea are to be found great mathematicians, as 
Euclid, the father of scientific geometry ; Apollonius 
of Perga in Psmphylia, whose work on Conic Section* 
still exists ; Nicomachus, the first scientific arithmeti- 
cian : astronomers, who employed the Egyptian hiero- 
glyphics for marking the northern hemisphere, and 
fixed the images snd names (still in use) of- the con- 
stellations ; wno left astronomical writings (e. g., the 
Phenomena of Aratus, a didactic poem, the Spharica 
of Menelaus, the astronomical works of Eratosthenes, 
snd especially the Magna Syntaxis of the geographer 
Ptolemy), and made improvements in the theory of the 
calendar, which were afterward adopted into the Ju- 
lian calendar: natural philosophers, anatomists, as 
Herophilus and Erasistratus : physicians and surgeons, 
aa Demosthenes Philalethes, who wrote the first work 
on diseases of the eve ; Zopyrus and Cratevas, who 
improved the art of pharmacy and invented antidotes: 
instructors in the art of medicine, to whom Asclepia- 
des, Sorenus, and Galen owed their education: medi- 
cal theorists and empirics, of th< sect, founded by 
Philirus. All these belonged to tfte numerous asso- 
ciations of scholars continuing under the Roman do- 
minion, and favoured by the Roman emperors, which 
rendered Alexandrea one of the most renowned and 
influential seats, of science in antiquity.— The best 
work on the learning of Alexandrea ia the prize-essay 
of Jacob Matter ; Esse* Historique sur I'EcoU tVAlr 
exandrie, Paria, 1819, 2 vols. (Encyclop. Americ, 
vol. 1, p. 164, seoo.y— We alluded, near the com- 
mencement of the present article, to the literary Canon, 
settled by the grammarians of Alexandrea. We will 
now proceed to give its details, after some prefatory 
remarks respecting its merits. The canon of classical 
authors, as it haa been called, was arranged by Aris- 
topbsnes of Byzantium, curator of the Alexandrean 
library, in the reign of Ptolemy Euergetea ; and his 
celebrated disciple Aristarchus. The daily increasing 
multitude of books of every kind had now become so 
great, that there was no expression, however faulty, 



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tor which precedent might not be found ; and u there 
were far more bad than good writers, the authority 
and weight of numbers was likely to prevail ; and the 
language, consequently, to grow more and more cor- 
rupt. It was thought necessary, therefore, to draw a 
line between those classic writers, to whose authority 
in appeal m matter of language might be made, and 
the common herd of inferior authors. In the most cul- 
tivated modern tongues, it seems to haTe been found 
expedient to erect some such barrier against the in- 
roads of corruption ; and to this preservative caution 
are we indebted for the vocabulary of the Academi- 
cians della Crusca, and the list of authors therein cited 
a affording " lesti di lingua." To this we owe the 
Dictionaries of the Royal Academies of France and 
Spain, of their respective languages ; and Johnson's 
Dictionary of our own. But, as for the example first 
ant in this matter by the Alexandrean critics, its effects 
upon their own literature have been of a doubtful na- 
ture. In so far as the canon has contributed to pre- 
serve to us some of the best authors included in it, we 
cannot but rejoice. On the other hand, there is rea- 
son to believe, that the comparative neglect into which 
those not received into it were sure to fall, has been 
the occasion of the loss of a vast number of writers, 
who would have been, if not for their language, yet for 
their matter, very precious ; and who, perhaps, in many 
cases, were not easily to be distinguished, even on the 
score of style, from those that were preferred. (Moore's 
Ledum, p. 55, seqq.) The details of the canon are 
asfbflows: 1. Epic Poets. Homer, Hesiod, Pisan- 
der, Panyaris, Antrmachus. 2. Iambic' Poets. Ar- 
chilocnus, Simonides, Hipponax. 3. Lyric Poets. 
Alcman, Akaras, Sappho, Stesichorus, Pindar, Bsc- 
chylides, Ibycus, Anacreon, Simonides. 4. Elegiac 
Potts. Carihras, Mimnermns, Philetas, Callimachus. 
5. Tragic Poet*. (First Class): .■EachWus, Sopho- 
cles, Euripides, Ion, Achsus, Agathon. (Second 
Class, or Tragic Pleiades) : Alexander the iEtolian, 
Philiseus of Corcyra, Sositheue, Homer the younger, 
-Eantides, Sosrphanes or Sosicles, Lycophron. 6. 
Ccmic Poett. (Old Comedy) : Epicharmus, Cratinns, 
Etrpoliv Aristophanes, Pberecrates, Plato. (Middle 
Comedy): Antiphanes, Alexis. (New Comedy) : Me- 
Bander Phihppides, Diphilus, Philemon, ApoHodorus. 
7. Historians. Herodotus, Thueydides, Xenophon, 
Ttnraooxpus, Epborus, Philistus, Anaximenes, Cal- 
listbenes. 8. Orators. (The ten Attic Orators) 
An-ipiWn, Andocides, Lysias, Isocrates, Isaeus, JEs- 
chraes, Lycurgus, Demosthenes, Hyperides, Dinar- 
eons. 9. Philosophers. Plato, Xenophon, Machines, 
Aristotle, Theophrastus. 10. Poetic Pleiades. (Sev- 
en poets of the same epoch with one another) Apol- 
focms the Rhodian, Aratns, Philiscus, Homer the 
vounger, Lycophron, Nicander, Theocritus. (Seholl, 
Hist. Lai. Gt., vol. 3, p, 186, seqq ) 

Alsxakdropolis, a city of Parthia, probably east 
or Nisasa, built by Alexander the Great. ( Plin., 6, 45.) 
Alixabchds, a Greek historian, vid. Sdpplehint. 
AlexicIcps, an epithet applied to various deities, 
parncolarly to Jupiter. Apollo. Hercules, dec. It means 
"n rserter of evil," and is derived from iXefo, " to 
evert," or M ward off" and kclkov, "evil." Another 
Greek term of the same import is axorpovaioc, and 
amjogoos to both is the Latin aterruncus. (Consult 
Fischer, ad AristopK,Plut.. 35R) 
Alexias, a Greek physician, Vid. Sotplembst. 
ALtxfXtTs, a native of Elis, the disciple of Eubuli- 
sn. and a member of the Megaric sect. He set him- 
self in array against almost all of his contemporaries that 
were in any way distinguished for talent, such as Aris- 
totle, Zeno, Menederans, Stilpo, and the historian 
Epaeras. and from his habit of finding fault with others 
was nicknamed Blenxmus ('EA^fiVOf), or " the fault- 
finder.™ In particular, be vented the most calumni- 
ous imputations against Aristotle, and wrote a work 
P 



containing pretended conversations between Philip and 
Alexander of Macedon. in which the character of the 
Stagirite was very rudely assailed. Full of vanity 
and self-conceit, he retired to Orympia for the purpose, 
as he gave out, of establishing a sect to which he 
wished to give the appellation of Olympiae; the un- 
healthy state of the neighbourhood, and its deserted 
condition, except at the period of the games, caused 
his disciples to abandon him. He died inconsequence 
of being wounded in the foot by the point of a reed, aa 
he was bathing in the Alpheus. (Diog. Laert.) Alex- 
inus and his preceptor EubuKdes are only known as 
the authors of certain captious questions Ifihrra) 
which they levelled at their antagonists. {Diog. Laert., 
8, 108, seqq. — die., Acad , 4, 29.) 

AlixYoit, a physician, intimate with Cicero. (Cic, 
ad Alt, 13, ep. 85.) 

Alius, I. a comic poet of Thurinm, uncle on the 
father's aide to Menander, and his instructor in the 
drama. (Pre/eg. Aristoph., p. xxx.) He flourished 
in the time of Alexander the Great, and, according to 
Suidas, wrote 246 pieces for the stsge {titoaft ipafiara 
cut). Athenajus calls him 6 xapittc, " the gracefully 
sportive," and the extracts which he aa well as Sto- 
baaos give from the productions of the poet appear to 
justify the appellation. If he did not invent the char- 
acter of the parasite, he at least introduced it more 
frequently into his comedies, or portrayed it more suc- 
cessfully than any of his predecessors. The titles of 
several of hia pieces have been preserved, besides the- 
extracta which are given by Athensus and Stobteus. 
(Athen., 2, 69, f —Sekweigk., ad Athen , /. e.) The- 
remains of this poet are also to be found in the Ex- 
cerpta ex Trag. et Comocd. Gt. of Grotius, Paris, 1828, 
4to. — II. An artist mentioned by Pliny as one of the 
pupils of Polycletua, but without any statement of his 
eoontry or the works which he executed. (Plin., 
84,8.) 

Alpbn os, or Publics Alfencs Varus, a barber of 
Cremona, who, growing out of conceit with bis line of 
business, quitted it and came to Rome. Here he at- 
tended the lectures of Servios Sulpicius, a celebrated 
lawyer of the day, and made so great proficiency in his 
studies aa to become eventually the ablest lawyer of 
his time. His name often occurs in the Pandects. 
He was advanced to some of the highest offices in the 
empire, and was at last made consul, A.U.C. 766. 
(Compare the commentators on Horace, Semi , 1,3, 
130.) In some editions of Horace, Alfenus is styled- 
Sutor, " a shoemaker." Bentley, however, on the au- 
thority of two MSS., one of (hem a MS. copv of Acron, 
changes the lection to tensor, " a barber. His em- 
endation has been very generally adopted. 

AloIduh, s town of Latium, on the Via latins, . 
situate in a hollow about twelve miles from Rome. 
Antiquaries seem to agree in fixing its position at 

VOsteria deW Aglio. (Holstein, Adnot.. p. 1S8 

Vulp Lot. Vet, 15, 1, p. 248 — jViiJy, Viag. Anttq., 
vol. 2, p. 88.) 

AlgIdds, a chain of mountains in Latium, stretching 
from the rear of the Alhan Mount, and running parallel' 
to the Ttisculan Hills, being separated from them by 
the vallev along which ran the Via Latins. The neigh- 
bourhood is remarkable for the numberless conflicts 
between the Roman armies and their unwearied an- 
tagonists the iEqui and Volsci. Mount Algidua, in 
fact, was advantageously placed for making inroads on 
the Roman territory, either by the Via I-atina oi :he 
Via Lavicans. The woods of the bleak Algidua aie 
a favourite theme with Horace. (Od., 1, 81, 6 — 3, 
23, 9. — 4, 4, 58.— Cramer's Anet. Italy, vol. 8, p. 
48.) This mountainous range was sacred to Diana 
(Hor. Cam. Sac., 69) and to Fortune. (Lit., 31, 68.) 

Aliacmon. Vid. Haliacmon. 

Aliartos. Wat Hafiartos. 

Auforos Cmoint. Fiat. Caseins. 

II* 



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AuMarrrcs, C, a Roman historian, who flourished 
daring the period of the accond Punic war, of which 
he wrote an account in Greek. He was the author 
also of a biographical sketch, in Latin, of the Sicilian 
rhetorician Gorgias of Leontini, and of a work Dc Re 
Mililari. This last-mentioned production is cited by 
Aulua Gellius, and is acknowledged by Vegetiua as 
the foundation of his more elaborate commentaries on 
the same subject. (Dunlop's Roman Lit., vol. 2, p. 
25, in no tit.) 

Alinda, a city of Caria, south east of Stratonicea. 
It was a place of some note and strength, and was held 
by Ada, queen of Caria, at the time that Alexander 
undertook the aiege of Halicarnaaaua. (Arrian, Exp. 
Al, 1, 23. — Strab., 667.) The ait* has been iden- 
tified by many antiquaries with the modem Jtoglah, 
the principal town of modern Caria, but on what au- 
thority ia not apparent. Another traveller, from the 
similarity of names, places it at Aleina, between 
Mogtah and Tekina. (RenneWs Geogr. of Western 
Asia, vol. B, p. 63. — Cramer's Aria Minor, vol. 2, 
p. 208.) 

Alipius. Vid. Alypius. 

Alirrothius. Vtd. Halirrothius. 

ALLKCTua, a praetorian prefect, who alaw Carauaius 
in Britain, and took possession of his throne, holding 
it for three years, from 294 to 297 A.D. He was at 
laat defeated and alain by Asclepiodotus, a general of 
Constantius Chlorus, who landed on the coast of the 
island with an army. . (Aurel. Viet., 89.) 

AllU, a river of Italy, running down, according to 
Ijivy, from the mountains of Cruatumium, at the 
eleventh mileatone, and flowing into the Tiber. It 
was crossed by the Via Salaria, about four miles beyond 
the modern Marcigtia.no, and ia now the Aia. Cluve- 
riiie {Ital. Ant., vol. 1, p. 707) is mistaken when he 
identifies the Allia with the Rio di Motto, aa that riv- 
ulet is much beyond the given distance from Home. 
(Nibby, ielle Vie iegli Antiehi, p. 87.) On its banks 
the Romans were defeated by the Gauls under Brcn- 
nus, July 17th, B.C. 387. Forty thousand Romans 
were either killed or put to flight. Hence in the Ro- 
man calendar, " Alliensis dies" was marked aa a moat 
unlucky day. (lav., 6, 37.— Fbr., I, 13. — Plut., 
Vit. Cam.) The trite name of the river ia Alia, with 
the first vowel short. Our mode of pronouncing and 
writing the name ia derived from the poets, who length- 
ened the initial vowel by the duplication of the con- 
sonant. (Niebuhr, Rom. Hist., vol. 2, p. 291, Wal- 
ter'* trantl., in notis.) 

Allieni forum. Vid. Forum, II. 

AllIf x, a town of Samnium, northwest of the Vul- 
* turnus, the name of which often occurs in Livy. It 
was taken, according to that historian, by the consul 
Petilius, A.U.C. 429 ; and again by Rutilius. (Lit., 
B,Jl5.-—Id., 9, 38.) This place waa famous fox the 
large-aiied drinking-cups made there. (Horat., Serin., 
2, f, 39.) The ancient site is occupied by the modern 
AUife. For a description of the numerous antiquities 
filiating at AUife, consult Trutta, Dtst. sopr. le An- 
lith. Alif. (Cramer's Ane. Italy, vol. 2, p. 233.) 

AiLoaadoKs, a people of Gallia, between the Iaara 
or here, .and tho Rhodanus or Rhone, in the country 
answering to Dauphini, Piedmont, and Savoy. Their 
chief city was Vienna, now Vienne, on the left bank of 
the Rhodanus, thirteen miles below Lugdunum or 
Lyons. They were finally reduced beneath the Roman 
power, by .Fabius Maximus, who hence waa honoured 
with the surname of Allobrogicua. (For the particulars 
of this war, consult Thierry, Histoire det Gauloit, 
vol. 2, p. 168, teqq., and the authorities there cited.) 
At a later day we find the ambassadors of this nation 
at Rome, tampered with by Catiline, but eventually 
remaining firm in their allegiance. (Sottutt, Cat., 40, 
seqq.— Cic., in Cat., 3, 3, teqq.) The name Alio- 
broges means " Highlanders," and is formed from Al, 
H4 



" high," and Broga, " land." (Adelung't Sfilhridatet, 
vol. 2, p. 60.) 

AllpcIos, a prince of the Celtiberi in Spain, whose 
affianced bride having fallen into the bands of Scipio 
Africanua, waa restored to him uninjured by the Ro- 
man commander ; an act of self-control rendered still 
more illustrious by reason of the surpassing beauty of 
the maiden. (Liv., 26, 50.) 

Almo, a small river near Rome, falling into the Tiber. 
It ia now the Dachia, a corruption of Aqua d'Acw. 
At the junction of this stream with the Tiber, the 
priests of Cybele, every year, on the 25th March, 
waahed the, statue and sacred things of the goddess. 
Vid. Lara. (Ovid, Fail., 4, 337.— Lucan, 1, 600. 
Compare Valet, el Lindenbr., ad Amnion. Marccll., 
23, Z.—Lucan, ed. Cort. et Weber, vol. 1, p. 167, 
seqq.) 

Aloa, a festival at Athens, in the month Posideon (a 
month including one third of December and two thirds 
of January), in honour of Ceres and Bacchus. These 
deities were propitiated on this occasion, aa by their 
blessing the husbandmen received the recompense of 
their tod and labour. The oblations, therefore, con- 
sisted of nothing but the productions of the earth. 
Hence Ceres wss called Alias ('AXudf), Alms ('AA«- 
Ic ), and Eualosia (EiaXuoia). All these names are de- 
rived from the Greek uZuc, " a ihrething-fioar." Ac- 
cording to Philochorus(p.66, Fragm.), the Aloa wasa 
united festival in honour of Bacchus, Ceres, and Pro- 
serpina. (Compare Cortini, Fast Alt., 2, p. 302.) 
We have written 'AAucif, dec, with the lenis in place 
of the aspirate, although the root be <Uuc. The un- 
aspirated form is, in fact, the earlier of the two, and 
the more likely, therefore, to be retained aa a religious 
appellation. (Compare the remarks of Bergler, ad AL 
ciphron, 1, ep. 33.) Reitz, however, favours the op- 
posite form, though less correctly. (Ad Luc., Dial. 
Meretr., 1.) Creuzer gives 'KKua for the name of the 
festival, as we have done, (Symholtk, vol. 4, p. 308.) 

Alokus, I. son of Apollo and Circe. From him, 
through his son Epopeus, waa descended the Marathon, 
after whom the famous plain in Attica waa oamed. 
(Suid., s. v. HapaSyv.) Callimachus applied to this 
same Marathon, son of Apollo, the epithets of Sivypuc, 
"all humid," and hvdpoe, "dwelling in the vwer" 
(Suid., I. c), a remark that will serve as an introduc- 
tion to the explanation given by Creuzer to the fable 
of the Aloidai. Vid. Aloids. — II. Son of Neptune 
and Canace. He married Iphimedia, the daughter of 
his brother Triops ; but Iphimedia having a stronger 
attachment for Neptune than for her own husband, be- 
came by the former the mother of two sons, Otus and 
Ephialtea, whom A locus, however, brought up as his 
own (Homer makes them to have been nurtured by 
Earth), and who were hence called Aloida.. Vid 
Aloidm. (Horn., Od., 1 1, 304, seqq.) 

Aloida ('AAueMai), sons of Aloeus in name, but in 
reality the offspring -of Neptune and Canace. (Vid. 
Aloeus, II.) They were two in number, Otus end 
Ephialtes, and, according to Homer (Od., 11, 310, 
seqq.), were, in their ninth year, nine cubit* in width 
and nine fathoma in height. At this early age, they 
undertook to make war upon heaven, with the intention 
of dethroning Jupiter ; and, in order to reach the heav- 
ens, they strove to place Mount Oaaa upon Olympus, 
and Pelion upon Oasa; but they were destroyed by 
Apollo before, to use the graphic language of Homer, 
"the down had bloomed beneath their temples, and 
had thickly covered their chin with a well-flowering 
beard." According to the animated narrative of the 
same bard, they would have accomplished their object 
had they made the attempt, not in childhood, but after 
having "reached the meaaure of youth." (Od., I. c.) 
Such is the Homeric legend respecting the Alo'idse, as 
given in the Odyssey. In the Iliad <5, 385) they are 
said to have bound Mars, and kept him captive for lh< 



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■pice of thirteen months, until Mercury " stole him 
any" (tZexX&pcv). Leier writers add, of course, 
dud; other particulars. Apollodorus Hakes Ephialtes 
to have aspired to a onion with Juno, and Otus with 
Diana. (Compare tfomue, Dionyn., 48, 402. — Hy- 
gin., fab., 88.) He farther states, that Diana effected 
their destruction in the island of Naxos. She changed 
herself, it seems, into a hind, and bounded between 
the two brothers, who, in their eagerness each to slay 
the animal, pierced one another with their weapons 
(t*' tVnrrovr t}*6vTtcav). Diodorus Siculas (5, 61) 
gives an historical air to the narrative, making the two 
brothers to have held sway in Naxos, and to have fallen 
in a quarrel by each other's hand. (Compare Pind., 
Pftk , 4. 88, ed. BSekh, and the scholiast, ad loe.) Vir- 
gil assigns the Aloidae a place of punishment in Tarta- 
rus {£*-, 6, 582), and some of the ancient fabulists make 
■ them to bare been hurled thither by Jupiter, others by 
Apollo. So in the Odyssey (I. e.) they are spoken of 
as inhabiting the lower world, though no reason is as- 
signed by the poet for their being there, except what 
we may infer from the legend itself, that they were cut 
off in early life, lest, if they bad been allowed to attain 
their full growth, they might have obtained the empire 
of the skies. (Heyne, ad ApoUod , i. c.) Pausanias 
makes the .Moid* to have founded Ascra in Bceotia, 
and to have been the first that sacrificed to the Muses 
on Mount Helicon (9, 39). Muller regards the Aloidae 
as the mythic leaders of the old Thracian colonies, he- 
roes by land and sea. They appear in Pieria (at 
Aloium, near Tempe) and at Mount Helicon, and in 
both quarters have reference to the digging of canals 
and the draining of mountain-dales. (Orchomenm, p. 
387.) Creoxer, on the other hand, sees in the fable 
of the Abide a figurative allusion to a contest, as it 
were, between the water and the land. Aloeos is 
" lie man of the tkreehing-floor" (fiXuf ), whose efforts 
are all useless on account of the infidelity of bis sponse 
(the Earth, " tie very vnte one," l$i and p$oor). She 
cartes against him with Neptune, and the sea there- 
upon begets the mighty energies of the tempests (Otus 
and Ephialtes), which darken the day ('Qrof, from 
uTo;, " tie kerned md," the bird of night), which brood 
heavily over the earth, sad cause the waves of ocean 
to leap and dash upon the cultivated regions along the 
•bore (*E*uIlrjjf, from hri, and iXXo/uu, " to leap," as 
indicating " the one that attacks" or " leaps upon," 
the ipint that oppresses and torments, •■ the night- 
aaare"). At last the god of day (Apollo) comes forth, 
and the storm ceases, first along the mountain-tops, 
and at last even on the shore. ( Greater, Symbottk, 
vol. J, p. 386.) If we adept the other version of the 
fable, that the Aloidas were destroyed by Diana, the 
stonn will then be hushed by the influence and chang- 
og of the moon. 

AloIosl, a town of Tbeasaly, near Tempe. (Steph. 
Bp , i. r. 'AXuiov.) 

A lops, I. daughter of Cercyon, king of Eleasis, and 
mother of Hippothoon by Neptune. She was put to 
death by her father, and her tomb is spoken of by Pau- 
sraas (1, 29). Hyginus says that Neptune, not being 
able to save her life, changed her corpse into a fountain 
(fat., 187). The son, on having been exposed by or- 
der of its mother, was at first suckled by a mare (Imroc), 
whence his name Hippothoon ; and was afterward ta- 
ken care of and brought up by some shepherds. When 
he had attained to manhood, be was placed on his grand- 
father's throne by Theseus, who had slain Cercyon. 
(Pums., I, 6. et 39—Hygin, I. c.)— II. A town of 
Tbeasaly, situate, according to Steph. Byx. (a. v. 'kXn- 
n;), between Larissa Cremaste and Echinus. (Com- 
pare Strabo, 433.— Pomp. Mel.,2, 3.) It is probably 
the same with the Alitrope noticed by Scylax (p. 34), and 
retains its name on the shore of the Melian Gulf, be- 
low XakaOa. — in. A town of the Locri dole, ac- 
cording to Strabo (427). It is, perhaps, no other than 



the Olpss of Thucydides (3, 101).— IV. A town of the 
Locri Opuntii, above Daphnus. It was here that, ac- 
cording to Thucydides, the Athenians obtained some 
advantages over the l-ocriana in ■ descent they made 
on this coast during the Peloponnesian war. ( Thueyd., 
S, 26.) 

Alopece, I. an island in the Palus Maeotis, near the 
mouth of the Tana'ra. Strabo and Ptolemy call it Alo- 
pecia ('A/Uur«ia), but Pliny (4, 26) names it Alopece. 
— II. An island in the Cimmerian Bosporus, near 
Panticapasnm. Constantine Porphyrogenitus (de adm, 
imp., e. 43) calls it Atech ('Atf* ). — III. A borough of 
Attica, north of Hymettus, and near the Cynosarges, 
consequently close to A thena. According to Herodo- 
tus (S, 63), it contained the tomb of Anchimolius, a 
Spartan chief, who fell in the first expedition underta- 
ken by the Spartans to expel the Pisistrstidas. Ac- 
cording to iEschines (in Ttmarch.,p. 119), it waa not 
more than eleven or twelve stadia from the walls of the 
city. This was the borough or demus of Socrates and 
Aristides. It was enrolled in the tribe Antiochis. 
(Steph. Byz., ». >. 'JlXunUij). Chandler thought that 
he passed some vestiges belonging to it in his journey 
from Athens to Hymettus. (Travel; vol. 3, c. 30.) 

Alopsconnbsds, a town on the northern coast of the 
Thracian Chersonese. It was an JEohm colony, ac- 
cording to Scymnus(». 705), and it is mentioned as one 
of the chief towns of the Chersonese by Demosthenes 
(de Cor., p. 356). It was taken by Philip, king of 
Macedon, towards the commencement of his wars with 
the Romans (Lis., 31, 16). According to Athenaeus 
(3, 60), truffles of excellent quality grew near it. The 
site of the ancient town still retains the name of Alexi. 
(Mannerl, 7. p. 197.) 

A los, or Halos, I. a city in Thessaly, situate near 
the sea, on the river Amphrysue. It was founded by 
Athamas, whose memory waa here held in the highest 
veneration. (Strati., 433 — Herodol., 7, 197.) This 
place was called the "-Phthiotic" or " Aohafan" Alos, 
to distinguish it from another city of the same name 
among the Locri. — II. A city of the Locri Opuntii. 

Alpinus, a town of the Locri Epicnemidii, south of 
Thermopylae, whence, as Herodotus (7, 339) informs 
us, Leonidas and his little band drew their supplies. It 
is also called Alpeni ('A Xir^vot). This is probably the 
same town which jEechines names Alponus, since he 
describes it as being close to Thermopylae. (Seek., 
de Fait. Leg., p. 46.) 

Alpis, a chain of mountains, separating Italia from 
Gallia, Helvetia, and Germania. Their name is do- 
rived from their height, Alp being the old Celtic ap- 
pellation for a lofty mountain. (Aielung, Mttkridatet, 
vol. 8, p. 42. — Compare remarks under the article Al- 
bion. II.) They extend from the Sinus Flanaticus, or 
Gulf of Carnero. at the top of the Gulf of Venice, and 
the sources of the river Colapis. or Kulpe, to Vada 
Sabatia, or Savon*, on the Gulf of Genoa. The whole 
extent, which is in a crescent form. Livy makes only 
350 miles, Pliny 700 miles. The true amount is near- 
ly 600 British miles. They have been divided by both 
ancient and modern geographers into various portions, 
of which the principal are, 1. The Maritime Alpa (Al- 
pes Maritime;), beginning from the environs of Nieo 
(Nicsja).and extending to Mons Vesulus, Monte Vieo. 
3. The Cottian Alps (Alnes Cottias), reaching from the 
last-mentioned point to Mont Cents. ( Vid. Cottius.) 
3. The Graian Alps (Alpea Grain), lying between Mont 
heron and the Little St. Bernard inclusively. The 
name Grata is said to refer to the tradition of Hercules 
having crossed over them on his return from Spain into 
Italy and Greece. 4. The Pennine Alps (Alpes Pen- 
nine), extending from the Great St. Bernard to the 
sources of the Rhone and Rhine. The name ia deri- 
ved from the Celtic Penn, " a summit," and not, as 
Livy and other ancient writers, together with some 
modem ones, pretend, from Hannibal having crossed 

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into Italy by this path, and who, therefore, make the 
orthography Poenina, from Poenua. 6. The Kbetic 
or Tndentine Alp* (Alpes Rhalica sive Tridentinaa), 
from the St. Golhard, whose numerous peaks bore the 
name of Adula, to Mont Brenner in the Tyrol. 6 
The Noric Alps (Alpes Norica), from the latter point 
to the head of the river Plavis, or la Piavt. 7. The 
Caroic or Julian Alps (Alpes Carnica sive Julie), ter- 
minating in the Mons Albius on the confines of Illyri- 
cuin — It was not till the reign of Augustus that the 
Alps became well known. That emperor finally sub- 
dued the numerous and savage clans which inhabited 
the Alpine valleys, and cleared the passes of the ban- 
ditti that infested them. He improved the old roads 
and constructed new ones ; and finally succeeded in 
establishing a free and easy communication through 
these mountains. ( Strab. , 204.) Il was then that 
the whole of this great chain was divided into the seven 
portions which have just been mentioned. Among the 
Pennine Alps is Mont Blanc, 14,676 feet high. The 
principal passes at the present day are, that over the 
Great St. Bernard, that over Mont Simplon, and that 
over Mont St. Gothard. The manner in which Han- 
nibal is said to have effected his passage over these 
mountains is now generally regarded as a fiction. 
( Vid. Hannibal, under which article some remarks will 
also be offered upon the route of the Carthaginian com- 
mander in crossing the Alps.) Besides the divisions 
of the Alps already mentioned, we sometimes meet 
with others, such as the Lepontine Alps (Alpes Lepon- 
tite), between the sources of the Rhine and the Lacus 
Verbanus ( Logo Maggiore) ; the Alpes Sumnus 
{Cos., B. G., 3, I, and 4, 10), running off from the 
Pennine Alps, and reaching ss far as the Lake Verba- 
nus, dec. 

ALPHESiBota, daughter of Phygeus, or Fhegeus, 
king of Psophis in Arcadia, married Alcmeon, son of 
' Amphiara-is, who had fled to her father's court after 
the murder of his mother. She received, as a bridal 
present, the fatal collar and robe which had been given 
to Eriphyle, to induce her to betray her husband Am- 

Ehiaraus. The ground, however, becoming barren on 
is account, Alcmson left Arcadia and nis newly- 
married wife, in obedience to an oracle, and came, first 
to Calydon unto king GEoeua, then to the Thesprotii, 
and finally to the Achelous. Here he was purified by 
the river-god from the stain of his mother's blood, and 
married Callirrhoe, the daughter of the stream. Cal- 
lirrhoe' had two sons by him, and begged of him, as a 
present, the collar arid robe, which were, then in the 
hands of Alphesibosa. He endeavoured to obtain them, 
under the pretence that he wished to consecrate them 
at Delphi ; but the deception being discovered, he was 
slain by the two brothers of Alphesibosa, who had lain 
in wait for him. Alphesibosa, showing too much sor- 
row for the loss of her former husband, was conveyed 
by her brothers to Tegea, and given into the hands of 
Agapenor. The more usual name by which Alphe- 
sibosa ia known among the ancient fabulists, is Arsinoe. 
(Apollod., 8, 7. — Heyne, ad loc.) 

Alpheus and Alpheus ('AX^eioe and 'Atyeoc, the 
short penult marking the earlier, the long one the later 
and more usual, pronunciation), I. a river of Pelopon- 
nesus, flowing through Arcadia and Elis. It rose in 
the L'aconian border of Arcadia, about five stadia from 
A sea, and mingled its waters, at its source, with those 
of the Eurotas. The united streams continued their 
course for the space of twenty stadia, when they dis- 
appeared in a chasm. The Alpheus was seen to rjse 
again at a place called Pegs {irnyai) or " the tourcet," 
in the territory of Megalopolis, and the Eurotas in that 
of Belmina, in Laconia. Flowing onward from this 
quarter, the Alpheus passes through the intervening 
part of Arcadia, enters Elis, passes through the plain 
of Oiympia, and discharges its waters, now swelled by 
numerous tributary streams, into the Sicilian Sea. 

no 



The modem name of the river is the Rouphia — There 
are few streams so celebrated in antiquity as the Al 
pheus. Its proximity to the scene of the Olympic 
contests connects its nsme continually with the men 
tion of those memorable games, on the part of the an- 
cient poets, and gives it, in particular, a conspicuous 
place in the verses of Pindar. There is also a pleas- 
ing legend connected with the stream. According to 
the poets, the god of the Alpheus became enamoured 
of and pursued the nymph Arelhuse, who was only sa- 
ved from him by the intervention of Diana, and chang 
ed for that purpose into a fountain. This fountain die 
placed in the island of Ortygia, near the coast of Sici- 
ly, and forming in a later age one of the quarters of the 
city of Syracuse. The ardent river-god. however, did 
not even then desist, bat worked a passage for his 
stream amid the intervening ocean, and, rising up again 
in the Ortygian Island, commingled its waters with those 
of the fountain of Arethusa. Hence, according to pop- 
ular belief, if anything were thrown upon the Alpi.uia 
in Elis, it was sure to reappear, after a certain lapse 
of time, upon the bosom of the Ortygian fountain. 
<Pau$an., 5, 7.— Id., 8, 54.— Strab., 269. et 343 - 
Pind., Asm., \ r 1, tcqq.—Motckue, Id., 8. — Virg., 
JBn., 3, 692, acq q . — Id., Georg., 3, 180. — Nonnus, tn 
Creuz., Melet., 1, p. 78.) According to another ver- 
sion, however, of the same legend, it was Diana her- 
self, and not the nymph Arethusa, whom the river-god 
of the Alpheus pursued, and, when this pursuit had 
ended in the island of Ortygia, the fountain of Are- 
thusa arose there. (Schol. ad Pind., Nem , 1, 3. — 
vol. 2, p. 428, ed. Bbckh.) The account last given 
will afford us a clew to the true meaning of the entire 
fable. The goddess Diana had, it seems, a common 
altar at Oiympia with the god of the Alpheus. {He- 
rodoLut, in Schol. ad Pind., Olymp., 5, 10. — 7'au- 
tan., 6, 14.) To the same Diana water was Uld sa- 
cred. (Bbckh, ad. Pind., Nem., 1. — Creuza'e Sym- 
bolik, vol. 2, p. 182.) This .part of the worship of 
Diana having passed from the Peloponnesus into Sici- 
ly, the worship of the Alpheus accompanied it ; or, in 
other words, a common altar for the two divinities was 
erected by the Syracusans in Ortygia, similsr in its at- 
tendant rites sua ceremonies to the altar at Oiympia. 
For in the island of Ortygia all water was held sacred, 
{Schol. ad Pind., Nem., 1, 1.— 2. p. 428, ed. Bvrkh), 
and Diana, besides, was worshipped at the' fountain of 
Arethusa, under the titles of iroTa/ua and 'KXotuM. 
From this commingling of rites arose, therefore, the 
poetic legend, that the Alpheus hsd passed through the 
ocean to Ortygia, and blended its waters with those ol 
Arethusa, or, in other words, its. rites with those ol 
Diana. (Bbckh, ad Pind., Nem., I. e.) — II. An engra- 
ver on gems, who executed many works in connexion 
with Arethon, one of his contemporaries. A head ol 
Caligula, engraved by him when a young man, is stil 
extant. (Bracci, pt. 1, tab. 16.) 

Alfhius Avitos, a Roman poet, who wrote an ac- 
count of illustrious men, in two volumes. Terentia 
nus Maurus has cited some verses of the work, having 
reference to the story of Csmillua and the schooling 
ter of Falisci. (Compare Burmann, Anthol. Lai., vol 
1.P-46S.) 

Alpinus (Cornelius), a wretched poet, ridiculed b] 
Horace (Serm., 1, 10, 36, teqq). In describing Mem 
non slain by Achilles, he kills him, as it were,. accord 
ing to Horace, by the miserable character of his ownde 
scription. So also the same poet is represented bv thi 
Venusian bard as giving the Rhine a head of mud 
Who this Alpinus actually was cannot be exactly as 
certained, and no wonder, since it would have lieei 
strange if any particulars of so contemptible a poet hai 
escaped oblivion. Cruquius, without any auihont] 
discovers in Alpinus the poet Cornelius Gallus. th 
friend of Virgil. Nor is Bentley's supposition of an 
great value. According to this latter critic, Hnrae 



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iflodes, under the name of Alpinns, to Purina Bibacu- 
Ioj : and BentJey thinks that the appellation was given 
him by Horace, eitheron account of his being a native of 
Gaol, or because he described in verse the Gallic war, 
or else, and what Bentley considers most probable, in 
illusion to a foolish line of his composition, " Jupiter 
kVau eana litre compuit Alpet." {Bentl.,ad Horat., 
1,10,36.) 

Ai.ru, a river felling into the Danube. Mannert 
(G'ogr., vol. 3, p. 510) supposes this to have been the 
cune with the ..Enus, or Inn. It is mentioned by He- 
rodotus (4, 29). 

Alsicm, a maritime town of Etruria, soulheaat from 
Ore, now Pate. (Si/, Iial., 8, 475.) 

Altbjea, daughter of Thestins and Eurythemis, 
married (Eneas, king of Calydon, by whom she had 
many children, among whom was Meleager, consider- 
ed by some to be the son of Mars. Seven days after 
the birth of Meleager, the Destinies came unto Althaea, 
and announced, that the life of Meleager depended upon 
a biand then burning on the hearth, and that he would 
die when it was consumed. The mother saved the 
brand from the flames, and kept it very carefully ; but 
when Meleager killed his two uncles, Althaea's broth- 
ers, Ahhm. to revenge their death, threw the piece of 
wood into the fiie. and, as soon as it was burned, Me- 
leager expired. She was afterward so deeply griev- 
ed for the loss of her son, that the made away with her 
own existence. {Apollod., 1, 8, 1. — Ovid, Met., 8, 
448. trfj ) Another version of the story is also given 
{ApttttC I. c.\ which appears to have been derived 
from Homer (// , 9, 551. — Compare with this Anton. 
Lib . e. 2, and Heyne, ad Apollod., I. c.) 

Avmriwas ('AXfljf/ieViff, more correct than Al- 
thvmenes, 'AXBatfievnc, the common form. Heyne, 
*d Apollod ,3 2, 1, not. nit), son of Cat reus, king of 
Crete. Hearing mat either he or his brothers were to 
be their father's murderer, he fled to Rhodes, where he 
made a settlement, to avoid becoming a parricide, and 
knit, on Mount Atabyrus, the famous temple of Jupi- 
ter Atabynus. After the death of all his other sons, 
Catreus went after his aon Althemenes : when he land- 
ed in Rhodes, the inhabitants attacked him, supposing 
bun to be an enemy, and he was killed by the hand of 
his own ton. When Althemenes knew that he had 
kitted his father, he entreated the gods to remove him ; 
and the earth immediately opened, and swallowed him 
■> (Apollod., 3, 3.) According to Diodorus Sicu- 
hk, however, he shunned the society of men after the 
fatal deed, and died eventually of grief. (Died. Sic., 
5,59) 

ALTtsrm, a flourishing city near Aquueia. Accord- 
ing to Cluverius, the precise site of the ancient Alli- 
um seems uncertain. D'Anville, however, asserts 
{Ami. Geogr. it Thai., p. 84) that its place is yet 
Backed by the name of Altfno. on the right bank of 
lit river Silis ( Sile), and near its mouth. According 
to Strabo (3141, the situation of Altmum bore much 
resemblance to that of Ravenna. The earliest men- 
tion of it is hi YeUeios Paterculua (3, 7ft). At a la- 
ter period of the Roman empire it must have become 
f place of considerable note, since Martial compares 
the appearance of its shore, lined with villas, to that 
of Bane. (Bp., 4, 25.) It was also celebrated for its 
woo!. {Martial, Bp., 14, 153.) 

Altis. the sacred grove of Olympia, on the banks 
of the Alpbeus, in the centre of which stood the tem- 
ple of Jupiter. It was composed of olive and plane- 
trees, and was surrounded by an enclosure. Besides 
the temple just mentioned, the grove contained those 
of Jam and Lucina, the theatre, and the prytanenm. 
In front of it, or, if we follow Strabo, within its pre- 
cincts, was the stadium, together with the race-ground 
or hfppadrornus The whole grove was filled with 
nxmoassau and statues, erected in honour of gods, 
heroes, and conquerors. Pausanias mentions more than 



| two hundred and thirty statues ; of Jupiter alone be 
describes twenty-three, and these were, for the most 

| part, works of the first artists. {Pauian., 5, 13.) 
Pliny (34, 17) estimates the whole number of these 
statues, in his time, at three thousand. The Altis con- 
tained also numerous treasuries, belonging to different 
Grecian citiea, similar to those at Delphi. These wers 
situated on a basement of Porine stone, to the north 
of the temple of Juno. ( Vid. Olympia.) 

Aldntidh, a town of Sicily, on the northern coast, 
not far from Calacta. Now Alontio. Cicero {in Verr., 

4, 29) calls the place Haluntium. 

Altattes, a king of Lydia, father of Croesus, suc- 
ceeded Sadyaltcs. He drove the Cimmerians from 
Asia, and made war against Cyaiares, king of the 
Medes, the grandson of Deioccs. He dieo after a. 
reign of 57 years, and after having brought to a close 
a war against the Milesians. An immense barrow or 
mound was raised upon his grave, composed of stones 
and earth. This is still visible within about five miles 
of Sardis or Sort. For some curious remarks on the 
resemblance between this tomb, aa described by He- 
rodotus, and that said to have been erected in memory 
of Porsenna (Karre, ap. Plin., 36, 13), and which af- 
fords a new argument in favour of the Lydian origin 
of Etrurian civilization, conault the Ezatrnuof Creu~ 
zer, ad. Herod., 1, 93 {td. Bdkr, vol. 1, p. 984).— It 
is also related that an eclipse of the sun terminated a 
battle between this monarch and Cyaxarea, and that 
this eclipse had been predicted by Thalea. {Herod., 
1, 74 — Bahr, ad lot.) Modern investigations make 
it to have been a total one. (Oltmann, Act. Sec. Be- 
rolin. Matkemat., 1813.) It is worthy of notice, too, 
that this same eclipse is mentioned in the Persian poem 
Sckahnameh, as having taken place under king Kei- 
kawus, who is thought to have been the Cyaxarea of 
the Greek writers. (Von Hammer, Wiener Jahrliich., 
9, p. 13.) For remarks on the chronology of this reign, 
consult Clinton' t Fatti Hellenici, vol. 1, 2<f ed., p 296 
<f 298, and also Larcher,Hittoire d'Hcrodote, vol. 7, p, 
537. {TtUe Chronol) 

AlypIos, I, a philosopher of Alexandrea in Egypt, 
contemporary with Jamblichus. He was remarkably 
small of size, but possessed), according to Eunapius, a 
very subtle tura of mind, and waa very skilful in dia- 
lectics. Alypius wrote nothing; all his instruclioa 
was given orally. Jamblichus composed a life of this 
philosopher. {Biogr. Univ., vol. 1, p. 657.) — II. A 
native of Alexandrea, who wrote a work on music, en- 
titled, "Eloayuyi} uavouti, or " Introduction te Music." 
He divides the whole musical art into seven portions; 
1. Sounds. 3. Intervals. 3. Systems. 4. Kinds, 

5. Tones. 6. Changes. 7. Compositions. He treats, 
however, of only one of these, the fifth ; whence Mei. 
bomius concludes, that only a fragment of his work hat 
reached us. There is some difference of opts ion as 
to the period when Alypius flourished, Cassiodorut 
{De Mutica, tub Jin.) believes, that he was anterior to 
Ptolemy, and even to Euclid. De la Borde (Ettai eur 
la Mutique, vol. 3, p. 133) places him in the latter 
half of the fourth century after Christ. Of all the an- 
cient writers on music that have come down to us, he 
is the only one through whom we are made acquainted 
with the notes employed by the Greeks ; so that, with- 
out him, our knowledge of the ancient music would be 
greatly circumscribed. {Scholl, Hut. Lit. Or., vol. 
8, p. 270.) — III. A native of Antioch, an architect and 
engineer, who lived in the reign of Julian the apostate, 
to whom he dedicated a geographical description of the 
ancient world. This production is considered by some 
to be the same with the short abridgment, first pub- 
lished by Godefroy (Gothofredus), in Greek end Latin, 
at Geneva, 1628, in 4to. There is, however, no good 
reason whatever to suppose this work to have been 
written by Alypius. The Greek text published by 
Godefroy appear* «erher to have been forged after the 

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Latin Yeraion, which is very old ami very badly done. 
We perceive, from the letter* of Julian that have come 
down to us, that Alypius was also a poet ; and that 
he had commanded, moreover, in Britain, where his 
mildness and firmness combined had gained him 
great praise. It was Alypius whom Julian charged 
with the execution of his order for rebuilding the tem- 
ple of Jerusalem ; a work that was broken off, in so re- 
markable a manner, by globes of fire bunting forth 
from the ground, and wounding and putting to flight 
the workmen. (Biogr. {/roe., vol. 1, p. 657. — Con- 
sult Salverte, de* SeUneet Occulta, vol. 2, p. 284.) 

A Li pus, a statuary of Sicyon, pupil of Nattcydes, 
the Argive. He caat in brass the statues of certain 
Lacedemonians who fought with Lysander in the bat- 
lie of yEgos Potamos. (Pautan., 10, 9.) 

AlyzU fAAv&'a), a town of Acarnania, about fif- 
teen stadia from the sea, and, as Cicero informs us in 
one of bis letters (ad Fam., 16, 2), one hundred and 
twenty stadia from Leucas. It appears to have been 
a place of some note, as it is noticed by several wri- 
ters. The earliest of these are Scylax (Peripl.,y. 13) 
and Thucydide* (7, 81). A naval actioo was fought 
in its vicinity, between the Athenians under Timolne- 
us, and the Lacedemonians, not long before the bat- 
tle of Leuctra. (Xen., Hut. Gr., 6, 4, 65.) Belong- 
ing to Alyzia was a port consecrated to Hercules, with 
a grove, where was at one time a celebrated group, 
the work of Lysippus, representing the labours of Her- 
cules ; bat a Roman general caused it . to be removed 
to Rome, as more worthy to possess such a chef- 
d'oeuvre. (Strabo, 469.) This port appears to an- 
swer to the modern Porto Candili. (Cramer' t Anct. 
Greece, vol. 2, p. 18, teqq.) 

Amasetobria. Vid. Magetobria. 
' Am altHjBa, I. the name of the goat that suckled 
Jupiter. The monarch of Olympua, aa a reward for 
this act of kindness, translated her to the skies, along 
with her two young ones, whom she had put aside in or- 
der to accommodate the infant deity, and he made them 
stars in the northern hemisphere, on the arm of Auriga. 
The whole legend appears to be of a mixed character, 
and from a simple origin, adapted to the rude ideas of 
an early race, to have gradually assumed an astronomi- 
cal character. Thus, according to the legend, the in- 
fant Jove was nurtured by tbe milk of the goat, while 
the wild-bees deposited their honey on his lips. We 
have here the milk and the honey that play so conspic- 
uous a part in Oriental imagery, as typifying the highest 
degree of human felicity and abundance, and, there- 
fore, well worthy to be the food of an infant deity ap- 
pearing in human form. From the milk and honey, 
moreover, of early fable, come the ambrosia and nec- 
tar of a later age, since nectar waa regarded aa a quin- 
tessence of honey, and ambrosia as an extract from the 
purest milk. (Bittigtr, Amalthaa, voL 1, p. 22.) The 
early legend goes on to state, that the infant Jove, 
when playing with his four-footed foster parent, acci- 
dentally broke off one of her horns. This was made 
at first to serve as a drinking cup, and thus recalls the 
custom of a primitive age, when the horns of animals 
were generally employed for this purpose; the hom- 
cup appearing as well in the earliest symposia and the 
Bacchanalian orgies of the Greeks, aa in the legends 
of the Scandinavian Edda and in the halls of Odin. 
With the progress of ideas, a new feature waa added 
to tbe fable. The horn of Amalthaea is no longer a 
mere cup. This use has ended, and Jupiter now or. 
dains, that it shall be ever full to overflowing with what- 
ever its possessor shall wish. (Apottotiut, Cent., 2 
86, p. 30.— Compare Pitch